This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Globalization has facilitated to corporations to operate in the global arena and benefit from global talent pools. In this new environment, effective global leadership is required to manage a culturally diverse workforce. Cultural intelligence (CQ) and openness to different cultures become essential elements of effectual global leadership. We believe that global leaders who enjoy these traits are likely to be more successful in global & multinational organizations.
The aim of this research is to identify the Cultural Intelligence and to highlight the importance of building cultural intelligence considered to be the key to the success of today's cross culture & cross border multinational organizations. When the organizations are more varied culturally, they need more individuals with multinational skills and knowledge in order to face with requirements of a global economy effectively. Cultural intelligence emerged as an important feature in effective performance and interaction inside and among various cultural environments. This research aspires to examine the relationship between cultural intelligence and organizations' performance in a multicultural environment.
a correlation-survey is utilized to reveal the existence of such relationship, the primary data was collected from 60 middle and high managers working for some international companies' headquarters in Jordan.
The findings indicate that there is a positive and significant relationship between building and having cultural intelligence within leaders and employees at multinational companies and the overall performance and achievements of these companies which operate globally. Research results, conclusions, practical recommendations, are also discussed.
Cultural Intelligence, multinational organizations, workforce diversity, performance & achievement, multicultural marketing intelligence, Leadership Management, international trade globalization
Globalization allowed making the work more flattened and more and more we can see that is no escape from this major change in societal and business circumstances. Globalization is defined as the sharply worldwide integration of trade, finance, information, technology and operations systems. It involves abolishing of cultural borders and the rise of a new â€žborderless worldâ€Ÿ. As a result of globalization, the workforce has become increasingly diverse with respect to national and cultural origins. Technology has been the main factor to enable the diversity and hence the wave of globalization. It has enabled organizations to have business abroad to expand operations beyond their countries for both customers and employees. Business process outsourcing, world sourcing, off-shoring and near-shoring are all possible because of technology (Sirkin et al, 2008). Today, work assignments are increasingly performed by teams consisting of members that are located in different countries (Shapiro et al, 2005). Organizations with the capacity to manage cultural issues will out-perform those who are less able to manage these issues (Ang & Inkpen, 2008; Thomas & Inkson, 2004). Global leadership can play a significant role in managing this international workforce. According to Earley and Ang (2003), global leaders who successfully work across borders are considered to have a high level of â€žcultural intelligenceâ€Ÿ (often referred to as CQ). Global leaders with high cultural intelligence also exhibit a personality trait known as â€žopennessâ€Ÿ (Ang, Van Dyne & Koh, 2006). This theoretical research paper examines the importance of cultural intelligence and openness as essential components of effective global leadership.
In order to respond effectively with dynamics of cultural change, we propose a new approach based on cultural intelligence (CQ) construct and examine its relationship with achievement need. CQ introduces a comprehensive framework that can be solving problems of prior approaches in studying of multicultural situations, because it encompasses both cognitive and behavioral aspects. It is shown by this research paper that managers with high CQ have a higher achievement need and harder attempt to adapt effectively with different value systems and cultures in every local market.
2 Research problem
Globalization and Effective Global Leadership that leads to better performance & achievement in multinational corporations
The problem that many multinational companies face when going globally is that they imagine that they won't have to think about culture.
The first, and best, way to succeed cross-culturally is to turn off the cultural cruise control that makes us assume that all cultures are the same. Instead, we need to build cultural competency, which is known as "cultural intelligence" - (CQ).
The traditional evolution of a company was seen to be the transfer from a domestic, to an international, to a multi-national, and then to a global business, however, this is not necessarily the common path anymore. Companies are global from their initial set-up (Travis, 2007). Not only is the market for products and services global but so is the market for the talent required to run these companies. Furthermore, the competitors are also become global. The implication for organizations operating in this intensified global environment is that they are "competing with everyone from everywhere for everything" (Sirkin et al, 2008).
