Organizations culture and their behavioral impact

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The word organization comes from a Greek word organon, which is well known as ergon. It is considered as a social arrangement that works towards achieving combined goals, measuring and controlling own performances and as well dragging a boundary which separates it from its environment.

According to Buchanan and Huczynski(2004)-" A work organization is a social arrangement for the controlled performance of collective goals".

Maintaining an organization need some specific job to be done as- specialization, co-ordination and distribution of labour? It is directed and controlled by certain authorities to formulate a firm's mission, vision, strategies and also for maintaining the quality level of an organization.

There are some common features of all the business organization:

A group of people working towards achieving the same goal.

Firms own vision and mission statement.

The organization culture directed by its value.

Development of strategies to achieve goals.

Establishment of divisions, teams, departments and system to achieve the goals.

They manage input and by processing get the output which is considered as a product or service.

The main concern is customer behind the establishment of goods and services. visited on 14 April 2010 time 9pm

Organizational behaviour is an academic discipline concerned with describing, understanding, predicting, and controlling human behaviour in an organizational environment. Organizational behaviour has evolved from early classical management theories into a complex school of thought-and it continues to change in response to the dynamic environment and proliferating corporate cultures in which today's businesses operate.

Organization behaviour is concerned with the study of the behaviour of people around the organization. It is the way by which individual and group's behaviour and pattern are studied, analysed and therefore improving firm's performance and effectiveness. It describes how people learn, process information from their own prospective and ideas and their attitude and attribute towards work and the firm. As well the study consists of process of management, the organizational context in which the process management takes place, firms process and the execution of work, interaction with the external environment of firms.[Mullins L J.(2007)pp-5]

There is certain key behaviour working towards organizational development. First of all it helps out employees from any position to learn constantly about the company and helps out clients and also to have a direct communication with fellow employees. Secondly it works towards eliminating diversity related issues which include race, gender, ethnicity, and region and so on. In terms of communication process firms use both formal which follows chain of command and informal communication which is likely open and natural. It improves firm's efficiency and effectiveness by developing superior strategy and flow-less implementation of it. Influence towards adaptation of fast and speedy learning system to handle opportunities and eliminate threats and also to work out on certain political issues such as government rules and regulation, legislation, economic issues such as growth of economy which might effect on firms market, social issues such as demographic changes in terms of age profile of the working population or changing behaviour and attitude which influences peoples expectation and behaviour towards work and lastly the technological segment which includes implementation of new technology and manufacturing process. visited on 15 April 2010 time 8 pm

Different types of organization structure works together for maintaining the infrastructure of an organization.

Traditional structure are basically based on functional divisions and departments and has three parts-

Line structural organization are hierarchical, follows the lines of authority directly from supervisors and subordinates and also shows the scalar chain of command from few superiors to growing number of subordinates

Line and staff structure: it's a more centralized organization which combines the information comes from the top level with staff departments for supports and specialization. Managers of line and staff have authority over their subordinates, but staff managers have no authority over line managers and their subordinates. Decision making process is usually slower cause of layer and guidelines.

Functional structure: it classified people according to their performance in professional life. Examples of it is Vice president, Customer service department etc.

Divisional structure: This kind of structure based on different division of an organization. Such as

Product structure: it's based on organizing employees and work on the basis of the different types of products.

Market structure: it's a group employee on the basis of specific market the company sells in.

Geographic structure: This type of organization structure follows zonal regional structure.

Matrix structure: It is a combination of function, and product structures. It combines both structure well performances to make an efficient organizational structure. This structure is the most complex organizational structure.

For example if we consider different supermarket and retail stores or banking sectors they have got different approaches towards operation in businesses. Like Sainsbury, Tesco, Asda, Morrison these types of supermarkets have different strategy such as apart from retail sector they have banking sectors and oil stations etc which distinguish them from other traditional supermarkets. - Cached - Similar visited on 15 april 2010 time 10 pm

Organization culture is defined as a-"A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems".(Schein 373-374). ""cultureHYPERLINK "".shtml visited on 15 April 2010 time 11 pm

There are certain characteristics which help in generating ideas regarding organizational culture. Such as-

Identifying firm's goals and strategy which is known as mission statement.

Developing behaviour patterns within the firm and with its stakeholder.

Distribution of authority from top level to the bottom level.

Develop organization structure by identifying uses of organization charts.

Identify the nature of leadership whether it is autocratic, bureaucratic or democratic.

Identifying the values, competitiveness, flexibility and the change approach of a firm.

