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This study is focused on Organizations and Behavior. It identifies the definitions of organizational structure, culture, approaches to management, leadership, motivational theories, working with others, team works, groups and group dynamics.
Determine the factors might influence the development of culture. Assume and briefly discuss the factors that mightÂ influence the behaviour of LOCOG employees. Consider the magnitude of the organization and the Event while assuming the factors.
Discuss and compare different approaches of classical, neo classical, behavioural, management science , system approaches and identify current major trends in management theories.
Examine the relationship between motivational theories, find implication do the motivational theories have for the manager and different approaches to the study of leadership and discuss how relevant are they in current business environment.
Distinguish between group task roles, group building and maintenance roles and individual roles and describe essential characteristics of a successful work group. And develop effective team relationships, performance and the influences that threaten success.
As a whole when it comes to the whole study area it can be explained that this study covers a vital area of the subject area and it expands the knowledge and skills of a student to discover his or her potential to in the field of studies. The each and every section of the study provides the opportunity to identify and analyze different areas under the field of study in a broader context.
Rather than providing just theoretical knowledge to the student the structure of the study provides a very good framework to get a practical knowledge on the field of study.
Suggest how you would explain the concept of organisational structure and culture
Organisational structure involves arrangement of activities and assignment of personnel to these activities in order to achieve the organisational goals. It is a way by which various parts of an organisation are tied together in a coordinated manner and it illustrates the various relationships among various levels of the hierarchy with in the organisation as well as horizontal relationships among various aspects of the organisational operations. A well planed organisational structure results in the better use of resources.
Organisation is the process of so combining the work, which individuals or groups have to perform with the facilities necessary for its execution, that the duties so performed provide the best channels for the efficient , systematic, positive and coordinated application of the available effort.
A good organisational structure is needed so that
Each individual in the organisation is assigned a role, responsibility and necessary authority . Each person who is assigned to an activity must know his position, his role and his relationship with others . He is further responsible for efficient execution of his role and duties and is given the authority to do so.
The activities of all individuals are coordinated and integrated into a common pattern in order to achieve the organisational objectives. Organisation is needed for the purpose of integration of diverse activities in a cohesive manner.
The optimum use of human skill and efforts is achieved. Half of the work is completed when you know that you have to do and how you have to do it. A good organisation does that. It helps in smooth operations and smooth flow, thus avoiding bottlenecks, idle time and idle machines. A good organisation acquires the right person for the right job and this avoids misapplications of human resources thus resulting in optimal utilisation of employee efforts. This would ensure efficiency in the functioning of the enterprise.
Many organizations haveÂ hierarchical structures, but not all.OrganizationsÂ are a variant ofÂ clustered entities.An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs.Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as theÂ branch,Â department,Â workgroupÂ and individual.Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization's actions.
Organizational structure types
Pre-bureaucratic (entrepreneurial) structures lackÂ standardizationÂ of tasks. This structure is most common in smaller organizations and is best used to solve simple tasks. The structure is totally centralized. The strategic leader makes all key decisions and most communication is done by one on one conversations. It is particularly useful for new (entrepreneurial) business as it enables the founder to control growth and development.
They are usually based onÂ traditional dominationÂ orÂ charismatic dominationÂ in the sense ofÂ Max Weber'sÂ tripartite classification of authority.
Weber (1948, p.Â 214) gives the analogy that "the fully developed bureaucratic mechanism compares with other organizations exactly as does the machine compare with the non-mechanical modes of production. Precision, speed, unambiguity, â€¦ strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs- these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration. BureaucraticÂ structures have a certain degree of standardization. They are better suited for more complex or larger scale organizations. They usually adopt a tall structure. Then tension between bureaucratic structures and non-bureaucratic is echoed in Burns and StalkerÂ distinction between mechanistic and organic structures. It is not the entire thing about bureaucratic structure. It is very much complex and useful for hierarchical structures organization, mostly in tall organizations.
Post bureaucratic is used in two senses in the organizational literature: one generic and one much more specific. In the generic sense the term post bureaucratic is often used to describe a range of ideas developed since the 1980s that specifically contrast themselves with Weber's ideal typeÂ bureaucracy. This may includeÂ total quality management, culture managementÂ andÂ matrix management, amongst others. None of these however has left behind the core tenets of Bureaucracy. Hierarchies still exist, authority is still Weber's rational, legal type, and the organization is still rule bound. Huckster, arguing along these lines, describes them as cleaned up bureaucraciesÂ rather than a fundamental shift away from bureaucracy. Gideon Kaunda, in his classic study of culture management at 'Tech' argued that 'the essence of bureaucratic control - the formalization, codification and enforcement of rules and regulations - does not change in principle.....it shifts focus from organizational structure to the organization's culture'.
