How will personality affect decision making in the field of banking?

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Different variables that impact the performance of the student at university level, factors may include personality variables like the big five; other factors may include motivation from the teachers, reward n punishment system, facilities available at the university campus, quality of teachers, and potential of student

To what extent and which personality traits predict academic performance will be investigated in longitudinal studies of university samples. Academic performance assessed throughout a three years period and via multiple criteria. In addition several indicators of academic behavior such as absenteeism, essay writing, tutors' exam predictions, were also examined with regard to both academic performance and personality traits, the Big Five personality factors particularly Neuroticism and Conscientiousness were found to predict overall final exam marks over and above several academic predictors, accounting for more than 10% of unique variance in overall exam marks. Results suggest that Neuroticism may impair academic performance, while Conscientiousness may lead to higher academic achievement, to be used as the personality measure and results showed the three super factors were the most powerful predictor of academic performance. It is demonstrated that Psychoticism could limit academic success. The present results provide evidence supporting the inclusion of well-established personality measures in academic selection procedures, and run counter to the traditional view of ability measures as the exclusive psychometric correlate of academic performance. Achievement behavior is defined as behavior directed at developing or demonstrating high rather than low ability. Ability can be conceived either with reference to the individual's own past performance or knowledge, a context in which gains in mastery indicate competence, or as capacity relative to that of others, a context in which a gain in mastery alone does not indicate high ability. To demonstrate high capacity, one must achieve more with equal effort or use less effort than do others for an equal performance. The conditions under which these different conceptions of ability function as individuals' goals and the nature of subjective experience in each case are specified. Different predictions of task choice and performance are derived and tested for each case using data from previously published studies. The effects of task and ego involvement, task choice, and self-perceptions are discussed. Research is to provide meta-analysis of relationship between the 5-factor model of personality as well as central theories of performance motivation (goal-setting, expectancy, and self-efficacy motivation). Traits were organized according to the 5-factor model of personality. Results to indicate that Neuroticism and Conscientiousness can be the strongest and most consistent correlates of performance motivation across the 3 theoretical perspectives that the validity of 3 of the Big Five traits--Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness generalized across studies, the Big 5 traits had an average multiple correlation of .49 with the motivational criteria, suggesting that the Big 5 traits are an important source of performance motivation.The causal role of students' self-efficacy beliefs and academic goals in self-motivated academic attainment was studied using path analysis procedures. Parental goal setting and students' self-efficacy and personal goals at the beginning of the semester served as predictors of students' final course grades in social studies. In addition, their grades in a prior course in social studies were included in the analysis. A path model of four self-motivation variables and prior grades predicted students 'final grades in social studies, Students' beliefs in their efficacy for self-regulated learning affected their perceived self-efficacy for academic achievement, which in turn influenced the academic goals they set for themselves and their final academic achievement. Students' prior grades were predictive of their parents' grade goals for them, which in turn were linked to the grade goals students set for themselves. These findings were interpreted in terms of the social cognitive theory of academic self-motivation. Proposes theory of motivation and emotion in which causal ascriptions play key role. Evidence is presented indicating that in achievement-related contexts there are a few dominant causal perceptions, and it is suggested that the perceived causes of success and failure share the 3 common properties of locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and global as other possible causal structures. The perceived stability of causes influences changes in expectancy of success; all 3 dimensions of causality affect a variety of common emotional experiences, including anger, gratitude, guilt, hopelessness, pity, pride, and shame. Expectancy and affect, in turn, are presumed to guide motivated behavior. The theory therefore relates the structure of thinking to the dynamics of feeling and action. Analysis of created motivational episode involving achievement strivings is offered, and numerous empirical observations are examined from this theoretical position. The strength of the empirical evidence and the capability of this theory to address prevalent human emotions are stressed, and examples of research on parole decisions, smoking cessation, and helping behavior are presented to illustrate the generalizability of the theory beyond the achievement-related theoretical focus.