Different writers have different opinion about organizational culture. Among them Charles Handy (1985) popularized the work of Roger Harrison (1972) of looking at culture which some scholars linked with organizational structure to organizational culture. Handy's four types thus:

The power culture: It is influenced by the spreading of power though out organization. It is also known as club or Zeus culture. This culture put emphasis on centralization and central power which derives from the establishment of business and which enables the chair person to take any decision to allocate and control resources. This types of organization like a dominant culture and characterized as a web with a ruling spider where power is concentrate in a small area of the centre. It is basically reflected on a family-owned business, which can be large or small. Examples of it can be seen in Handy's example of massive institutions in the USA, run as a small family business at the top and known as 'robber barons'. Power and decision-making is runs by the key family members, take decision and others have to implement it .It is difficult for others outside the 'family network' to influence events. The greatest strength of power culture is the ability to react quickly and their success is depends on the abilities of the person or people in centre. It is more likely a tough and aggressive culture. The power culture has more faith in individuals than committees and can either change very rapidly and adapt or 'fail to see the need for change' and die.

2) Role culture: It is a bureaucratic culture, principles of which are logic and rationally. The strong part of this culture is its functions or specialities and it's described as a series of pillars which are co-ordinated and controlled by a small group of senior executives. Internal environment of a role culture is based on role, procedures and job description and promotion of which is based on the satisfactory performance in performing the job. Communication is done through well-defined system and culture. To process decision and resolving conflicts certain rules and mechanisms are present. It is the most stable and predictable environment which have a good command over its product or its expansion and also it is effective where economic scales, technical expertise or product specialization are important. The disadvantage of this culture as well it is slow to recognize and react to change. Examples of it can be oil companies, civil service or retail banking.

3) Task culture: These types of firms are involved in extensive research and development activities. They continuously work for change and arrange provisional task teams to meet their future needs. The most value gets information, expertise and skills rather than power. The culture may be thought of a net or matrix. It focuses on accomplishment of job by bringing all the internal organization together and by providing right job and resources to right people to make the project successful. This culture influenced by expertise and up-to-date information where the culture is most in tune with results. Positive sides of it can be its flexibility, adaptability, individual autonomy and mutual respect based on its ability rather than age or status. Negative sides of it can be its inability to maximise economic of scale do not build up the great depth of expertise, heavily reliability on the people involved and its restriction of distributing resources which might turn it to more power' or 'role' orientated culture.

4) Person culture: This culture develops upon the basis of personal interest to organize on a collective manner rather than individual basis. In this culture individual decides their own work allocation with rules and coordinative mechanism of minimal sacrifice. Person culture completes autonomy, share influence and power only if it is applied. Those who comprise and represented throughout the operation of firm is recognized as a sole person of a firm. Examples of it can be doctors, barristers and architects etc.[Andrew Brown(1998), "Organization culture", 2nd Edition, Pearson Education Limited,pp-66,67,68]

Organization culture and structure are highly linked. Basically organization culture gives a bigger picture which deals with largely smaller topics and issues of an organization, whereas organization structure deals with various practices and methods of firm's infrastructure which helps the organization to run effectively. Organization structure basically an inner segment of an organization which primarily set up the culture regarding management function, supervisors responsibilities and also linked up all the interrelated groups of an organization and helps them run smoothly. The main purpose of an organization structure is to determine effective communication between different parts of the company and also to increase coordination between different departments. Examples of it can be seen in supermarkets named Sainsbury, Tesco etc. J Sainsbury Plc controls Sainsbury supermarkets; Shaw's supermarket; Sainsbury bank; JS Development and Sainsbury's Property Company.

www.HYPERLINK ""organizationalcultureHYPERLINK "" ""organizationalHYPERLINK ""-HYPERLINK ""cultureHYPERLINK ""-HYPERLINK ""organizationalHYPERLINK ""-HYPERLINK ""structureHYPERLINK "".html visited on 17 April 2010 time 10pm

Personality derives from the Greek word 'Persona' means 'mask'. It refers to capture or summarise an individual essence.

According to-Carl Gustav Jung(1934) defined Personality as - "The supreme realization of the innate idiosyncrasy of a living being. It is an act of high courage flung in the face of life, the absolute affirmation of all that constitutes the individual, the most successful adaptation to the universal condition of existence coupled with the greatest possible freedom for self-determination." - Cached - Similar visited on 17 April 2010 time 11.30pm

There are mainly two types of personality approach. They are:

The Nomothetic approach: It is basically the study of individuals to identify and measure the characteristic. This approach suggests it is more or less fixed and various elements of personality are same from individual to individual. Individual posses a selection of these of these traits which tends to go together in effectively dividing people into personal type.