Another smaller group of theorists have developed the theory of the Post-Bureaucratic Organization. provide a detailed discussion which attempts to describe an organization that is fundamentally not bureaucratic.Â Charles HeckscherÂ has developed an ideal type, the post-bureaucratic organization, in which decisions are based on dialogue and consensus rather than authority and command, the organization is a network rather than a hierarchy, open at the boundaries (in direct contrast to culture management); there is an emphasis on meta-decision making rules rather than decision making rules. This sort of horizontal decision making byÂ consensusÂ model is often used inÂ housing cooperatives, otherÂ cooperativesÂ and when running anon-profitÂ orÂ community organization. It is used in order to encourageÂ participationÂ and help toÂ empowerÂ people who normally experienceÂ oppressionÂ in groups.
Still other theorists are developing a resurgence of interest inÂ complexity theory and organizations, and have focused on how simple structures can be used to engender organizational adaptations. For instance, MinerÂ et al.Â (2000) studied how simple structures could be used to generate improvisational outcomes in product development. Their study makes links to simple structures and improvises al learning. Other scholars such as Jan Rivkin and Sigglekow, and Nelson RepenningÂ Â revive an older interest in how structure and strategy relate in dynamic environments.
Employees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a specialized set of tasks, for instance the engineering department would be staffed only with software engineers. This leads to operational efficiencies within that group. However it could also lead to a lack of communication between the functional groups within an organization, making the organization slow and inflexible.
As a whole, a functional organization is best suited as a producer of standardized goods and services at large volume and low cost. Coordination and specialization of tasks are centralized in a functional structure, which makes producing a limited amount of products or services efficient and predictable. Moreover, efficiencies can further be realized as functional organizations integrate their activities vertically so that products are sold and distributed quickly and at low costÂ For instance, a small business could start making the components it requires for production of its products instead of procuring it from an external organization. But not only beneficial for organization but also for employees faiths.
Product / Market structure
Also called a "divisional structure", the divisional structure groups each organizational function into a division. Each division within a divisional structure contains all the necessary resources and functions within it. Divisions can be categorized from different points of view. One might make distinctions on a geographical basis (a US division and an EU division, for example) or on product/service basis (different products for different customers: households or companies). In another example, an automobileÂ companyÂ with a divisional structure might have one division for SUVs, another division for subcompact cars, and another division for sedans.
Each division may have its own sales, engineering and marketing departments.
TheÂ matrix structureÂ groups employees by both function and product. This structure can combine the best of both separate structures. A matrix organization frequently uses teams of employees to accomplish work, in order to take advantage of the strengths, as well as make up for the weaknesses, of functional and decentralized forms. An example would be a company that produces two products, "product a" and "product b". Using the matrix structure, this company would organize functions within the company as follows: "product a" sales department, "product a" customer service department, "product a" accounting, "product b" sales department, "product b" customer service department, "product b" accounting department. Matrix structure is amongst the purest of organizational structures, a simple lattice emulating order and regularity demonstrated in nature.
Weak/Functional Matrix:Â A project manager with only limited authority is assigned to oversee the cross- functional aspects of theÂ project. The functional managers maintain control over their resources and project areas.
Balanced/Functional Matrix:Â A project manager is assigned to oversee the project. Power is shared equally between the project manager and the functional managers. It brings the best aspects of functional and projectized organizations. However, this is the most difficult system to maintain as the sharing power is delicate proposition.
Strong/Project Matrix:Â AÂ project managerÂ is primarily responsible for the project. Functional managers provide technical expertise and assign resources as needed.
Among these matrixes, there is no best format; implementation success always depends on organization's purpose and function.
Strategic Business Units - SBUs
As corporations become very large they often restructure as a means of revitalizing the organization. Growth of a business often is accompanied by a growth in bureaucracy, as positions are created to facilitate developing needs or opportunities. Continued changes in the organization or in the external business environment may make this bureaucracy a hindrance rather than a help, not simply because of the size or complexity of the organization but also because of a sluggish bureaucratic way of thinking. One approach to encourage new ways of thinking and acting is to reorganize parts of the company into largely autonomous groups, called strategic business units (SBUs). Such units generally are set up like separate companies, with full profit and loss responsibility invested in the top management of the unit-often the president of the unit and/or a senior vice president of the larger corporation. This manager is responsible to the top management of the corporation. This arrangement can be seen as taking any of the aforementioned departmentalization schemes one step further. The SBUs might be based on product lines, geographic markets, or other differentiating factors. Figure 4 depicts SBUs organized by geographic area.
