ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS IS DETERMINED BY THE QUALITY OF LEADERSHIP

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INTRODUCTION

LEADING

ORGANIZATIONAL SUCCESS IS DETERMINED BY THE QUALITY OF LEADERSHIP THAT IS EXHIBITED. "A LEADER CAN BE A MANAGER, BUT A MANAGER IS NOT NECESSARILY A LEADER," SAYS GEMMY ALLEN (1998). LEADERSHIP IS THE POWER OF PERSUASION OF ONE PERSON OVER OTHERS TO INSPIRE ACTIONS TOWARDS ACHIEVING THE GOALS OF THE COMPANY. THOSE IN THE LEADERSHIP ROLE MUST BE ABLE TO INFLUENCE/MOTIVATE WORKERS TO AN ELEVATED GOAL AND DIRECT THEMSELVES TO THE DUTIES OR RESPONSIBILITIES ASSIGNED DURING THE PLANNING PROCESS. (ALLEN, G., 1998). LEADERSHIP INVOLVES THE INTERPERSONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF A MANAGER'S POSITION THAT INCLUDES COMMUNICATION AND CLOSE CONTACT WITH TEAM MEMBERS. (BATEMAN, SNELL, 2007).

LEADING INVOLVES INFLUENCING OTHERS TOWARD THE ATTAINMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES. EFFECTIVE LEADING REQUIRES THE MANAGER TO MOTIVATE SUBORDINATES, COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY, AND EFFECTIVELY USE POWER. IF MANAGERS ARE EFFECTIVE LEADERS, THEIR SUBORDINATES WILL BE ENTHUSIASTIC ABOUT EXERTING EFFORT TOWARD THE ATTAINMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES.

TO BECOME EFFECTIVE AT LEADING, MANAGERS MUST FIRST UNDERSTAND THEIR SUBORDINATES' PERSONALITIES, VALUES, ATTITUDES, AND EMOTIONS. THEREFORE, THE BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES HAVE MADE MANY CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THIS FUNCTION OF MANAGEMENT. PERSONALITY RESEARCH AND STUDIES OF JOB ATTITUDES PROVIDE IMPORTANT INFORMATION AS TO HOW MANAGERS CAN MOST EFFECTIVELY LEAD SUBORDINATES.

STUDIES OF MOTIVATION AND MOTIVATION THEORY PROVIDE IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT THE WAYS IN WHICH WORKERS CAN BE ENERGIZED TO PUT FORTH PRODUCTIVE EFFORT. STUDIES OF COMMUNICATION PROVIDE DIRECTION AS TO HOW MANAGERS CAN EFFECTIVELY AND PERSUASIVELY COMMUNICATE. STUDIES OF LEADERSHIP AND LEADERSHIP STYLE PROVIDE INFORMATION REGARDING QUESTIONS SUCH AS, "WHAT MAKES A MANAGER A GOOD LEADER?" AND "IN WHAT SITUATIONS ARE CERTAIN LEADERSHIP STYLES MOST APPROPRIATE AND EFFECTIVE?"

LEADERSHIP THEORY

INCREASED INTEREST IN LEADERSHIP IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. EARLY LEADERSHIP THEORIES FOCUSED ON WHAT CHARACTERISTICS DISTINGUISH BETWEEN LEADERS AND FOLLOWERS, WHILE SUBSEQUENT THEORIES HAVE SEEN THE OTHER VARIABLES SUCH AS SITUATIONAL FACTORS AND LEVELS. WHILE MANY DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP THEORIES HAVE EMERGED, MOST OF THEM CAN BE REGARDED AS ONE OF THE EIGHT MAIN TYPES:

1 "BIG MAN" THEORY:

GREAT MAN THEORY ASSUMES THAT LEADERSHIP CAPABILITY IS INHERENT - THAT GREAT LEADERS ARE BORN, NOT MADE. THESE THEORIES ARE OFTEN DESCRIBED AS A GREAT LEADER OF THE HEROIC, MYTHIC, AND DESTINED TO RISE TO LEADERSHIP WHEN NEEDED. "THE BIG" AS THE TERM USED AT THAT TIME WAS REGARDED AS HUMAN BEINGS, ESPECIALLY HIGH LEADERSHIP, ESPECIALLY IN CONNECTION WITH THE MILITARY LEADERSHIP. MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE GREAT MAN THEORY OF LEADERSHIP.