The Idiographic approach: it focuses on the unique of the individual. Personality develops through interaction with the environment and also how individual see himself on it. It's a picture of a particular individual at a particular time.

Apart from this there are type theories of personalities, trait theory of personality, psychodynamic theory of personalities etc.

There are a few factors that work as obstacle in developing personalities.

Genetic factor: Our physical attributes determines how people will treat us and how we view ourselves.

Social factors: Only through socialization process people learn how to behave, how to feel by family, friends and other significant people within a social setting.

Cultural factors: Cultural view is a wider social belief and values are absorbed by an individual guided behaviour in social extent.

Situational factors: The effect of specific experiences or situation on a personal feelings and behaviour comes to a play in personality growth.

Although there are other factors comes to play these are considered the major in personality growth.

There are various factors that influence individual behaviours at work. They are-

Personality and Perception: Perception is a process that involves in selection, organization, structuring and interpretation of information to make inferences and give meaning to it. Personality is a stable and enduring aspect of an individual that individual that distinguishes from others.

Attitudes, learning and stress: Attitudes is referred as a obstructer to change, the stronger it is, the more resistant to change. Learning on the other side is the acquisition of skills which can be done through training and development. Lastly stress is a combination of positive and negative effect on workplace, generally impacts negative to employees is a degree of tension or anxiety of a person

Motivation: Motivation is a process which gives reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or certain behaviour. Pay rise, position etc are considered as a motivator factor.

Example can be seen on Sainsbury's operation on staff management where staff are considered as a representative of the company. Staffs have choices of working part-time, flexible contracts for retail employees, job share, home working, enhanced maternity leave/pay, paternity leave, career break schemes for childcare, and special leave for personal development or caring responsibilities.

Different scientist gives different opinion about principles and practises of organizations management. Among them Henry Fayol listed 14 principles which is the most influential ones that describes below.

Planning: Planning is the process that involves selection the organizations objective which generally means creating plans, policies, programmes etc and findings the ways of achieving it.

Organizing: It generally means scheduling and work allocation within a formal structure of authority and communication.

Commanding: It generally involves in instructing and motivating employees to carry out instruction of superior.

Co-ordinating: Co-ordinating means harmonising the activities of individuals and groups within the organization, reconciling differences in approach and so on.

Controlling: It's an indication of monitoring the activities of individuals and groups to make sure the performance in accordance with the plans, standard and objectives.

Apart from these he referred some more principles they are authority and responsibility, discipline, centralization, subordination, remuneration, scalar chain and so on. visited on 18 april 2010 time 8 pm

Examples of these principles come to play in Sainsbury's management process. The company has an Equality and Diversity policy, with a Steering Group led by a Board Director to advise the group. Sainsbury's played a lead role in the Business in the Community's 'Race for Opportunity' survey in 2001. There is a Fair Treatment policy for handling grievances and complaints and the company funds an independently-run confidential 24 hour helpline.

There are different approaches made in different decades by different scientists are as follows:

Scientific management: Frederick Taylor is the first scientist who defines the responsibilities of management which is to select, train and help workers to perform their jobs and therefore workers responsibility is to accept and perform accordingly. This approach made things easier for companies in distributing task and in training and developing employees. According to him workers should work for the mutual benefit and by which productivity can be increased.

Classical administration: Scientist Henry Fayol identified 14 principles of management and those are specialization, scalar chain, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interest, centralization, discipline etc creates an immense effect on changing the approaches towards employees by management. Though it has a immense effect on management practises still modern scientist argues on commanding and directing and suggest coaching and facilitation instead.

Human-resource approach: According to Elton Mayo the human relation approach emphasised on the importance of human attitude, values and relationships for the efficient and effective functioning of work organization. Classical approach whereas focuses highly on the structure and formal organization, human relation emphasis on importance of people in work situation and the influence of social and psychological factors in shaping firms behaviour. This approach is followed by Maslow, Herzberg and McGregor and many more.

The systems approach: It describes two types of system. Closed system which is shut off from the environment and independent of it whereas an open system is connected to and interacts with its environment. It takes influence from the environment and itself gives influences the environment by its activities. The systematic approach also emphasises the existence of sub-systems or bigger systems.

The contingency approach: It refers to the appropriate solution in any specific in any case depends, upon the circumstances prevailing at time. This approach also influenced topics such as work-design, leadership and organization structuring.

Example can be seen on Sainsbury's Employers' Forum on Disability. They also support the Learning Consortium, helping talented people with disabilities to move into senior management positions. Sainsbury's believe their brand is seen as representing quality and value for money, as well as high standards of customer service. Sainsbury's wants to give display space to popular, high margin brands; and the producers of these brands want to be associated with Sainsbury's and will compete with each other for the 'best' space within stores.

