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"If there's one industry that has changed beyond recognition in the past few years, it's television" [media industry overview]
The Media And Entertainment is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. The increasing rate of urbanisation, the penetration of television and radio industry in the rural areas with the help of the technology and the rising levels of incomes of the people in India has facilitated the growth rate of Media And Entertainment industry in India.
The Indian Media And Entertainment industry stands at the value of Rs 43,700-crore currently and is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 19% to reach Rs 83,740 crore by 2010. The Indian economy is growing at a fast rate and the Media And Entertainment industry is expected to benefit significantly from it.
The Media And Entertainment industry grows faster than the gross domestic product growth (GDP) due to the elasticity of income. When incomes rise, people tend to spend proportionately more resources on leisure and entertainment then the necessities. India is poised to enter this phase of rapid growth in the sector. The Media And Entertainment sector is highly fragmented in India. [trends in media and entertainment industry- A report]
LIST OF MEDIA INDUSTRIES
ASIANET is now the premier Asian channel on the cable television network in the United Kingdom. It reaches more homes than any other Asian medium and during 1998-2000, it will be expanding into other European countries. The channel delivers the greatest range and diversity of quality products for the European Asian marketplace.
BBC World India
BBC World is the BBC's commercially funded international 24-hour news and information channel broadcasting around the world from its base at BBC Television Centre in London. BBC World is an integral part of the BBC's commitment to global broadcasting and, along with BBC World Service Radio, provides a focal point for viewers and listeners around the world. BBC World keeps its viewers not just informed, but well informed, with in-depth analysis and cutting edge interviews - the story from all sides.
Doordarshan - Indian National Television Network.
Doordarshan is one of the largest broadcasting organisations in the world. Doordarshan operates 20 channels, has a network of 1081 transmitters, puts out over 1,393 hours of programmes every week. Doordarshan reachs 87.6 percent of the country's 950 million people.
New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV), founded in 1988, is India's first and largest private producer of news, current affairs and entertainment television. NDTV is home to the country's best and brightest reporters, anchors and producers; 23 offices and studios across the country host India's most modern and sophisticated production and news gathering facilities.
Sony Entertainment Television.
Sony Entertainment Television is dedicated to provide the best in Hindi family entertainment to the largest percentage of the Indian population-the young adult.
Star News Channel
covers a wide range of news, information and issues in politics, business, sports, showbiz and current affairs. All news is reported in a fair & objective manner.
Now is the time for more innovation and a wider stretch of creativity, both in technology and programming. Increasing government deregulation and technological advances ensure an exciting future for the broadcasting industry in Asia.
NDTV (New Delhi Television Limited), founded in 1988, is India's first and largest private producer of news, current affairs and entertainment television.It was founded by Prannoy Roy, an eminent journalist and current chairman and director of NDTV Group.
NDTV is home to the country's best and brightest reporters, anchors and producers; 23 offices and studios across the country host India's most modern and sophisticated production and newsgathering facilities.
At home, NDTV 24X7, the flagship English news channel is the market leader with an unrivalled reputation for excellence.
NDTV India, the company's 24-hour Hindi news channel, is respected for its integrity and commitment to real journalism.
NDTV Profit, a 24-hour business channel, has established new standards for simple, clear and transparent reporting on the world of business.
NDTV Worldwide has launched its first channel outside India in partnership with Astro Awani, Malaysia's Leading News Channel, launched in Indonesia, is a 24 hour news, infotainment and lifestyle channel. NDTV is metamorphosing into a diversified global media player and intends to consistently break new ground.
WAY BACK IN 1998:-
From a pure-news focused player, NDTV is metamorphosing into a diversified global media player and intends to consistently break new ground.
NDTV's meeting with television began way back in 1988, when it produced a news and current affairs show 'The World This Week' for the Government-owned broadcaster Doordarshan. The show proved to be immensely popular, and NDTV established its image as a credible private news producer. It moved on to become the sole news content provider and producer for India's first 24-hour news channel, Star News. The company's biggest milestone was established in 2003, when it launched two 24-hour news channels-
NDTV 24x7 in English
NDTV India in Hindi-followed by a 24-hour business news channel NDTV Profit in 2005, which became a leading business news channel in a short period of time.
