PEOPLE ISSUES IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY-

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Introduction

Human Resource management is very important and this project will discuss the people issues in the Hospitality sector and the role played by HRM to solve these issues. It will take into consideration important factors such as Leadership, motivation, Team building, Planning and employee engagement which are almost identical in any organisation of same type such as all different hospitality organisations. This report is about the role of HR and the people issues and challenges faced by the Langtry Manor hotel, Bournemouth (UK).

The Langtry Manor has its own history. It was built in 1877 by Edward VII for his mistress Lillie Langtry. For a small boutique Hotel the Langtry Manor is the best in Bournemouth is the best. The Guardian newspaper has called the hotel 'The best small house hotel in Bournemouth' and over the years the Langtry manor has achieved a lot of awards and received many appreciation.

Like all hotels even the Langtry manor has a lovely welcoming team who are highly skilled and have a good knowledge in hospitality.The recruitment is done by a small HR team with the guidance of The hotel Manager Mrs. Tara howard. The recruitment and training of employees is been taken care by the departmental heads and they act as a link between HR management and employees. This allows the HR to have overall control and managers to have control on their staff.

Human resource Management:

Employing the right person for the right job with right personality is what human resource management is (Kavin Mahoney, 2009.)Human Resource management is one of the most important departments in Hotels. Proper human resources management can be the difference between a really well run hotel and a poorly one hotel. The human resources manager can control all the manpower in a hotel and can also control all the processes. It can also help solve the people issues which are increasing day by day. This proves that the Human resource management is very important in the hospitality sector.

There are several different areas in which human resources management is very important. One of these areas is Recruitment and selection of new employees. The employees that are hired in a hotel can really change the quality of service and the entire working atmosphere in a hotel. This means it is very important to hire people with good knowledge about food and drinks and other hospitality factors and must be hard working and dedicated towards work. It is the job of the human resources manager to make sure that good people are chosen to work in the hotel. In many hotels we will find employees who are not fond of working in the hotels and are working there just because they cannot find any other job. There are very few people who are really dedicated to work in the Hospitality sector and the the job of the Human resources management is to find those people.

Retention of employees is another problem faced by the Human Resource management in every hotels. Many people leave the job from the hotel because they want to work there only for a limited period of time. Other people are terminated due to bad ethics and poor performance. However it the role of the HRM to continuously motivate the staff to stay longer and to perform better by providing good training and incentive programs. Having internal promotions will definitely motivate the staff to stick to a particular place for a longer time.

The issue of employee promotion is also a crucial issue for the hotel industry. Hotels which provide ways for employees to advance in position, or that provide training for employees so that they can gain skills necessary for an advanced position are very important to the retention rate of employees. It is beneficial to perform services of such nature and the expense is very minimal as compared to the expense in constantly hiring and training new people.

Human resources management for hotels also play an important role in the area of employee services. If the employees know that they can approach the Human resource team whenever they have an issue than it will be more easy for them to work in a good atmosphere. Many human resources departments implement different games and activities to make the work environment more interesting and fun for employees. There are many different services that a human resources manager can think of to help employee morale.

Thus we can see that the importance of Human resource management in hotels is very great. There are many ways in which the Human resource team can ensure that the hotel is running smoothly and performing effectively and efficiently.

Following steps are important in Human Resource Management:

Recruitment

Training and development

Motivation

Leadership

Employee engagement

Recruitment

The recruitment is the most important process in the human resource management. There are several steps in recruitment. First of all the Human resource management must find out what kind of people will best fit the position. The HR team will arrange for applications and will select the best suitable candidates for an interview with the departmental heads so they can know about the kind of knowledge and the skills the candidate has. After that the Departmental heads will shortlist few candidates and they will be sent for the final interview with the top management such as the General Manager.

In the Langtry Manor hotel the recruitment is mostly done by the HR team in guidance of the Hotel manager. The departmental heads are not involved most of the times in the selection and recruitment process. This prevents the Departmental managers from knowing the candidates in a better way. Thus the new staff lack confidence in approaching the immediate managers and sometimes it also results in the wrong candidate being hired because the departmental heads know very well what kind of employees they are looking for.If the candidate is not right it may lead to poor quality and development and might lead to increased labour turn over.