Yet globalization is not about cultural homogenization as the world remains a vastly different in everything; culture, language, religion and lifestyles. Although the world has seemed to become smaller, increasing cultural diversity has created challenges for both organizations and individuals to cope.. Most researchs showed and highlighted the importance of building culture intelligence among leaders, managers & employees who work globally to more effective performance. Cultural Intelligence as conceptualized by Earley and Ang (2003), is defined as "a person's capacity to function effectively in situations characterised by cultural diversity". Cultural intelligence leads to effective global leadership which is essential to manage this cultural diversity. According to Caligiuri and Tarique (2009)effective global leaders are good at working with colleagues from other countries; they are able to interact well with internal and external clients from other countries and can often speak another languages and who come from way different cultural backgrounds. They are highly skilled in supervising employees who are of different nationalities. They are capable of developing a strategic business plan on a worldwide basis and can manage a global budget. Effective global leaders are good at negotiating in other countries with people from other counties. They are highly skilled in managing foreign suppliers or vendors and can manage risk on a worldwide basis.
The aim of the paper is to relate between the workforce diversity and cultural intelligence to reveal potential effect on organizational performance in a multinational environment. Consequently this research paper attempts to identify the following points:
definition of culture & diversity
definition of cultural intelligence
the relationship of multicultural marketing intelligence and building cultural intelligence
The relationship between cultural intelligence and the performance of the multinational organization
3 Review of the Literature
3.1.a What's culture?
Culture in general is concerned with beliefs and values on the basis of which people interpret experiences and behave, individually and in groups.
Broadly and simply put, "culture" refers to a group or community with which you share common experiences that shape the way you understand the world.
The same person, thus, can belong to several different cultures depending on his or her birthplace; nationality; ethnicity; family status; gender; age; language; education; physical condition; sexual orientation; religion; profession; place of work and its corporate culture.
3.1.b Workforce diversity and its relationships with group and innovation performance
Van Knippenberg and Schippers (2007: 519) define diversity as "a characteristic of a social grouping (i.e., group, organization, society) that reflects the degree to which there are objective or subjective differences between people within the group (without presuming that group members are necessarily aware of objective differences or that subjective differences are strongly related to more objective differences)".
Workplace diversity has different benefits to an organization; however it can lead to many challenges. It is the responsibility of managers/leaders within organizations to use diversity as a value resource and comparative advantage to the corporations in order to enhance organizational effectiveness. Management of workplace diversity could be defined as "Negotiating interaction across culturally diverse groups, and contriving to get along in an environment characterized by cultural diversity".
Diversity is for the benefit to both the corporations and the individuals, as it brings significant potential benefits such as leading to better decision making, improvement to problem solving skills, greater creativity and innovation, which leads to enhanced product development, and more successful marketing to different types of customers.
Recognizing diversity in a organization helps link the variety of skills within the working teams which allows for those employees with these talents to feel needed and have a sense of engagement to the company, which in turn increases their commitment to the company and allows each of them to contribute in a unique way and be innovative and creative. Diversity also provides organizations with the ability to compete in global markets. However, the best way to use this diversity and make this diversity valuable is to communicate. Since people from different cultures perceive messages in different ways, communication is vital to the performance of an organization. Miscommunication within a diverse workplace will lead to a great deal of challenges.
In a comprehensive review of diversity literature, Milliken and Martins (1996: 403) concluded that "diversity appears to be a double-edged sword, increasing the opportunity for creativity as well as the likelihood that group members will be dissatisfied and fail to identify with the group". We can conclude that different levels of diversity may have dissimilar impact on organizational performance. It is the matter of individual and organizational capability to understand the diversity and to identify the potential advantages of it.
Therefore, an effective and capable leadership is essential in multinational corporation to include this diversity and best manage it for the interest and the profitability of the organization, this challenge make it essential for leaders/managers to build cultural intelligence that help them to successfully manage the diversity and cross cultural differences.
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is a person's capability to function effectively in situations characterized by cultural diversity. CQ is a critical competence that boosts employee, manager, and organizational efficiency & effectiveness.
Types of Intelligence
IQ - General mental ability
EQ - Emotional Intelligence
CQ - Cultural Intelligence
The concept of cultural intelligence in international commerce literature is a plan or idea that its time is approached. Those concepts that reflect this idea such as global intellectual habits (global mindset) have been existed for a long time (Thomas, 2006).