In 2007, the company broke new ground, formulating a strategy to build a global business. NDTV Networks Plc, a subsidiary of NDTV was formed to seize opportunities in areas 'beyond news'. The Company launched NDTV Imagine (for general entertainment), NDTV Good Times under NDTV Lifestyle Company (for lifestyle content), NDTV Convergence (triple play; to exploit the synergies between television, internet and mobile), NDTV Labs (to develop media software and technology for captive use), NGEN Media Services (outsourcing of media post-production services) as 50:50 joint venture with Genpact and Emerging Markets BV that has helped launch channels in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Middle East.
Popular talk shows include 'Big Fight', 'India 60 Minutes', 'Walk The Talk', 'We The People'. It launched the 'United for Justice' campaign seeking support from the citizens to demand justice in three high-profile unsolved murder cases Jessica Lal, Priyadarshini Mattoo, Nitish Katara leading to the conviction of the accused. Its campaigns like the '7 Wonders of India' and 'Toyota Telethon' have garnered public support and are a commendable attempt at preserving the environment and India's natural heritage.
Management in all business areas and human organization activity is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives.
According to the classical view, "An organization is the structure of the relationships, power, objectives, roles, activities, communications and other factors that exist when persons work together."
The classical theories on the whole, with scientific management stream consider the three streams of classical theories briefly: i.e. Bureaucracy, Administrative theory and Scientific Management.
Scientific management thought focused mainly on micro aspects like individual worker, foreman, work process, etc.
Bureaucracy as a concept, first developed by Max Weber, presents a descriptive, detached, scholarly point of view.
Administrative theories not only described macro aspects of organizations but also focused on principles and practice for better performance.
Scientific management (also called Taylorism or the Taylor system) is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows, improving labour productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s.
Frederick W. Taylor is known as the "father" of scientific management. Taylor's work at the Bethlehem Steel companies motivated his interest in improving efficiency.
a. Taylor sought to create a mental revolution among both workers and managers by defining clear guidelines for improving production efficiency. He defined four principles of management.
b. His "pig iron" experiment is probably the most widely cited example of scientific management.
c. Using his principles of scientific management, Taylor was able to define the one best way for doing each job.
d. Overall, Taylor achieved consistent improvements in productivity in the range of 200 percent. He affirmed the role of managers to plan and control and of workers to perform as they were instructed.
Max Weber embellished the scientific management theory with his bureaucratic theory. Weber focused on dividing organizations into hierarchies, establishing strong lines of authority and control. He suggested organizations develop comprehensive and detailed standard operating procedures for all routinized tasks.
Administrative management is about managing information through people. Information is central to all management processes and people are the resources who make best use of that information to add value. Most working professionals and all managers have some element of administrative management in their jobs.
All companies and organisations are only as good as the people they employ. If an organisation has to run "lean and mean" then the selection and recruitment of the right administrative manager, who can make the best use of the tools at his or her disposal, is truly a valuable asset. There will always be a necessity for good administration in any organisation.
Fayol developed fourteen principles of administration to go along with management's five primary roles. These principles are enumerated below:
A greater sense of practical realism can be seen in the work of Henri Fayol (1949) who outlined a series of 'principles of management' by which an organization might be effectively controlled.
1. Division of work- Fayol saw specialization as a natural human process, seen in every society. If work is divided according to skill and technical expertise, each item of work can be given to the employee most able to deal with it.
2. Authority and responsibility- Fayol defined authority as 'the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience.' He emphasised the importance of connecting authority to responsibility, which together required increasing judgement and morality at senior levels. He justified higher pay for commercial managers in comparison with senior civil servants since, in his view, the latter exercised authority without responsibility. In general, he concluded that 'responsibility is feared as much as authority is sought after, and fear of responsibility paralyses much initiative and destroys many good qualities.'
3. Discipline- Defined as agreement, application, energy, behaviour and outward marks of respect. Discipline is attributed to good leadership. Fayol regarded discipline as essential for for the smooth running of business without which an enterprise is unable to prosper.
4. Unity of command- 'For any action whatsoever, an employee should receive orders from one superior only, this is the rule of unity of command. Fayol regarded 'dual command' as one of the greatest sins of management, leading to uncertainty and hesitation on the part of subordinates and conflict between managers.
5. Unity of direction- 'One head and one plan for a group having the same objective.'
6. Subordination -of individual interests to the general interest. There should be no conflict of interest between individual ambition and the well-being of the organization as a whole. This principle requires a firm but fair hand from superiors who should set a good example.
