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The success of an organisation depends on how it is manage or how the business is handled which includes the staff or people involve. Moreover the management styles vary from one organisation to another. In this unit, I will be talking about the different styles of management, strategies used in an organisation and the impact they have on the people who work in them. A part from that I will be talking about the different organisational structures and organisational culture and there impacts, leadership styles use, motivational theories, ethical practices and Corporate Social Responsibilities.
II. Organisational Structure
Organisational structure can be define in many ways but according to Wikipedia, organisational structure is consist of work such as job allocation, effective interaction and guidance which are directed regarding the accomplishment of organisational aim. It is refers to the way that roles are organised within a firm or a business and is represented by diagrams known as organisational chart. Organisational structures are important because it gives the support on which quality operating procedures or routine system and it helps determine which individual get to practice by making a decision making in a processes and to what extend their views and shape organisation actions
There are different types of organisational structures which include the following;
Hierarchical - is a structure wherein the employees are rank at a different position within the organisation, each position is one on top of the other each stage of group, one individual has a character of workers directly beneath them, within the extent of control.
Flat/tall - it is like a hierarchical but there are very few or many levels.
Matrix - contains teams of people created from various sections of business. These teams will be created for the purposes of a specific project and will be led by a project manager. Often the team will only exist for the duration of project and matrix structures are usually deployed to develop new products and services.
Inverted triangle - also known as pyramid.
Functional - is best for small business and most common type. Organisation sort their employees based on their skill. A good example is the nursing homes were i am working. We have the manager who is in-charge with all the staff. Nurses and carers are responsible for the well-being of residents, kitchen staffs for their foods and domestics in making the home clean and maintained.
In every organisation they have their own culture and when we talk of culture we mean our customs and beliefs, ideas and how we do things. It is also refers to as the organisational symbol such as the logos or uniform and others. Each and everyone have its own culture and
we must respect them in a way that the organisation have to consider and learn to adapt. The way we communicate varies as we have different languages and sometimes conflict arises. To give a good example, in the nursing home where I work, we have different carers from different countries. The manager has difficulty to communicate due to language barrier and need to translate some policies and procedures in every language for us to understand. With this it helps the organisation. However, it is also the responsibility of the carers or nurses to follow the organisational cultures to have a good working environment. At my workplace, it's been a common practice for some staff especially for the English that during break time they go for cigarette and drink tea. The tendency of time they consume is more than the allowed break time and this must be explained to others so as not to create a conflict.
The organisational culture has a great impact to the people; it creates a pleasant atmosphere although it is a control type. Aside from that people behave in a way that is acceptable to the management, team work is strengthened, it creates trust and respect, people become more committed to the organisation management is more effective and efficient and lastly the mission and vision of the organisation is achieve. However, it has also a negative effect on the people working. The staffs become demotivated if not corrected.
A part from the above, the attitude, knowledge, personality, perception and opinion of an individual varies. A good manager has to learn each staff and find the best way to handle them. For instance, at a nursing home a carer attitude toward work has a great impact. If he or she is lazy and are too depended on other carers they go on sick leave. This is not good and everybody is affected .Understaffing problem is one of which leads to ineffective staff, poor quality care for the residents and organisational lost. Thus, a good manager has to find a remedy to it.
In every organisation, management styles vary and it needs to suit different behaviours and how to motivate different individuals. According to McGregor, there are two assumptions theory about individual behaviour and human nature at work. It is labelled as Theory X and Theory Y. The theory x are average person is lazy, has inherent dislike for work, needs to coerce , controlled, directed and threatened with punishment, avoids responsibility, lacks ambitions and values security most and motivation occurs at physiologic and security levels. In contrast with Theory y, the person thinks work is as natural as play, self - directed or self- control, committed to objectives and rewards for achievement and motivation occurs at the affiliation, self-esteem and self- actualisation level as well as physiologic and security levels. The manager must exercise control and authority, along with imposition of sanctions and rewards to Theory x while Theory y just cooperation and integration of individual and organisational goals. The above assumptions theories are very important for the organisation to be facilitates efficiency and effectiveness. It is then the manager's role on how to deal and make decision on what to do and motivates his or her staffs.
Different organisations have different styles of leadership. According to style theory, leader can be Democratic, Autocratic or 'Laissez faire'. A Democratic leader is one that actively involves subordinates in decision- making and it would promote the most effectiveness and efficiency from employees. In my work place, this form of leadership can observe as the manager would ask each and every one about the changes he wants to make. Sometimes, the manager wants as to give suggestion on how to improve the care home. In this way we are given the chance to voice out our opinion and make suggestion thus cooperation and respect
for all are encouraged. The other form of leadership is called the Autocratic form which the manager or leader does all the decision-making and not involves subordinate. He is the sole decision-maker and sometimes good however has a disadvantage. Good in such a way all have to follow with firm decision and bad because staffs feel neglected and not respected. Lastly, the 'Laissez faire' and known as 'hands off' and worst type because it does not motivate staffs, no creativity and credibility, lack of trust and respect, no commitment and not productive.
A manager or a leader should know how to motivate his or her staff for the success of the organisation or to achieve the organisational goals. The manager is responsible for individual or team performance, commitment of employees to the organisation and to encourage overall job satisfaction. However, motivating people is a difficult task as many join the organisation for personal satisfaction of what they want and needs. Two theories were introduced in motivating an individual .The first is the hierarchy of needs by Abraham Maslow (1943) and the theory by Frederick Herzberg.
The first theory is like a pyramid and 5 needs from lowest to the highest. The lowest is the physiological needs like air, food, sex, water. The second is safety & security which includes stability, protection and security. The social and belongingness is the third need. The fourth is the self-esteem need and lastly self-actualisation. An individual is motivated depending on their need and once need are achieve the next one follows.