Motivation is a thing which drives us to do any job taking initiative steps. Basically it is the reason which enables people to do anything.

Motivation is defined as the-"Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort in attaining a goal. Motivation is the energizer of behaviour and mother of all action" ""definitionHYPERLINK ""/HYPERLINK ""motivationHYPERLINK "".html visited on 18 April 2010 time 10 pm.

Motivation is of two types- intrinsic and extrinsic. Different scientist comes out with different theories indicating companies how two motivate employees in practical manner.

Among them Abraham Maslow pointed out some motivational factor- "the hierarchy of needs" for human being. They are as follows:

Physiological needs: The basic needs include food, shelter, clothing etc.

Safety needs: The need of personal safety and security in workplace and home.

Love needs: The need for belonging in a group, support and share feelings.

Esteem needs: The need for recognition in workplace and society.

Self- actualization: The need to feel fulfilled, successful carrier or achievement.

Maslow's theory pointed on people needs and willingness of fulfil their goals and also suggested companies to take positive steps which will drive employees to change their attitude towards workplace and build confidence, discipline and satisfaction in mind. › leadership/management visited on 18 April 2010, Time 11pm

Motivations factors are also highlighted by Frederick Herzberg in his "two factors theory" by voting 200 employees are as follows.

Hygiene factors: It includes- a) Company policy and administration.

b) Salary.

c) The quality of supervision.

d) Interpersonal relationship.

e) Working conditions.

f) Job security.

Motivation factors: It includes- a) Status.

b) Advancement.

c) Recognition.

d) Responsibility.

e) Challenge at work.

f) Achievement.

g) Growth in the job.

Herzberg encouraged managers to study the job, distribute task and responsibilities, increase challenge and interest in job and lastly increase the satisfaction level of employees which will result in increasing productivity. theory_herzberg visited on 19 April 2010,time 9pm

Expectancy theory: In 1964 psychologist Victor Vroom suggested the strength of an individual motivation is the product of two factors:

The strength of his preference for a certain outcome, which is named as valence. It may be representing by positive or negative number or zero- since outcomes may be desired, avoided or considered with indifference.

His expectation that outcome will in fact result from a certain behaviour which is named subjective probability. The individual expectation and depends on the perception on link between behaviour and outcome. As a probability it may be represent by any number between 0 and 1.

This theory highly attempts to focus to measure the strength of individual motivation.

These motivational theories comes to an huge play in reward and incentives-

Reward is a token of recognition given to an individual contribution or success.

Incentive is the offer for contribution or success.

Pay rise is also a factor that drives towards motivation.

There are also two more factors that drive people to motivation. This are-

Job satisfaction: Interest and challenge in the job itself- rewarding work.

Participation in Decision Making: Responsibility and involvement on companies decision making.

As an example - Sainsbury's operates performance-related pay and bonus schemes for middle and senior managers. Save-As-You-Earn scheme for supermarket staff offers chance for company shares to be bought at a 20% discount.

Leadership: It is defined as -"The art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal". Leader is the inspiration and director of the action. He or she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and skills that makes others want to follow his or her direction.

Leadership are of four types are as follows-

Autocratic leadership: The manager makes all the decisions, issues, instruction which must be obeyed without question.

Benefits of this leadership: The quick decision making that required speed and it is required for a highly programmed, designed work.

Persuasive Leadership: The manager makes the decision but explains them to subordinates, and attempts to motivate them to carry them out willingly.

Benefits: Selling decision to staff increase willingness among them and they can contribute with better ideas.

Participative Leadership: Manager explains the situation and takes view of sub-ordinates but has the right to take final decision.

Benefits: It generates encouragement in employees to take part in decision making and also they can share their views and experience which might help out solving problem.

Democratic Leadership: Both leaders and followers takes the decisions on the basis of consensus, or compromise and agreement.

Benefits: It generates high commitment in decision making and also takes advantage of the knowledge and expertise of individuals in different areas, for high quality and flexible decision making. visited on 19 April 2010, Time 10pm

Group: A group is a collection of people. It is defined as a- "Collection of individuals who have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, common feeling of camaraderie, and who work together to achieve a common set of goals".

WHYPERLINK "" ""definitionHYPERLINK ""/HYPERLINK ""groupHYPERLINK "".html visited on 20 April 2010, time 10 pm

A group has got certain characteristics are as follows-

A group is whether formal or informal, recognized by existence of its member and there are boundaries within the group.