7. Remuneration of personnel- Fayol looked for some basic principles in the method of payment:
it shall assure fair remuneration;
it shall encourage keenness by rewarding well-directed effort;
it shall not lead to over-payment going beyond reasonable limits.
8. Centralization- Part of the 'natural order', Fayol considered that an element of centralization must always be present
9. Scalar chain (line of authority)-The unity of command can lead to excessively chains of authority which hinder communication. This meant that the volume of work handled by a department mushroomed as items went up and down the chain in a game of 'pass the parcel'. Fayol rightly condemned this as inefficient and advocated a 'gang plank' arrangement whereby juniors involved in regular interactions with other departments dealt directly with each other, cutting out the hierarchy. Fayol provided a key to modern organizations which he could not have conceived
10. Order- 'A place for everyone and everyone in his place.' For Fayol, this presuppose the resolution of 'the two most difficult managerial activities: good organization and good selection.' He saw the basic problem as the balancing of an organization's requirements with its resources. The larger the business, the more difficult this became:
11. Equity- In order to obtain commitment from employees, they must be treated equally and fairly.
12. Stability of tenure of personnel- A matter of proportion, but employees need a period of stability in a job to deliver of their best.
13. Initiative- Being allowed to think through a problem and implement a solution is a rewarding experience which increases motivation
14. Esprit de corps-'Dividing enemy forces to weaken them is clever, but dividing one's own team is a grave sin against the business.'
The behavioral management theory is often called the human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of work. Behavioral theorists believed that a better understanding of human behavior at work, such as motivation, conflict, expectations, and group dynamics, improved productivity.
The theorists who contributed to this school viewed employees as individuals, resources, and assets to be developed and worked with - not as machines, as in the past. Several individuals and experiments contributed to this theory.
[Behavioral Management Theory]
The Hawthorne Studies
Hawthorne studies reflected the scientific management tradition of seeking greater efficiency by improving the tools and methods of work-in this case, lighting.
1. In the first set of studies, no correlation was found between changes in lighting conditions and individual work performance. In fact, performance nearly always went up with any change.
2. In the second set of studies, the concept of the Hawthorne effect emerged. The Hawthorne effect refers to the possibility that individuals singled out for a study may improve their performance simply because of the added attention they receive from the researchers, rather than because of any specific factors being tested in the study.
3. The third set of studies centred on group production norms and individual motivation.
4. Although simplistic and methodologically primitive, the Hawthorne studies established the impact that social aspects of the job have on productivity.
Human Relations Movement:
This movement was an attempt to equip managers with the social skills they need. The teaching of these skills to employees is referred to as "soft skills" training. NDTV are training employees to be able to successfully communicate and convey information, to be able to interpret others' emotions, to be open to others' feelings, and to be able to solve conflicts and arrive at resolutions.
A major belief included that the organization would prosper if its workers prospered as well. Human Resource departments were added to organizations. The behavioral sciences played a strong role in helping to understand the needs of workers and how the needs of the organization and its workers could be better aligned. Various new theories were spawned, many based on the behavioural sciences.
Elton Mayo is generally seen as the founder of Industrial Sociology and the Human Relations School of business organisation. His research on groups and behaviour in work has had direct implications for management of organisations and for sociology.
[Human relations findings of Elton Mayo].
The Behavioural Science Approach:
Contributions of the behavioural viewpoint:-
1. Spotlight the managerial importance of such factors as communication, group dynamics, motivation, and leaders.
2. Articulates practical applications of behavioral studies.
3. Draws on the findings of a number of disciplines such as management, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics.
4. Highlights the importance of an organization's members as active human resources rather than passive tools.
Quantitative management focuses on the application to management of quantitative techniques such as statistics and computer simulations.
Two branches of quantitative management are:-
Stresses the use of rational, science-based techniques and mathematical models to improve decision making and strategic planning.
It is the function or field of expertise that is primarily responsible for the giving the right information to the viewers.
Management Information Systems (MIS)
Management Information Systems (MIS) is the term given to the discipline focused on the integration of computer systems with the aims and objectives on an organisation.
Benefits of MIS
The field of MIS can deliver a great many benefits to enterprises in every industry. Expert organisations such as the Institute of MIS along with peer reviewed journals such as MIS Quarterly continue to find and report new ways to use MIS to achieve business objectives.
Every market leading enterprise will have at least one core competency - that is, a function they perform better than their competition. MIS systems provide the tools necessary to gain a better understanding of the market as well as a better understanding of the enterprise itself.