The Aspects of Cultural Intelligence
Many researchers have considered various models for cultural intelligence aspects. Some drew cultural intelligence as a multifactor structure consists of mental abilities (cognitive, metacognitive), motivational and behavioral aspects. This preliminary cultural intelligence structure includes three factors which are simultaneously both separated and intertwined: cognition, motivation and behavior.
Ang, Van Dyne, Koh and Ng (2004) represented a four-aspect cultural intelligence model consists of cognition, metacognition, motivation and behavior. These four aspects of cultural intelligence are considered as different dimensions of multilateral capabilities for effective and efficient management and operations in varied cultural environments. These four different capabilities seen for cultural intelligence shape full cultural intelligence concept all together.
Cognitive Cultural Intelligence
Cognitive cultural intelligence refers to attained knowledge on a particular culture (Imai, 2007). Cognitive cultural intelligence reflects norms cognition and traditions and customs in different cultures gained through training and personal experience. It includes recognizing economic, legal and social systems in culture and subcultures and consists of cultural value bases. People with cognitive cultural intelligence can understand the resemblance and differences among cultures (Ang et al, 2007).
Metacognitive Cultural Intelligence
Metacognitive cultural intelligence reflects those mental processes used gain understand cultural knowledge including recognizing and controlling mental processes regarding a culture. Capabilities for such type of intelligence include planning, control, revising and reforming mental formats of cultural norms inside countries or groups. People with metacognitive cultural intelligence are familiar with others' cultural priorities before and during interactions deliberately. They challenge cultural assumptions and stereotyping on other cultures during and after interactions (Ang et al, 2007).
Motivational Cultural Intelligence
The definition of motivational cultural intelligence is the extent which people trust their potentials to involve in intercultural interactions and their inner satisfaction of such feelings. Motivational cultural intelligence leads and stimulates self-conception and coping with different cultural environments. Motivational cultural intelligence is an inner force to acquire a new cultural environment (Lugo, 2007). In turn, motivational element goes beyond understanding differences and includes tendency to challenge with others and compatibility with other cultures. Understanding motivational aspect urges a deep conception of motivation process and its elements such as self-efficiency, self- conception and target setting (Leboyer, 2004). The motivational aspect of cultural intelligence needs a personal feeling about efficiency and demand for an administrative skill and positive assessment of such situations. Self-efficiency is an important influencing human mechanism which regulates performance via cognitive, motivational, affective and decision-making processes (Dean, 2007). Motivational cultural intelligence is important for cultural intelligence since it stimulates more effort and attempt and leads to the expansion of personal search for the best ways of adaptation with new environments (Imai, 2007).
Behavioral Cultural Intelligence
Behavioral cultural intelligence shows that adoptability is not only knowing and recognizing the ways to do works (recognition) and having facilities to persistence and attempt (motivation), but also possessing a set of personal behaviors which include needed responses to a certain situation (Earley, 2002). the behavioral cultural intelligence elements reveal a capability to express and represent verbal/nonverbal actions when interact with from different cultural backgrounds. Behaviors are apparent reflecting actions done by an individual, though, it is far from they think (Dean, 2007). People with high behavioral cultural intelligence are flexible and tend to change their behaviors to meet the needs of a certain cultural situation. They are sensitive to various behaviors, and to concepts attributed to nonverbal behaviors.
Cultural intelligence and its impact on erformance & achievement
Task performance is a function of knowledge, skills, abilities, and motivation directed to accomplish job responsibilities. Because CQ allows individuals to understand and meet role expectations in a manner that is culturally sensitive and appropriate, it is important to know that each dimension of Cultural Intelligence aspects enhances cognitive understanding, motivation, and behavioral enactment of role expectations. Cognitive CQ, when individuals have create cultural schemas, they should have more accurate understanding of role expectations, people with this ability are more aware of potential differences in role expectations and more likely to exhibit appropriate role behaviors.