2 PULL THEORY:

THEORY SIMILAR IN SOME THINGS THAT "BIG MEN" THEORY, ASSUMING THAT THE PULL OF THOSE WHO INHERIT A CERTAIN QUALITY AND CHARACTERISTICS THAT MAKE THEM BETTER SUITED TO LEAD. PULL THEORIES OFTEN IDENTIFY PARTICULAR PERSONALITY OR BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS SHARED BY THE LEADERS. IF SPECIAL FEATURES ARE AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF LEADERSHIP, SO HOW DO WE EXPLAIN TO PEOPLE WHO HAVE THESE QUALITIES, BUT NOT A LEADER? THIS QUESTION IS ONE OF THE PROBLEMS WITH THEORIES TO EXPLAIN THE DRAG LINES.

3 CONTINGENCY THEORY:

CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP FOCUS ON PARTICULAR VARIABLES RELATED TO THE ENVIRONMENT, WHICH CAN DETERMINE A PARTICULAR LEADERSHIP STYLE IS BEST FOR YOUR SITUATION. ACCORDING TO THIS THEORY, NO LEADERSHIP STYLE IS BEST IN ALL SITUATIONS. SUCCESS DEPENDS ON SEVERAL VARIABLES, INCLUDING MANAGEMENT STYLE, QUALITY AND SUPPORT ASPECTS OF THE SITUATION.

4 SITUATIONAL THEORY:

SITUATIONAL THEORIES PROPOSE THAT LEADERS CHOOSE THE BEST APPROACH IS BASED ON SITUATIONAL VARIABLES. DIFFERENT LEADERSHIP STYLES MAY BE MORE APPROPRIATE FOR CERTAIN TYPES OF DECISIONS.

5 THEORY OF BEHAVIOUR

BEHAVIOUR THEORY OF LEADERSHIP BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT GREAT LEADERS ARE MADE, NOT BORN. ROOTED IN BEHAVIOURISM, THIS LEADERSHIP THEORY FOCUSES NOT ON THE MEASUREMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OR INTERNAL STATE. ACCORDING TO THIS THEORY, PEOPLE CAN LEARN TO BECOME LEADERS THROUGH TEACHING AND OBSERVATION.

6 PARTICIPATORY THEORIES:

PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP THEORY SHOWS THAT THE IDEAL LEADERSHIP STYLE IS ONE THAT WILL TAKE INPUT FROM OTHER REASONS. THE LEADERS ENCOURAGE PARTICIPATION AND CONTRIBUTIONS FROM GROUP MEMBERS AND HELP GROUP MEMBERS FEEL MORE RELEVANT AND MORE INVOLVED IN DECISION-MAKING. IN PARTICIPATIVE THEORIES, HOWEVER, RESERVE THE RIGHT LEADER TO ALLOW AN ADDITIONAL INSERT.

7 THE THEORY OF MANAGEMENT:

MANAGEMENT THEORY, ALSO KNOWN AS THE THEORY OF TRANSACTIONAL, FOCUSING ON THE ROLE OF SUPERVISION, ORGANIZATION AND GROUP PERFORMANCE. THIS IS THE BASIC THEORY OF LEADERSHIP IN THE SYSTEM OF REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS. THEORIES ARE OFTEN USED IN BUSINESS, AND WHEN WORKERS SUCCEED, MUCH APPRECIATED WHEN THEY FAIL, THEY ARE SCOLDED OR PUNISHED. READ MORE ABOUT THE THEORY OF TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP.

8 RELATIONS THEORY:

RELATIONS THEORY, ALSO KNOWN AS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES FOCUS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERS AND FOLLOWERS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS MOTIVATE AND INSPIRE PEOPLE BY HELPING GROUP MEMBERS SEE IT IS IMPORTANT AND GOOD FOR THE UNIT TASK. THE MANAGER IS FOCUSED ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE GROUP, BUT ALSO WANTS ALL PEOPLE TO FULFIL THEIR POTENTIAL. LEADERS WITH THIS STYLE OFTEN HAVE A STANDARD OF HIGH ETHICAL AND MORAL.

