Perception Decision Behavior

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This paper is based on the perception in the decision making process when it comes to organizations and their behavior. “Personality traits refer to enduring patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that are not likely to change over time and explain people's behavior across different situations (Costa and McCrae, 1989; Funder, 2001). The five-factor model of personality (FFM) or "Big Five" has influenced the field of personality during the last two decades, providing a significant degree of convergence in the trait-factor analytic psychology (Robertson and Callinan, 1998). Many studies have examined the relationship of personality traits to job performance, finding significant relationships between them (e.g., Barrick and Mount, 1991; Barrick, Mount, and Judge, 2001a; Barrick, Parks, and Mount, 2005; Hurtz and Donovan, 2000; Salgado, 1999).

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), which is described as a discretionary behavior, has emerged as a popular area for study (Organ, 1990). Citizenship behaviors are those helpful to the company but not considered core elements of the job. Citizenship behaviors are often performed by employees to support the interests of the organization even though they may not lead directly to individual benefits (Moorman and Blakely, 1995). Thus, managers often find it difficult to reward good citizenship directly as well as difficult to punish the absence of it.” (Elanain, 2007) The questions that will be addressed are as follows:

  • What is perception?
  • What is Organizational Behavior?
  • How can a person's perception of others impact an organization's behavior?
  • Traveling faces.
  • What are the positive and negative effects of using perceptive “shortcuts” when judging others?
  • How are decisions in real world organizations actually made?
  • How can our perceptions shape ethical or moral decisions?

Business and Organizational Behavior

This paper is based on the perception in the decision making process when it comes to organizations and their behavior. “Personality traits refer to enduring patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that are not likely to change over time and explain people's behavior across different situations (Costa and McCrae, 1989; Funder, 2001). The five-factor model of personality (FFM) or "Big Five" has influenced the field of personality during the last two decades, providing a significant degree of convergence in the trait-factor analytic psychology (Robertson and Callinan, 1998). Many studies have examined the relationship of personality traits to job performance, finding significant relationships between them (e.g., Barrick and Mount, 1991; Barrick, Mount, and Judge, 2001a; Barrick, Parks, and Mount, 2005; Hurtz and Donovan, 2000; Salgado, 1999).

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), which is described as a discretionary behavior, has emerged as a popular area for study (Organ, 1990). Citizenship behaviors are those helpful to the company but not considered core elements of the job. Citizenship behaviors are often performed by employees to support the interests of the organization even though they may not lead directly to individual benefits (Moorman and Blakely, 1995). Thus, managers often find it difficult to reward good citizenship directly as well as difficult to punish the absence of it.” (Elanain, 2007) The questions that will be addressed are as follows:

  • What is perception?
  • What is Organizational Behavior?
  • How can a person's perception of others impact an organization's behavior?
  • Traveling faces.
  • What are the positive and negative effects of using perceptive “shortcuts” when judging others?
  • How are decisions in real world organizations actually made?
  • How can our perceptions shape ethical or moral decisions?

What is perception?

Perception is human insight or knowledge based on a person's intuition and how they perceive something or a particular situation. Perception is gained through circumstances of nature and or nurture. The basic concepts would let a person know how they feel about a certain person or circumstance just on the bases of knowledge, what they have seen, heard, or actions made that are known. It is based on the input in combination of the five basic senses (sight, touch, taste, smell, and hearing).

A person's behavior is solely based on the perception of reality and not what reality truly is. A person believes what they think, what they saw, what they heard. Even if it was not intended to be foreseen the way that person interpreted, it is still their perception of the circumstance.

What is Organizational (being organized) Behavior (A humans actions)?

An organizations behavior can be based upon many different things; such as, the size of the company, the diversity within the company and the types of challenges in the company. Everyone perceives things differently, based on their own senses.