While those with high metacognitive CQ have the ability to know how & when to apply their cultural knowledge. They act based on their decision to choose from multiple knowledge structures depending on the situation. They also know when to make a judgment based on stereotypes and when to look for more cues. As a result, they have more accurate understanding of predictable role behaviors in situations characterized by cultural diversity and difference.
On the other hand, people with high motivational CQ should have higher task performance because they lead energy toward learning role expectations, even when role sender cues are confusing due to cultural differences. Those with energy and persistence tend to practice new behaviors and through practice, improve their performance.
Finally, behavioral CQ should relate to task performance. Those with high behavioral CQ flex their verbal and nonverbal behaviors to meet expectations of others. Consistent with this, Shaffer and colleagues (2006) demonstrated positive effects of behavioral flexibility on cross-cultural performance. Combining the above arguments, we assume a positive relationship between having CQ and task performances.
Benefits of CQ
In today's increasingly global and diverse social and work environments, it is important to be aware of Cultural Intelligence.
The most important reason for understanding CQ is that CQ is a critical capability that enhances effectiveness in culturally diverse situations, as follows:
Enhances sensitivity to cultural differences
Reduces use of overly simplistic stereotypes
Enhances adjustment and relationships in multi-cultural contexts
Improves decision-making and work performance in multi-cultural contexts
What Is Market Intelligence?
Market intelligence is a term that is widely used, widely misunderstood, but what is surely known that having market intelligence can be definitely for the positive benefit for any business especially that operates globally.
Market IntelligenceÂ is the information and data collected by a company relevant to its markets, gathered and analyzed specifically to lead to an accurate and confident decision-making and for the purpose of making business decisions to determine market opportunity, competitors, customers, market penetration strategy, and market development metrics, locally & globally. This is done via conducting thorough market researches focusing on improving the quality of business decision-making.
Market intelligence refers to market assessment research, which is designed to help a company establish a strong position in a market, or increase its presence in a market and to have a bigger market share.Â Thus, the following areas about the external market environment will be studied to make a thorough market analysis, market size calculations, competitor analysis, substitute products (or services) analysis, and market growth predictions.
Market intelligence can be obtained externally - by a market research and intelligence company, or by an internal department.Â Â Once the market intelligence is obtained, it is usually managed in-house.
Market intelligence, competitive intelligence & business intelligence
As shown above, market intelligence is related to making a comprehensive scanning of the external environment of the company, while business intelligenceÂ is a more specific term refers in particular to information and data about a secific company's competitors, it is about gathering and analyzing legally of information related to the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and intentions of a business competitor. And it is a part of having market intelligence.
Business intelligence is about information used for the purposes of decision-making, rather than its market environment.Â BI includes sales data, production data and financial data, and is collected internally rather than by outside agencies.Â
The Purposes of Market Intelligence
Market intelligence is used for the purpose to assist with most decisions faced by a company.Â The principal rationale of most market intelligence is to help the company grow - to increase revenue, profit, or market share.Â Good market intelligence can therefore have a huge return on investment as any amount of money spent on intelligence is considered as investment for the company as this amount of money can generate or save many times that amount in extra customer revenue or the avoidance of a bad investment decision.
There are many purposes of market intelligence and the table hereunderÂ shows some of them as well as to the type of market research or market intelligence study that is typically used to meet these requirements.
table: The Purposes of Market Intelligence
Type of study that typically meets this purpose
Minimize the risk of a wrong investment decision
Market assessment or acquisition studies
Tailor products and marketing effort around customer needs
Help enter new market, or expand presence in a market
Market entry and market expansion studies
Give the customers what they want, expand market share
Needs assessment studies
Establish and maintain a distinctive corporate identity
Corporate positioning studies
Keep ahead of the competition, obtain first-mover advantage over competitors
Competitor intelligence study
Gathering Market Intelligence
Market entry and market expansion studies
To gather information on market entry and market expansion intelligence is done through using a mix of intelligence gathering methods.Â I to gather enough good quality information to inform a decision to invest in a new market, or simply to increase investment in an existing market, the market research and intelligence firm would gather information from the following sources:
Competitors - to find out how other companies have successfully entered and stayed in the market, and judge the market's likely response to a new entrant
Industry experts such as journalists and industry associations - these organizations can frequently provide a quick and concise overview of the market, as well as numerous leads in the form of contact details of market players
Distributors, agents and other intermediaries - to find out how to best get products and services to market, and again to ascertain how much demand there is for the product/service
Potential buyers - to ascertain how much demand there is for the product/service
Competitor intelligence studies
Competitor intelligence studies are in increasingly high demand, and typically companies seek the 'inside' view of that company's strategy and approach.Â Sales figures and production data would be a typical example.Â Certainly this inside view can be extremely valuable.Â What can be even more valuable, however, is 'external' intelligence on the competitor.Â Such information does not require anyone to 'tap up' an employee or search through the company's garbage can.Â Typical sources of information used in a competitive intelligence study are described below.