HTTP://PSYCHOLOGY.ABOUT.COM/OD/LEADERSHIP/P/LEADTHEORIES.HTM

FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP:

1986: MCGRATH, 1962) IS A THEORY THAT IS USEFUL TO REVIEW CERTAIN LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOURS NECESSARY TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATION OR UNIT. THIS THEORY BELIEVES THAT THE MAIN TASK OF MANAGERS IS TO SEE THAT IT IS NECESSARY TO MANAGE THE REQUIREMENTS, AND AS SUCH A LEADER IS SAID TO HAVE DONE A GOOD JOB WHEN THEY HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE EFFECTIVENESS AND COHESION GROUPS (FLEISHMAN ET AL., 1991 HICKMAN &WAGEMANN, 2005 HACKMAN & WALTON, 1986).

A NUMBER OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR IS EXPECTED TO FACILITATE THESE FUNCTIONS. PRELIMINARY WORK TO IDENTIFY THE MANAGEMENT BEHAVIOURS, FLEISHMAN (1953) OBSERVED THAT SUBORDINATES PERCEIVED THEIR SUPERVISORS TO DO IN THE TWO CATEGORIES MENTIONED EARLIER AND STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS. CARE INCLUDES BEHAVIOURS THAT ARE INVOLVED IN PROMOTING AN EFFECTIVE RELATIONSHIP.

LEADERSHIP IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENTS OF THE ORGANIZATIONAL FRAMEWORK. HOWEVER, DEFINING LEADERSHIP IS A CHALLENGE. STODGILY LED THE LITERATURE REVIEW THAT "THERE ARE

ALMOST AS MANY DEFINITIONS OF LEADERSHIP AS THERE ARE PEOPLE WHO HAVE TRIED TO DEFINE THOSE TERMS. DESPITE THE FACT THAT LEADERSHIP IS A TERM WIDELY USED, PROVIDING LEADERSHIP IN THE CONCRETE CAN BE DIFFICULT MAY CAUSE A LARGE NUMBER OF DEFINITIONS.

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP 

HYPOTHESIS

THE BEST ACTION IS DEPENDENT ON A NUMBER OF SITUATIONAL FACTORS LEADING.

STYLE

A DECISION IS REQUIRED, AND THEN A LEADER IS NOT ONLY EFFECTIVE WITHIN A SINGLE STYLE, USING THE METHOD OF THE TRANSACTION OR THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATION. IN PRACTICE, THINGS ARE NOT SO EASILY HAVING SAID.

AMONG THE SITUATIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE DECISIONS IN FAVOUR OF THE ABILITY AND MOTIVATION.

THIS, IN TURN, INFLUENCE FACTORS, ESPECIALLY THE STATE. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOLLOWERS AND THE LEADER MAY BE ANOTHER FACTOR INFLUENCING THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE LEADER BEHAVIOUR AS MUCH AS THE FOLLOWER.

AND STATE LEADERS BELIEVE THAT A FOLLOWER AND DO NOT AFFECT THE STATUS THAN THE TRUTH. MANAGER SELF-PERCEPTION AND OTHER FACTORS SUCH AS STRESS AND MOOD CHANGE IN THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE LEADER.

YULE (1989) ATTEMPTS TO COMBINE DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE, AND IDENTIFIES SIX VARIABLES:

• DEPENDENT ON THE EFFORT: MOTIVATION AND EFFORT SPENT EFFECTIVELY.

• POWERS AND DUTIES UNDER THE LIGHT: WHAT FANS SEES AND DO KNOW HOW TO DO IT.

STRUCTURE AND USE OF RESOURCES: • WORK INSTITUTE.

• CO-OPERATION AND COHERENCE: A GROUP WORKING TOGETHER.

• RESOURCES AND SUPPORT: TOOLS, MATERIALS, ETC. AVAILABLE TO PEOPLE

• EXTERNAL COORDINATION: THE NEED COLLABORATION WITH OTHER GROUPS.