The best practice for the Langtry Manor would be giving the recruitment agency the contract to employ or to shortlist the list of candidates and then the departmental manager can finalise the selection.

However once the staffing is done the staff has several issues and seem to be unhappy. Most of the times they are dissatisfied by the behaviour of the seniors and the amount of favourism in the hotel procedures.

Also most of the staff are not happy with the pay packages and the amount of work they have to do in the hotel. The hotel also does not provide any recreational activities. The staff is highly disappointed with the staff canteens and the locker rooms.

The solutions for issues with staffing for the Langtry Manor Hotel, Bournemouth ( UK ):

The Human resource team can take a resource based approach to cope up with the issues of the employees with concern to staffing .

The resource based view of an organisation is concerned with the relationships between the internal resources which includes the human resources ,strategy and firm performance.

This can help make the human resource satisfied to a certain extent and human resources can provide more competitive advantage for the business ,as long as they are unique and cannot be copied or substituted by competing organisations.

Training and development

Training and development programmes are of most importance to keep employees knowledgeable and informed about the recent changes and the policy of the hotel. Training provides them with the confidence to perform the task more accurately which ultimately benefits the company by having consistency in the service. Training provides the information about changes in the company policy and managerial knowledge to the subordinate employees.

The Langtry manor hotel has few training and development programs but the staff is still not satisfied because most of the staff does not believe in the standard operating procedures set by the hotel. Most of the times the departmental managers fail to deliver the right kind of training needed by employees who are not from the hospitality background. Therefore the Human resource management must take steps to implement proper training and development programs. Also new methods to do a particular kind of work must be appreciated and introduced because most of the times the employees are disappointed to do the same work in the same manner over the years

Motivation

Motivation is the driving force which causes us to achieve goals and hence it is one another most important aspect of human resource management. There are several kinds of motivational theories which can be applied to motivate employees. Many contemporary authors have also defined the concept of motivation. Motivation has been defined as: the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995); So over all motivation is operationally defined as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals.(James Linder, 1998)

Motivational issues in the Langtry Manor hotel, Bournemouth(UK)

The implication of understanding that all people are different is that the manager has to have an individual relationship with each employee.

Content theory

Process theory.

Content theory - In the content theory the famous "Maslow theory" and its concept are more suitable for our hospitality situations.This theory states the needs of situation,there are five needs as per Maslow

Physiological needs

Security needs.

Affiliation needs.

Esteem needs.

Self actualisation needs.

Content theory focus on the needs of people as the prime impetus for motivated behaviour

Process theory - process theory focus on mental process which transforms the motivation force in to particular patterns of behaviour. In this the famous "Vroom's theory" is the accurate one, this valence theory states that the strength of an individual preference for a particular outcome, which can either be positive or negative!!!.

Motivational force-results

Expectancy .

Instrumentality

Vroom acknowledges that the outcomes at the second level (results) usually multiply. The motivational forces drive the performance and the results.

McGregor's considered the fundamental approach of staff towards work and divided the two different groups with totally different approaches. He considered theory-X where staff dislikes work and does not wish to take responsibility. These kind of people are generally prefers to be directed and wants security above all. Theory-Y where staff applies self-control and direction to achieve organisational goals. They seek responsibility .So the organisation and management should take in account the type of personnel required at particular post or level and should treat them accordingly to achieve organisational objectives.

Maslow considered basic needs of a human being for creating this motivational theory. Different personalities are driven by different set of ideas for getting motivated; Maslow differentiated these needs into 5 major parts where he considered the basic needs at the bottom of the pyramid and self-actualisation at the top.

According to Maslow every human being must fulfil the basic needs then he can go on for furthers needs. If the basic needs are not fulfilled not a single human being will be motivated towards anything else. Once these basic needs are satisfied then organisation may find better management for future through their staff provided they are motivated, trained and delegated with the responsibility.

Vector Vroom's theory expectancy deals with motivation and management. According to him the performance of an employee depends on personal factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, ability and experience. This theory based on different factors which may motivate employees through management. Thus management must discover employee's value, training, resources and promotions/reward expectancy of an employee and management should also ensure that rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of it.