This could be done through many approaches such as :
Competitive pricing research is increasingly difficult, increasingly valuable and increasingly expensive.Â The key reason for this is that pricing models are increasingly complex.Â Definitions of 'product' in most markets have broadened to encompass service benefits and intangible brand benefits.Â The services associated with a product are sometimes priced separately as add-ons, and sometimes included as part of one 'all-in' price.Â Even the product benefits themselves can be priced as part of one overall price is some cases, and as add-ons in others.
Press analysis - Publicly available information such as headline financial figures, changes of key personnel, senior management statements etc can be of great interest, and most companies conduct such research in-house on a regular but unsystematic basis.Â Press analysis can also be used to assess competitors' marketing strategy (by assessing the messages behind the adverts) and, through examining employment advertisements, gain valuable intelligence on wage rates.
Market assessment studies are extremely similar in their approach, albeit the consultant is generally cross-checking a decision that has largely been made, rather than exploring a completely new market or opportunity.Â Â Acquisition studies form part of the due diligence of an acquisition target, with most of the information being gathered through the following means:
Interviews with the acquisition targets themselves - to gauge their strategy, intentions, performance and characteristics
Interviews with competitors of the acquisition target - to assess their views of the company's strengths and weaknesses as well as the strategy,
Output of Competitor Intelligence Studies
It can be seen that competitor intelligence studies are diverse and rich in the information they provide.Â These studies provide a comprehensive description of the competitive environment as well as detailed competitor profiles covering topics such as company characteristics, needs, views on supplier performance, investment plans, marketing strategies, financial data, expansion record and plans and much, much more.Â Competitor profiles are by nature tailor-made, although models such as Porter's 5 Forces (see Figure below) can be used as a basis for a high level assessment of the overall competitive environment in any markets.
Figure - Porter's Five Forces
Market Intelligence in International Markets
The systematic gathering, analysis and presenting of market intelligence has taken place in developed markets for ages.Â Currently, however, it is in the developing markets that demand for market intelligence is increasing.Â Countries such as China, India, Russia, South Africa and Brazil are seeing repeated double-digit growth rates year-on-year.Â Most of this growth, it should be started, is driven by Western clients both inside and outside their home countries.
There are few real methodological differences when it comes to obtaining market intelligence in different countries.Â When it comes to data collection, it is true that Asian markets, for both cultural and logistical reasons, often require more face-to-face data collection than Western markets.Â It is also true that market intelligence can be more difficult to obtain in developing countries.Â A key reason for this is that economic records tend to be less well-established.Â Â However, a market intelligence provider with well-educated employees and a multilingual capability should be capable of obtaining intelligence across different markets.Â Indeed, this skill is increasingly essential as the requirement for multi-country intelligence increases.
The ROI of Market Intelligence
The purpose of all having a well constructed Market Intelligence is to increase profitability. Market entry, market expansion, market assessment and acquisition studies achieve this by advising on the correct course of action when investing in a (usually new) market presence.Â Needs assessment studies allow us to better meet customer requirements and therefore increase market loyalty and market share.Â Segmentation, branding and competitive intelligence studies tend to refer to markets where there is an existing presence, and are particularly useful in helping us differentiate ourselves from the competition and capture more value.