The theory by Herzberg is of two -factor and they are; motivating factor and hygiene factor. The motivating factors includes the job and its responsibilities, recognition, prospects for promotion, achievement satisfaction and sense of achievement, administration and company policy/corporate governance and interpersonal relationship. In contrast with the hygiene factor, it includes salary or wages, general working condition and environment, working relationship, incentives and benefits, personal advancement and growth and lastly, leadership skills and traits displayed by managers. It is then the employer's responsibility to get the best of employees by giving them a conducive for satisfaction, harmony and productivity in the workplace.
In the organisation I am working, motivating is done thru giving us benefits or incentives in the form of vouchers on Christmas, salary rise, training to improve our performance, outings for all the staff, promotion for those who are qualified and giving praises to improve or boost our self- esteem. Lastly, flexibility at work is encouraged to achieve the organisational aim and a way to motivates us. Flexible in a way that we do job rotation and here we are able to show our different skill and performance and able to prove how important we are to the organisation.
I therefore conclude that the success of an organisation is achieved on how it is manage particularly the people. The organisational structure, culture and personal differences have an impact on the people either a positive or negative one. The style of leadership varies from one organisation and how staff can be motivated depends on their needs.
People Management in Nursing Home
The nursing home I have research on is owned privately and registered under the Care Quality Commission as a Care Home (Nursing). It is a friendly care home and been existing for more than 2 decades. This care home can cater 40 residents from Dementia related disorders and provides 24 hours nursing care.
The Nursing Home aims to provide standard quality care to all residents. A part from that, it provide care that is delivered attentively and in a non- discriminatory to manner with respect for independence, privacy and the right to make informed choices and needs and values are respected in matter of culture, religion and class. Moreover, the home encourages residents to maintain the link with the community to participate in the Home activities program and lastly provide varied nutritious diet and respect individual needs.
The Organisational Structure
Senior Healthcare Assistants
The Home has about 35 staff employed. The overall head of the organisation is the Manager or the Matron. The duties includes looking after the welfare of the Care Home and all staff, responsible in recruiting and selecting future employees, giving or providing trainings, gives supervisions and appraisal for all the staffs, make all the decisions and a lot more. In short the manager assess, plan, design, implement, evaluate and monitor the Care Home. The staff manager is the next on line and is responsible for the domestic and kitchen staff allocation and duty rota. Sometimes she is the one responsible for any minor problems of home like when one has a problem with trainings. A Deputy Nurse is the one in charge for the Nursing staff including the carers and responsible with the duty rota and anything that pertains to the health and well- being of residents like to check on the nurse's care plan, medications and supervise the nurses. Under the deputy are the nurses who supervise the carers, calls the residents General Practitioner in case the resident not well, do care plans, assess residents and
giving medication. The carers play the important role in the health and well -being of the residents. They provide assistance and help in all personal care in the form of needs for each one of the client. Moreover, carers should read and understand the Home Policies and Procedures. The domestic staff responsible for the food, laundry, maintenance of the Nursing Home and make sure the environment clean and safe.
The home believe that every resident should be given the quality standard of care, they should be treated as normal individual though some lack the ability to make their own decisions or no more mental capacity and have to make their own choice. The residents have their own values and beliefs and right thus the home is responsible to respect them. To site an example, people have different religious beliefs and some are Muslim and other Christians. Muslims don't eat pork and the Nursing Home respects that, our chef make a separate meal for them. The home give them chance to visit local religious centres (e.g. churches, mosques).
The type of leadership in this organisation is both Autocratic and democratic however more of the democratic one as the decision making is not only done by the manager but she asks opinion to all the staff about the things she wants to implement in the Care Home. The staffs are happy about this, as they all feel important and respected. The manager also makes sure all staff has their training, appraisal and supervision and asks them what they want. Our manager was mentoring one of our staff to go further as senior carer. This carer was motivated to aim this goal. She needs to finish her NVQ Level IV for 3-6 months as one of the requirements. Now she completed the course, she was a senior carer now and the salary was increase. Hence they work effectively and efficiently. However there are times when the manager becomes autocratic like when it comes to salary and increases.
I have found out from my research that every employee are provided trainings and make their choices what training they need. They are also given induction before they started to work, supervisions and appraisal. Although they all provided training which is more of a take home paper it doesn't help. They don't have time to read the knowledge pack and some can't read or write, no time to read and answer as they are already tired from work. They feel stress because of some staff go sick and have to do some extra hour. At times, staffs from the kitchen or domestic are asked to help and one thing good they are also trained as a carer. Flexibility at work is a practice at this organisation and does benefit the home.
Motivation is an important aspect in the organisation and I gathered from my report that the organisation gives incentives in the form of incentives like in the form of voucher during Christmas and birthdays, employee of the month, staff outings The home also have a way of motivating. The McGregor theory is used in the organisation. That whoever is lazy are motivated in a way to make them work well using coerce and punishment. In contrast with those who are doing well, they are praised and given more trainings or promotion. The manager also motivates her staff based on their needs as diversity at work is seen or observe at work.
The Home should do more assessment on their staff especially during recruitment and selection as I have gathered some they go for off sick.
The manager should make short and long term planning in order to achieve its goal.
When implementing new ideas, consultation should do to all staff must be considered and reviewed.
Training should be done in accordance to individual behaviour and understand in order to be more motivated.
5. Avoid giving knowledge pack but give actual or practical training course as most staff learns more from them.
6. The staff should also read more on the Home Policies and Procedures and understand.