The organizational culture is a system of shared beliefs and attitudes that develop within an organization and guides the behaviour of its members. It is also know as corporate culture , and has a major impact on the performance on the organizations and specially on the quality of work life experienced by the employees at all levels of the organizational hierarchy. The corporate culture consists of norms, values and unwritten rules of conduct of an organization as well as management styles , priorities , beliefs and inter personnel behaviours that prevail. Together they create a climate that influences how well people communicate , plan and make decisions . Strong corporate values let people know what is expected of them. There are clear guidelines as to how employees are to behave generally with in the organization and their expected code of conduct outside the organization. Also, if the employees understand the basic philosophy of the organization, then they are more likely to make decisions that will support these standards set by the organization and reinforce corporate values.
There are three levels of culture,
Observable artifacts of culture
These are the symbols of the culture in the physical and social work environment and are most visible and accessible .
Values are the second and the deeper level of culture and are reflected in the way individuals actually behave .Values reflect a person s underlying belief as to what should be and what should not be. Values are those principles and qualities that shape our thinking and behavior.
These are at the deepest and most fundamental level of cultural diagnosis. These are deeply held beliefs which are not objectively observable but manifest themselves in the behaviour of people so strongly that any violation of such beliefs would be unthinkable.
What factors might influence the development of culture at LOCOG?
The main influence for the development of culture is People. Some may also contribute which includes religion and believes and National identity.
Another great influence on culture is geography.Â Cultural development is often a function of in what part of the world a culture is situated.
Assume and briefly discuss the factors that mightÂ influence the behaviour of LOCOG employees. Consider the magnitude of the organization and the Event while assuming the factors.
There are two factors that have direct bearing on human behaviour. One is the person himself with regard to some characteristics that he is born with or he acquires because of his family value influences. Second is the environment to which the person is exposed and the environmental forces that are constantly impacting his personality and behaviour . Both these factors are interlinked so that behaviour cannot be explained in itself by either of the two factors , independent of the other factor . Intention; environmental constraints; skills; anticipated outcomes (or attitude); norms; self-standards;
emotion; and self-efficacy are some of factors that influence the behaviour in LOCOG.
Discuss and compare different approaches of management and identify current major trends in management theories.
Early beginning of management can found Scientific Management or Taylorism, sine F.W.Taylor and his follower found this approach(1890-1930).
His theory was one of control and co ordination. Increase in production , manager should take the control of the whole process. Under this approach ,the main fields that mostly concerned are Standardization, Time and Task study, Systematic selection and training , pay incentives.
Neo classic approach is considering the increase of the productivity to direct by using of principles and skills. Henry Fayol was the key involver to find this approach and Max Weber & Marry Parker were contributing their strength to enhance his approach. Henry Fayol was the introducer of about structured managerial behaviour. But the T aylor considered only about the company activities. But Fayol considered about the whole process of the company. Under this approach he introduce fourteen universal principles. Division of labour, Authority, Discipline ,unity of command ,unity of direction, subordination of individual interest to the common goal, remuneration, centralization, hierarchy, order, equity, stability of staff, initiative ness, esprit de corps. He categorised managers duty into five main sections they are planning, organising, commanding, co-ordinating and controlling . All these are very essential for the success of a manager and also he divide activities of a company.(Technical, Commercial , Financial, Security and Managerial) .
Under this approach the organization is people. In the classical approach unable to reach the productivity and harmony therefore the reason to become this behavioural approach. Under this approach there are sub two approaches. Human relations approach and behavioural approach .
Management Science approach
Also called a Quantitative approach . Since the World War II, Operations Research and quantitative techniques overshadowed the management scene. Optimization of resources was the key word since then. New technological tools, transportation and communication, modeling, analysis and mathematical techniques were used to solve managerial problems. Some shift towards optimum product/operations management and information system (MIS) were observed in later phase.
It's a concept which views a company as an interconnected purposive system that consists of several business sections. It is a management approach which enables theÂ leadershipÂ to see the company as a unified part or a major section of the larger outside corporate environment. Even a small activity in a part has a substantial effect on other sections in the company.
When describe system approach there are some main concepts that important for the managers , subsystems, open systems and close systems, synergy, system boundary, flow , feedback.