Enhance Supply Chain Management
Improved reporting of business processes leads inevitably to a more streamlined production process. With better information on the production process comes the ability to improve the management of the supply chain, including everything from the sourcing of materials to the manufacturing and distribution of the finished product.
As a corollary to improved supply chain management comes an improved ability to react to changes in the market. Better MIS systems enable an enterprise to react more quickly to their environment, enabling them to push out ahead of the competition.
[Management Information systems explained]
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE THEORIES
IMPLEMENTATION CLASSICAL VIEWPOINT IN NDTV
Implementation of Scientific Management
NDTV is using this principle in all its field they have divided the work to the specific staff members this make them perfect. They have given proper responsibility and authority to the person along with it they have to follow the norms and terms given to them. Authority are also divided they can take the daily decision with their own keeping in view the ideas and opinions of the subordinates. Manager also takes care of their worker. They very rarely change their employees.
Implementation of Bureaucratic Management
The jobs at NDTV are broken down into simple, routine, and well-defined tasks whether it be the media or entertainment divisions of NDTV.
Each units and departments has its own work to do and they know their job, this creates a good competition and spirit among each other to lead their departments and organization as well. They can also work in shifts.
The position and authority of the organization is well defined that is they have clear chain of command. The selection and promotion of the organization is based on their work efficiency.
IMPLEMENTATION OF BEHAVIOURAL VIEWPOINT IN NDTV
Implementation of Hawthorne Effect
Since according to Hawthorne studies, the impact on the workplace, and has generated intense interest in the social dimensions of human behavior in the workplace. As a large and multi-product enterprise whose products are benchmarked nationally and internationally.
The company select a management trainee and provide specialized training in management skills not currently possessed. It makes the trainee the feeling that he/she is so valuable to the organization that they spend time and money to develop his/her skills. This motivates the employee to work harder and work more effectively. This form of employee motivation is independent of any particular skills or knowledge she may have gained from the training session. That's the Hawthorne Effect at work.
Implementation of Human Relations Movement
NDTV considers the whole organization as a group of people that works for accomplishment of goal. So with the theory of human relation management there is a harmony between all the employees of organization. As it is applied to the relationships between the individuals within the organization and the goals of the organization.
Implementation of Behavioural Science Approach
It focused on applying conceptual and analytical tools to the problem of understanding and predicting behavior in the workplace. The employees are given enough time to consider the implications of change and an opportunity to discuss their problems, if any, with the management.
IMPLEMENTATION OF QUANTITATIVE VIEWPOINT IN NDTV
Implementation of Management Science
NDTV use Management Science quantitative techniques in mostly all strategic and operational areas such as choosing a new project, controlling the staff, or implementing statistical information control to ensure their operations meet the viewer's need and achieve customer satisfaction with a high degree of efficiency.
Implementation of Operations Management
NDTV mainly focuses on efficiency and effectiveness of the communication skills, their interpersonal relations between the different employees in the company.
The news captured by the reporters is given a particular format in which the information will be displayed to the viewers, this takes a long series of steps nd comes under operational management.
Implementation of Management Information Systems (MITS)
With computers being as ever-present as they are today, there's hardly any large business that does not rely extensively on their IT system.
While computers cannot create business strategies by themselves they can assist management in understanding the effects of their strategies, and help enable effective decision-making.
MIS systems provide a valuable function in that they can collate into logical reports unmanageable volumes of data that would otherwise be broadly useless to decision makers. By studying these reports decision-makers can identify patterns and trends that would have remained unseen if the raw data were consulted manually.
Not only do MIS systems allow for the collation of vast amounts of business data, but they also provide a valuable time saving benefit to the workforce. Where in the past business information had to be manually processed for filing and analysis it can now be entered quickly and easily onto a computer by a data processor, allowing for faster decision making and quicker reflexes for the enterprise as a whole.
After examining the working in management of company it is found that NDTV believes that all its employees must live with social and economic dignity and freedom, regardless of nationality, gender, race, economic status or religion.
With its venture into channels like NDTV Imagine and NDTV Goodtimes, the company has become a full fledged media player and has seen a transformation from the days when it used to produce a solitary but pioneering show 'The World This Week'.
NDTV has set-up NDTV Worldwide (Media Consulting), NDTV Convergence (Digital Media), NGEN (Media Process Outsourcing) and NDTV Labs (Media Software & Technology).
In the end I conclude that NDTV, uses the management theories and the company follows the norms and conditions as per the theory.