A correlational approach was used to investigate relationship between cultural intelligence and achievement. This approach was selected for logical reasons. The survey method offered a cost-effective means of collecting cultural data on very varied samples. This design was considered a good starting point for an exploratory research into the cultural intelligence-need theories relationship.
3 .1. The study
The following data pertain to the sample used in this study:
Size of the sample: 78 middle and top managers,
Background of the participants:
They all work at the worldwide operating pharmaceutical company Al-Hikma.
Each manager had at least ten subordinates working for him or her and had several international interaction experiences.
Participants have a management experience for a minimum of 5 years in their current jobs.
The participants of this study consisted of 45 men and 33 women.
The samples' ages ranged from 29 to 68, with a median age of 43.
All of the participants held college degrees, with 20 holding advanced degrees.
45 of the 78 had formal college preparation for international business.
39 managers had early international exposure, traveling as children with their families or as foreign exchange students.
The fields of participant employment were: pharmacy, research and development, operations management, organizational development, finance, manufacturing, human resource development, purchasing, customer service, technology development, and communications.
Profile of the company:
Founded in Amman, Jordan in 1978 by our current Chairman, Mr. Samih Darwazah, Hikma has steadily evolved as a leading multinational pharmaceutical company, with a steadfast reputation for quality.Â The Company's initial focus was on developing a branded pharmaceuticals business across the MENA region.Â However, in the early 1990s, Hikma acquired a generic pharmaceuticals business in the United States and established an injectable pharmaceutical operation in Portugal, thereby expanding the Company's outreach beyond the MENA region.Â The Company has since continued to expand significantly, through organic growth and acquisition.
3 .2. Measures
Participants provided information about their cultural intelligence by completing the Cultural Quotient Scale (CQS). The CQS is a 20 item self- report instrument designed to measure of the main features of cultural intelligence using a seven-point scale for each item(ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 7= strongly agree).
The 20-item, Four Factor Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS)
Instructions: Select the response that best describes your capabilities.
Select the answer that BEST describes you AS YOU REALLY ARE (1=strongly disagree; 7=strongly agree).
I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I use when interacting with people with different cultural backgrounds.
I adjust my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from a culture that is unfamiliar to me.
I am conscious of the cultural knowledge I apply to cross-cultural interactions.
I check the accuracy of my cultural knowledge as I interact with people from different cultures.
I know the legal and economic systems of other cultures.
I know the rules (e.g., vocabulary, grammar) of other languages.
I know the cultural values and religious beliefs of other cultures.
I know the marriage systems of other cultures.
I know the arts and crafts of other cultures.
I know the rules for expressing non-verbal behaviors in other cultures.
I enjoy interacting with people from different cultures.
I am confident that I can socialize with locals in a culture that is unfamiliar to me.
I am sure I can deal with the stresses of adjusting to a culture that is new to me.
I enjoy living in cultures that are unfamiliar to me.
I am confident that I can get accustomed to the shopping conditions in a different culture.
I change my verbal behavior (e.g., accent, tone) when a cross-cultural interaction requires it.
I use pause and silence differently to suit different cross-cultural situations.
I vary the rate of my speaking when a cross-cultural situation requires it.
I change my non-verbal behavior when a cross-cultural interaction requires it.
I alter my facial expressions when a cross-cultural interaction requires it.
The CQS includes four subscales as shown above:
Participants who score high on the CQ- metacognitive scale are likely conscious of your cultural knowledge and check and adjust its.
Those asserting high on the CQ-cognitive, know ingredients of other cultures such as legal systems, religious beliefs, arts and rules.
Those with high scores on the CQ-motivational enjoy interacting with other cultures and have self-confidence.
Participants with high CQ-behavioral scores can change your verbal and non-verbal behaviors consist with situational requirements.
In earlier studies, internal consistency of the CQS was reported high and Cronbach' alpha coefficients were above of 0/7 across all the subscales (Ang et al, 2004; Ang et al, 2007).