Also called as Contingency approach. Under this approach no one /best way to management. So the managers have to understand the relationships between situations ,activities and results. The most concerned persons of this approach are the researches, consultants and managers. Managers have always asked questions such as "What is the right thing to do? Should we have a mechanistic or an organic structure? A functional or divisional structure? Wide or narrow spans of management?Â heÂ contingencyÂ approach to management assumes that there is no universal answer to such questions because organizations, people, and situationsÂ vary and change over time. Thus, the right thing to do depends on a complex variety of critical environmental and internal contingencies.
The current major trends in management theories are ,
Small Business Management
Managing Information Technology
Total Quality Management
Distinguish between different approaches to the study of leadership and discuss how relevant are they in current business environment.
There is a difference in ways leaders approach their employee. Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, independence, etc. to motivate employees. While negative employers emphasize penalties. While the negative approach has a place in a leader's repertoire of tools, it must be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit.
Negative leaders act domineering and superior with people. They believe the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay, reprimanding employees in front of others, etc. They believe their authority is increased by frightening everyone into higher levels of productivity. Yet what always happens when this approach is used wrongly is that morale falls; which of course leads to lower productivity.
Also note that most leaders do not strictly use one or another, but are somewhere on a continuum ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative. People who continuously work out of the negative are bosses while those who primarily work out of the positive are considered real leaders.
ConsiderationÂ (employee orientation) - leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees. They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support.
StructureÂ (task orientation) - leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce.
There is evidence that leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their jobÂ .
Also notice that consideration and structure are independent of each other, thus they should not be viewed on opposite ends of a continuum. For example, a leader who becomes more considerate, does not necessarily mean that she has become less structured.
As a good leader you will be continually scanning for macro factors in your daily life, activities such as watching or reading the news, reading management magazines and when in conversation with other industry leaders will all lead to a greater understanding of the macro environment. In addition there are a number of things you can do to improve the depth of your understanding of the macro environment.
Networking with senior leaders in your industry
Networking with political parities
Source strategic analysis information prepared for your industry typically by a third party provider (Normally through subscription)
Read the financial papers
Read management magazines
Surf the Web for trends
Explain different motivational theories and their application within LOCOG.
Abraham Maslow theory built the needs in order of priority into a hierarchy. The most fundamental needs being physiological needs such as food, clothing, shelter and so on. Then in order came the needs for safety and security, love and affection, need for respect and self-esteem and finally the self-actualization need which is considered to be the ultimate fulfillment of life. Management can motivate workers by identifying their need level and taking steps in fulfill these need.
ERG theory, developed by Clayton Alderfer, condenses the five needs proposed by Maslow into three and ERG stands for existence, relatedness, and growth. The existence needs are roughly comparable to physiological and safety needs of Maslows model and are satisfied primarily by material incentives. Relatedness needs roughly correspond to social and self-esteem needs and finally, the growth needs are similar to primarily self-actualization needs and partially to esteem needs .
McClellands theory of needs is based upon the premise that lower level needs in Maslows model are generally take care of by business , societal and legal systems and hence are no longer motivators. According to this theory , the most prominent need from organizational behaviour point of view is the need for achievement , power and affiliation. The individuals with a high degree of need for achievement , power and affiliation are highly motivated to move towards fulfilling these needs at the highest levels.
Herzbergs two factor theory classifies all the work related factors into two categories. First category contains factors that are known as hygiene factors. These factors prevent dissatisfaction but don't motivate . Some of these factors are ;wages and other benefits, working conditions , organizational rules and polices, cordial relations with peers and superiors , job security and so on. These factors are designed to avoid damage to efficiency or morale and are not expected to stimulate positive growth. Motivational factors on the other hand have a positive influence on morale, satisfaction, efficiency and higher productivity. These are the types of job one enjoys, recognition for employee input and performance , a feeling of accomplishment, increase responsibility and authority and growth and advancement with the organization.
What implications do the motivational theories have for the managers.
If Maslow's theory holds, there are some important implications for management. There areÂ opportunities to motivate employeesÂ through management style, job design, company events, and compensation packages, some examples of which follow:
Physiological needs:Â Provide lunch breaks, rest breaks, and wagesÂ that are sufficient to purchase the essentials of life.
Safety Needs: Provide a safe working environment, retirement benefits, and job security.
Social Needs:Â Create a sense of community via team-based projects and social events.
Esteem Needs:Â Recognize achievements to make employees feel appreciated and valued. Offer job titles that convey the importance of the position.
Self-Actualization:Â Provide employees a challenge and the opportunity to reach their full career potential.