The contingency theory assumes that when manager makes a decision he/she must consider all aspects of the situation in present and usually leads to the approach of it all depends. So every time management will use different strategy to effectively manage and make decisions.

Issues in the Langtry Manor Hotel, Bournemouth ( UK ):

The human resource in the hotel are of a view that the top management is not having a motivational approach ,the staff is dissatisfied because of lack of communication between the higher authorities and them.

The employees often complain that their performance is not rated on a daily basis.

The content theory and the process theories are both having a lot of relevance but in todays world the human resource needs a theory based on the situations and the current factors of the work environment prevailing in the hotel and the competing hotels .

The Vroom theory can be used to ensure and raise the standards of satisfaction among the staff of the hotel because the theory preaches to use motivational forces to increase the performance standards of the staff.

The Langtry Manor hotel, Bournemouth(UK) has an employee recognition programme which is known as the 'Edwardian Employee of the month'. In this system the employees are rewarded with cash money and gifts according to their performance in the hotel. The hotel used to be King Edwards stay place and thus the guests come there with a lot of hopes. An employee with complete dedication towards fulfilling such guest needs are awarded this award.This is a better way of encouraging the employees through their work itself.

Leadership

There are many ways of leadership and many interpretations of its meaning. Leadership might be interpreted in simple terms ,such as 'getting others to follow ' or getting authority in decision making'. Leadership is a relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other people.

The different leadership theories are as follows :

Trait theory

Style theory

Situational & contingency theory

TRAIT THEORY

This theory is based on an individual personal attributes. It is also termed as "leaders are born with traits". These kinds of leaders are well equipped with qualities that are very much essential for the business. This theory and style is the oldest which was identified a century back. But the re emergence of this theory was a huge success due to the demand for skilled employees readily available. This is often seen that a particular personality or behavioural characteristics shared by leaders. They possess basic leadership qualities such as responsibility, confidence, persistent, enthusiastic, aggressive etc.

STYLE THEORY

This theory is completely depending on the style the leaders approach to get the task achieved. Basically it is 2 types,

Transactional

Transformational.

TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP

Builds on man's need to get a job done and make a living

Is preoccupied with power and position, politics and perks

Is short-term and hard data oriented

Focuses on tactical issues

Relies on human relations to lubricate human interactions

Follows and fulfils role expectations by striving to work effectively within current systems

Supports structures and systems that reinforce the bottom line, maximise efficiency, and guarantee short-term profits

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Builds on a man's need for meaning

Is preoccupied with purposes and values, morals, and ethics

Transcends daily affairs

Is orientated toward long-term goals without compromising human values and principles

Focuses more on missions and strategies

Releases human potential - identifying and developing new talent

Designs and redesigns jobs to make them meaningful and challenging

Aligns internal structures and systems to reinforce overarching values and goals

CONTIGENCY THEORY

Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers and aspects of the situation.

Leadership issues in the Langtry Manor Hotel, Bournemouth (UK):

In the Langtry Manor, the theory which is used is Transformational leadership because the hotel managers do not have a strict approach towards the employees. It keeps into account the employee morals and ethics.The employees therefore find it very comfortable to perform their regular duties and jobs.However sometimes the employees find this too unprofessional as there is no professional approach between the managers and the lower level staff.

Therefore the theory suggested for the human resource here is the contingency theory which depends on the changing environment and that determines which particular style of the leadership is best suited for that particular time period.

Employee engagement

This is critical section of the Human resource management.The entire success of Human resource management depends upon Employee engagement. Give them a good job to do so they will do a good job. So the employee engagement is the combination of dedication to the organisation and its values plus a willingness to help out colleagues. It is more then job satisfaction and is not just about motivating the employees. Engagement is something the employee has to offer: it cannot be 'required' as part of the employment contract.Employers want engaged employees because they deliver improved and effective work performance.Employee engagement is a key ingredient in achieving high quality performance - both at the individual, team and organisational level.

The Langtry Manor hotel, Bournemouth(UK) is not very good at employee engagement but they are striving hard to practise it.

Conclusion:

The issues in the Langtry Manor hotel can be sorted out and the employees satisfaction levels can be raised considerably if the recommendations given are followed and theories are practised in the concerned areas of employee dissatisfaction.

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