In presenting the achievement to the participants, we closely followed theprocedure described in Greenwald et al. (1998). The target discrimination was Me vs. Others, and the attribute discrimination was successful vs. not successful. We used successful vs. not successful as attribute labels because these categories are strongly associated with competent performance within achievement-related contexts. In sum, Managers were asked to indicate the extent to which the same adjectives as those displayed as attribute items in the achievement motivation were true of them, using the 5-point response scale including 16-items.
Internal consistency reliability is the accuracy or precision of a measuring instrument, which is the extent of uni-dimensionality, i.e. the detailed items (questions) measure the same thing (Hong & Kim, 2002; Straub, 1989). The internal consistency reliability was assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha values. The reliability results of the constructs ranged from 0.7722 (for CQ-motivational) to 0.8591 (for achievement need), which were above the acceptable threshold (0.70) (Nunnally & Bernstein,
Table 1 reports descriptive statistics including means and standard deviation for samples. In current study, the means of CQS and achievement scores are higher than previously reported in the literature and standards deviations are slightly lower (Greenwald,2002 ; Ang et al,2007).
Table 1: Means and standard deviations for variables included in the study
NOTES: N = 78
Table 2, which present the correlations of each of the eleven items. Pearson correlation matrix reveals that cultural intelligence and their dimensions are all significantly and highly correlated with achievement. . It was predicted there would be a positive relationship between total CQ and achievement need. According to table 2, hypotheses were supported. Strong positive correlation was found between total CQ and achievement (r=0/604, p<0/01). Also was found Strong positive relationship between all dimensions of CQ and achievement. Correlations among different dimensions of CQ were supported except for metacognitive CQ and motivational CQ with behavioral CQ.
Table 2: Intercorrelations for the variables included in the study
cognitive Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) N
metacognitive Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) N
motivational Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) N
behavioral Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) N
totalcq Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) N
achievem Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed) N
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
The current paper examines the relationship between CQ and achievement need in Iran gas and oil industry. We review literature and its
roles in the effective management, especially in intercultural interactions. Then we use CQS, a recently valid and reliable scale developed by "Cultural Intelligence Center" for assessing cultural intelligence capabilities and Mc Cleland questioner for evaluating achievement need of participants. The most finding of this paper is recognition of CQ as leadership critical success factor in multicultural environments. The results provide some evidences to support links between CQ and achievement need. Furthermore, it shows Leaders, who have higher CQ, probably have more achievement need than the others. Already, role of IQ and EQ was specified, but these two capabilities are lack of cultural context and act similar in domestic and international environments. When we studied job file of some participants, we have muse. We find managers, who were considered, as successful manager in your assignments and were shown more CQ capabilities, but their IQ or EQ test results was average or even low. This point is very important, because rely to special intelligence and neglect others, can be misleading. Moreover it seen CQ is more determinant than other intelligences in successful leadership in divers culturally contexts and better justifies why some leaders act effective and cannot others.
With respect to CQ plays an importance role in effective management, it should be considered in human resource management policies. Organizations can use CQ test as a quality criteria to appoint managers to intercultural assignment. This policy prevents from innumerable costs to cultivate CQ abilities. However, CQ is assuasive and organizations can develop programs to improve this ability. There are some offered programs to enhance CQ such as a six steps mandate provided by Early & Mosalofski (2004). It should be stressed that developing effective leaders is not limited to human resource department; rather entire organization is responsible (Alon & Higgins, 2005).
This study certainly has limitations. First, CQ is a new construct. Thus, there has been a little research about it and its measures. The lean body of literature may be influenced validation and reliability of CQ. This limitation addressed to produce most of relevant literature. Second, samples were only selected a few countries. It could be argue that the results are not generalizable to other countries. Nonetheless, the results of this paper were comparable with other studies accomplished in various cultures.
Despite of above limitations, current paper pave the way for further researches and present an excellent studying field. Linking between CQ and achievement can be discussed same other kinds of intelligence and even
more. It should be consider that CQ firstly need to comprehensive scales able to measure all sides of this deep construct. These scales can be different for every country or every culture respect to their special features.
Finally, we believe CQ is not limited to international interactions, rather encompassed national subcultures communications and organizational cultures. Culturally viewpoint, some countries and organizations considered as a small world and cultural intelligence approach can help them to act more effective and properly.