“Regarding the company's size, it is very possible that in smaller companies, or that of a family business, the relationships between shareholders, managers and workers are much more personal and closer. So the chance that there is an identification of the individual's values with the company's increases, while in larger companies where the distance between management and workers is larger and the relationships are more anonymous and impersonal, it may be more difficult.” (Cambra-Fierro, Polo-Redondo, Wilson, 2008)

How can a person's perception of others impact an organization's behavior?

Traveling faces.

Traveling faces. When one person is upset, is it not likely for that emotion to be transferred to another person? A person's behavior in an organization works the same way. When a leader is upset, that feeling or emotion is apparent to the employees and affects their behavior and work attitude. It is funny how this works, despite all, this happens quite often. It is always important for a manager or someone in lead to think positively, keep a smiley on their face and just remain over all positive. This will bring a positive atmosphere to the work environment, this is very important no matter what size the organization. What does this mean? Positive attitude is crucial in a management position.

What are the positive and negative effects of using perceptive “shortcuts” when judging others?

When it comes to judging others, where does perception come into play? Do we not judge others based on our five senses? If a person smells of high haven, would we not judge them as needing a bath? Or, when a person is late everyday, would we not judge them as being irresponsible? Yes, the person smelling could have to work on a farm all day and then come to work at night, not having time to take a shower in-between and the person that is late, they could have to take their children to school everyday or work two jobs just to make a living.

A positive effect of perceptiveness when judging others would be when we judge something accurately. For instance, if a person shows up on time everyday for their first 90 days, we judge them as responsible. This is a positive perception. People like to be recognized for good things, this action would deserve recognition. Even something small, like a letter of recognition to this employee would let them know that we see their behavior and perceive it as good. This would spread. Positive deserves positive; however, when the person that is late has to be corrected or consulted based on the matter, this does not go over as well for that individual. However, it wouldn't be fare to other employees to late this action just roll by without in reaction to it. Even if there is a legitimate reason behind the lateness, this has to be addressed.

How are decisions in real world organizations actually made?

First glance; a lot of people judge by first impression. It is crucial to give a good impression during an interview (for both sides). A person leaves an interview feeling one of three ways, good, unsure, or bad. Those are the ways an interview can go. The right cloth, the right words, the right attitude, all of this takes play when presenting you. This is with any introduction, not only an interview. Keep posture, keep eye target (straight in the eyes), these are important things to remember when it comes to first glance, or first impression. This will create either a negative or a positive perceptive (on both sides). Paying attention is of great importance.

A person makes decisions in an organization by the five senses. First appearance, first glance, a manager pays attention to all the details. In the real world organization you present yourself positively and you will be perceived with a positive attitude.

How can our perceptions shape ethical or moral decisions?

A Christian can be perceived as a good person and if a person claims to be a Christian we may take them as good person. What about the struggling, fallen Christian, don't they exist? On the same hand, we may see a Arab and assume that they are against Americans based on the war and happenings over seas, come to find out this person might be fighting on our side, putting up banners supporting Americans and the war in Iraq. Fast to judge based on circumstances. This does effect our decisions whether we mean it to or not. This is one of the positive and negative effects of perception.

It is always important to insure the facts are all in line before building a judgment toward someone; however, our senses can play tricks on us and impair our decisions and sometimes we are forced to fess up to judging poorly and based on intuition alone, not facts.

Reference:

Jesús Cambra-Fierro,  Yolanda Polo-Redondo,  Alan Wilson. (2008). The Influence of an

Organisation's Corporate Values on Employees Personal Buying

Behaviour. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(1), 157-167.  Retrieved July 27, 2008,

from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1501505501). From: http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1501505501&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt=6&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1217212261&clientId=13118

Hossam M Abu Elanain (2007). The Five-Factor Model of Personality and

Organizational Citizenship Behavior in United Arab Emirates. S.A.M. Advanced Management

Journal, 72(3), 47-57,3.  Retrieved July 27, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database.

(Document ID: 1419803701). From:

http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1419803701&SrchMo

de=1&sid=2&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=121721212

4&clientId=13118

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