This research offer strong indications, that the selected antecedents have deep impact on OCB in the Banking Sector of Pakistan. It was expected that geographical, cultural and environmental factors may cause some deviation and contradictions from the results found by earlier researchers who considered only Western culture in their research but to my surprise the values weren't much different than those yielded by preceding western researches. OCB has a vital importance to an organization; because if personnel are not willing to work and their work directions are not parallel to the organizational objectives then the organization cannot achieve the operational efficiency. As without OCB there won't be much concern present among the employees about the promotion and benefit of the organization. This research included three variables; the first one was "Altruism" which is also referred to and explained as the selflessness of an employee towards the organization. The applied analyses yield significant results, providing the evidence that H1 is true. The analyses show that the value of the correlation between OCB and Altruism is 0.418**. If the workforce of an organization have the enthusiasm to help one another and are selfless in achieving the organizational goals, it will naturally result in the development of, OCB in the organization and consequently the organization itself. In my research area, the Banking Sector of Pakistan, it was observed that the notion of HRM (Human Resource Management) till now, has not rooted deep into the base of the organizations. Incentives for motivation being provided to the employees only include huge financial spurs, keeping in view the economy of the geographic region.

Brand Equity

Brands, particularly those that are high in brand equity (value of the brand)

can be organizations most powerful assets (Herremans et al., 2000). It allows

organizations to enjoy high brand loyalty, name awareness, perceived quality

and strong brand associations with customers (Bristow et al., 2000). Besides

building on long term customer loyalty, organizations with high brand equity

can create differential advantage. Bharadwaj et al., (1993) stress that brand

equity is important for services that are dominated by experience and

credence attributes, such as banking services. Credence attributes include

any product or service characteristics that customers cannot determine or

evaluate even after purchase or consumption.

Berry (2000) adds that there are two components of brand equity - brand

awareness and brand meaning. Brand meaning is influenced by the

customer's experience with the organization. Bank factors such as service

operation, employees, environment, features, perceived fees value, self brand

image, brand aroused feeling and brand personality are used to define brand

meaning (Berry, 2000). Below is the brief review of these factors:

• Service Operation - The bank services sector is highly interactive and

process-driven. In order to build a positive and lasting brand perception

during the interaction, factors of service quality, such as assurance,

responsiveness and empathy must be part and parcel of the customers'

experience. These factors may lead to customer trust, satisfaction

(Zeithaml et al., 1990; Parasuraman et al., 1991), and loyalty (Lovelock

and Weitz, 2006). Lacking these factors may create high levels ofcustomer dissatisfaction and generate a strong customer desire to switch to competitor.

• Employees - Successful service brands derived from carefully nurtured

relationships between employees and customers (de Chernatony and

Riley 1999). The service provided by employees play an important role in

customers' evaluations of service performance. In fact, the interaction will

influence customer satisfaction perception of service quality, future

consumption behavior and increase profits for the service organization

(Heskett et al., 1994).

• Environment - An effective way to make brands tangible is to use as

many physical elements as possible that can be associated with the

brand. Bitner (1992:62) posits that, "the service setting can affect

customers' emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses, which in

turn influence their evaluations and behaviors". Physical environment such

as facility aesthetics, layout accessibility, cleanliness, seating comfort,

electronic equipment and display (Bitner, 1990, 1992) play a significant

effect on customer satisfaction, perceived service quality, intention to repurchase

and willingness to recommend.

• Features - Functional values such as number of branches, technology

and accessibility are perceived to be more salient than emotional values in

customer decision-making and will be a proxy for branding in relation to

bank services (de Chernatony, 2001).

• Perceived Fees Value - Price has been identified as an important

association in brand image evaluation and a strong quality indicator (Arora

and Stoner, 1996). Price value is important point in decision making

because customer choice of a brand depends on a perceived balance

between the price of a service and its utilities.

• Self-Brand Image - Padgett and Allen (1997: 202) indicate that a service

brand image is made up of "the attributes, functional consequences and

symbolic meanings customers associate with a specific service". The

creation of a good image is considered an intangible asset to

organizations (Aaker, 1997). Thus, a brand needs to possess specific

brand assets, an image and a salient positioning attribute in order to be

successful.

• Brand Aroused Feelings - Feelings have been recognized for the role it

plays in customer decision making (Richins, 1997), and have a profound

effect on customer reactions (Boles et al., 2001). In fact, Boles et al.,

(2001) assert that feelings aroused within a services environment,

especially in retail, affect perceived value and purchase intentions.

Moreover, past studies on banking services indicate that emotional values

or feeling is more sustainable than functional values (de Chernatony and

Riley, 1999; Palmer, 2001).

• Brand Personality - Brand personality refers to the set of human

characteristics associated with a brand (Aaker, 1997). A well established

brand personality is said to heighten emotional ties with the brand,

increase preference and patronage, and develop trust and loyalty (Siguaw

and Austin, 1999). Aaker (1997) posits that the dimensions of human

personality could be utilized to measure personality of brands. The author

identifies 5 dimensions of 'brand personality', sincerity (honest, cheerful),

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