Loyalty and acceptance of it bind the groups together.

Different groups have different way to express their purpose whether they are formal or more spontaneous and also choose different person for different sector to lead them in fulfilling their goals.

Informal group behaviour: Informal groups exist almost in every organization. The aim of it is to relate groups and individual member satisfaction. Examples of it can be groups in workplace cliques and also bunch of people who often get together and share information.

Formal group behaviour: Formal organization must have a formal structure and accounts for any function and held responsible, task oriented and finally become teams. Leaders may be chosen within the group, but are typically given authority by the organization.

For example Sainsbury's profit-sharing scheme allows employees to have shares or cash. Roughly 50% of the company's shares are owned by current or former staff and it is this scheme that is largely responsible.

Purpose of effective team:

There are lots of factors that influence team-work and lead to success. They are-

Team allows the performance that requires skill and time of more than one person, without involving co-ordinating across structural boundaries.

Team allows the exchange of knowledge and ideas and the creation of new thoughts. These ideas - increase communication, generate new ideas, evaluating ideas from more than one's view point, consultation which helps out in produce better, or more acceptable decisions, Job-related training in a realistic work-group context and resolving conflicts.

The power of the team over individual behaviour can be both:

Method of control: Self control.

A powerful motivator.

better understanding of decisions,

more support for and participation in implementation plans,

Increased contribution to problem solving and decision making.

More ownership of decisions, processes, and changes.

In order for teams to fulfil their intended role of improving organizational effectiveness, it is critical that teams develop into working units that are focused on their goal, mission, or reason for existing. visited on 25 April 2010, Time 9pm

In Sainsbury's under a staff discount scheme, employees receive a 10% reduction on products bought from the company.

Long service awards are given to staff with 15, 25 or 40 years' service.

Impact of technology:

New technologies can improve or either way harms team functioning. Team responsibilities lies in updating and maintaining their knowledge to function in a effective manner..

Technologies have improved team functions via- e-mail, mobile phones, blackberry, groupware and computers

E-mail allows asynchronous communication which means team members do not need to be in the same place at the same time in order to communicate effectively. E-mail also has it's negative aspects in terms of managing e-mail and the misuse of e-mail.

Mobile phones allow teams to communicate even when team members are out of the office, on the road or otherwise unavailable. Sometimes having always access to team members can hinder team functioning.

Phone technologies such as blackberry and 3G data cards allow team members to work and communicate remotely and this out in the field or with clients.

Groupware enables teams to plan meetings, collaborate, delegate all within a virtual environment which can often be accessed remotely from anywhere in the world.

Personal computers allow team members to carry out various tasks and communicate more effectively. Laptop computers allow you to do this anywhere. They are now lighter, more powerful and a longer battery life. Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) now have much of the same functionality as their bigger cousins, but are smaller, more portable and have a longer battery life. Many PDAs now have Wi-Fi as standard and some are also phones (and some phones have many PDA features). visited on 28 April, 2010 Time 9pm

As an example- Sainsbury's Supermarkets employs over 145,000 people. Of these, 60% are part-time and 40% full-time. 62% of employees are women.

Their policy is based on a commitment to:

Provide workplaces where all staff feels valued, respected and able to contribute to the business.

Employ a workforce that recognises the diversity of current and potential customer.

From this above discussion we can see how organization sustain in business by improving its behaviour, its culture, leadership styles, motivation factors and finally improving team or group purposes. If companies want to run successfully in this globalised world they need to perform in every sector effectively and thus can recognized itself as a top tanking companies.


Mullins. L.J (2007), Management and organizational behaviour. 8th edition. Harlow: Prentice Hall Publication, pp-5.

Brown. A. (1998), Organization culture. 2nd Edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, pp-66,67,68. visited on 14 April 2010 time 9pm - Cached - Similar visited on 15 april 2010 time 10 pm. ""cultureHYPERLINK "".shtml visited on 15 April 2010 time 11 pm - Cached - Similar visited on 17 April 2010 time 11.30pm visited on 18 april 2010 time 8 pm ""definitionHYPERLINK ""/HYPERLINK ""motivationHYPERLINK "".html visited on 18 April 2010 time 10 pm › leadership/management visited on 18 April 2010, Time 11pm theory_herzberg visited on 19 April 2010,time 9pm visited on 19 April 2010, Time 10pm

WHYPERLINK "" ""definitionHYPERLINK ""/HYPERLINK ""groupHYPERLINK "".html visited on 20 April 2010, time 10 pm visited on 25 April 2010, Time 9pm visited on 28 April, 2010 Time 9pm