If the ERG theory holds, then unlike with Maslow's theory, managers must recognize thatÂ an employee has multiple needs to satisfy simultaneously. Furthermore, if growth opportunities are not provided to employees, they may regress to relatedness needs. If the manager is able to recognize this situation, then steps can be taken to concentrate on relatedness needs until the subordinate is able to pursue growth again.
Distinguish between group task roles, group building and maintenance roles and individual roles. Give examples for each of these.
Group task roles are roles that help a group develop and accomplish its goals.
These functions are required in selecting and carrying out a group task. They are primarily positive, but can be overused.
â€¢The initiator suggests or proposes new ideas or new ways of regarding the group problems or goals.
â€¢The information seeker may ask for clarifi cation of suggestions, information and facts.
â€¢The opinion seeker asks primarily for the opinions of other group members or for clarifi cation of opinions already stated.
â€¢The information giver offers facts or generalizations that are "authoritarian." He or she may relate his or her own pertinent, personal experience.
Group building and Maintenance roles are required to build and maintain the group itself. They are most often positive and productive.
â€¢The encourager praises, agrees with and accepts the contributions of others.
â€¢The harmonizer mediates differences.
â€¢The gate-keeper and expediter attempt to keep communication channels open by encouraging or facilitating participation of others.
â€¢The standard setter expresses standards for the group to attempt to achieve.
Individual roles Focus is to prevent group from reaching goals; to disrupt
Aggressor: Acts antagonistic towards other group members and their ideas
"Playing desert survival is the dumbest idea I've ever heard."
Dominator: Monopolizes group speaking time
Interrupting-"I'm going to tell you the six reasons why this is a bad idea."
Blocker: Refuses to cooperate with other's ideas
"I refuse to play Desert Survival."
Describe essential characteristics of a successful work group or team. As a manager explain how you would develop effective team relationships, performance and the influences that threaten success.
Leadership roles - The formal leader of a team is usually appointed. Informal leaders on the other hand , tend to emerge gradually as group members interact . The man or woman who speaks up more than the others, who offers more and better suggestions than anyone else or who gives direction to the groups activities usually becomes the informal leaders. This occurs not just in formal groups , but even in formal groups , where such a self confident, assertive individual way develop into a rival of the formally chosen leader, thereby weakening the leaders hold on team members .
Team norms- Overtime group members form norms expectations about how they and the other members will behave. Some of these norms are carried over from society in general, such as dressing properly for work or showing up on time. Others are particular to the group and its special goals, such as questioning traditional ideas in a task group charged with launching a new product.
Team Cohesiveness- This of a team is an important indicator of how much influence the group has over its individual members. The more cohesive the group the more strongly members feel about belonging to it the greater its influence. If the members of the group feel strongly attached to it , they are not likely to violate its norms. It also plays a role in small companies . Its critical in helping individual feel good about his or her contribution to the efforts.
Effective work relationships form the cornerstone for success and satisfaction with your job and your career.Â Effective work relationships form the basis for promotion, pay increases, goal accomplishment, and job satisfaction. To be successful at any endeavor, manager must be committed to success. The manager must monitoring their own work to make sure it is in alignment with the goals and objectives of the team. The managers must provide a positive outlook to meetings and tasks. Team member must be able to do your own work well.Â
The manager would develop team performance by Team Dynamics, Team Effectiveness and Team Building. Manager listen carefully to your needs and build with you the right programs that will ensure all your teams deliver high performance.
When managers influence team members, we are creating a desire to change the thoughts, beliefs, and actions of those we lead.
Discuss the impact of technology on a team functioning within the Olympic organisation.
We can found some of team functions that impact of technology on a team with in the Olympic organization . They are Absence of Trust/Building Trust, Fear of Conflict/Mastering Conflict , Lack of Commitment/Achieving Commitment, Avoidance Accountability/Embracing Accountability, Inattention to Results/Focusing on Results .
Above each function builds on the previous one - a team that trusts each other can master productive conflict which leads to the ability to commit the decisions and hold each other accountable for commitments. Then finally, teams that hold one another accountable for commitments and behavior are able to focus on getting the results they need to meet their mission successfully.Â
This study covers a wide area on organizations and Behaviour. It identifies, examine , discuss, distinguishing the organizational structure, culture, approaches to management, leadership, motivational theories, working with others, team works, groups and group dynamics.
Under this study of organizations and behavior we can learn and can get more knowledge as a manager, how to manage an organizations, can feel behavior of workers and how to control the whole organization in a successful manner.
As a whole this study provides a good knowledge in the organizations and Behaviour. While providing the opportunity to get more practical knowledge on the subject area.