LEADERS HERE FACTORS SUCH AS LABOUR RELATIONS, ACCESS TO EXTERNAL RESOURCES, REQUIREMENTS AND MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE AND CULTURE OF THE GROUP MANAGEMENT TEAM.

DISCUSSION

TANNENBAUM AND SCHMIDT (1958) IDENTIFIED THREE FORCES THAT LED THE LEADER IN ACTION: THE STATE OF THE FORCES, FOLLOWERS AND THE LEADER OF THE FORCES OF STRENGTH. MANAGEMENT STYLE IS SEEN VERY VARIABLE, AND ARGUMENT AS WELL AS FAMILY ACTIVITIES CAN OFFSET MORE THAN USUAL, AN ARGUMENT IN A MORE AGGRESSIVE ATTITUDE TO THE EXTENT SUCH EVENTS.

MAIER (1963) HIGHLIGHT THE ADMINISTRATOR ACCOUNT IS NOT ONLY A FOLLOWER OF THE GENERAL IMPORTANCE OF A PROPOSAL TO TAKE THE RISK OF THINGS. THEREFORE, THE DIRECTIVE STYLE IS PROBABLY THE LEADER IN A CRITICAL STATE, SIMPLY BECAUSE THE CONSEQUENCES OF FAILURE.

HTTP://CHANGINGMINDS.ORG/DISCIPLINES/LEADERSHIP/STYLES/SITUATIONAL_LEADERSHIP.HTM

TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP

CORE TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP LIES IN THE IDEA THAT THE LEADER WHO HELD POWER AND CONTROL OVER ITS EMPLOYEES, OR DISCIPLE, GIVE ENCOURAGEMENT TO THE DISCIPLES THAT THE LEADER WANTS. HENCE THE IDEA THAT IF AN EMPLOYEE IS WILLING, A TRIBUTE WILL FOLLOW AND IF AN EMPLOYEE IS NOT A PUNISHMENT OR REWARD FOR KEEPING THE END.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERS AND EMPLOYEES ARE "TRADING" - I WILL GIVE YOU IF YOU DO THIS, WHERE THE LEADER REWARDS OR CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT.

IN ADDITION, CONTINGENT REWARD LEADERSHIP TRANSACTIONS SAID: "MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION", MEANING THAT THE IDEA THAT THEY ARE LESS INTERESTED IN CHANGING OR TRANSFORMING THE ENVIRONMENT, OR PEOPLE, BUT TRY EVERYTHING CONSTANT HOLDING, EXCEPT WHERE THE PROBLEMS ARISE (AS A LACK OF GOAL).

WHILE COMMON LEADERSHIP TRANSACTION DEPENDS ON A SERIES OF ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT HUMANS, WHAT MOTIVATES THEM AND HOW ORGANIZATIONS WORK TODAY, THEY SEE IT AS THE OBVIOUS WRONG, INACCURATE OR FALSE. FOR EXAMPLE, WE KNOW THE EFFECT OF REWARD AND PUNISHMENT RESULTS IN COST "EFFECTS, BECAUSE THEY TEND TO USE REWARDS GREATER AND GREATER REWARDS TO THE VALUE OF THE TIME REQUIREMENT REMAINS IN FORCE. WE ALSO KNOW THAT BUILDING LOYALTY (LEADER) REQUIRES MORE THAN DISPENSING REWARDED.

IF ONE WERE CHARACTERIZED TRANSACTIONS LEADERSHIP, WAS A LINK IN THE BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH TO HUMAN FUNCTIONING, AN APPROACH NOT WITHOUT VALUE, BUT VERY INCOMPLETE. ALSO, THE TRANSACTION "LEADERS" REALLY FOCUSED LESS ON WHAT WE USUALLY REFER TO AS LEADERSHIP, AND MORE ON "GOVERNANCE" - ESPECIALLY THE MANAGEMENT OF REWARD AND PUNISHMENT.

OPPONENT, OR AGAINST THE LEADERSHIP OF TRANSACTIONS ARE CALLED "TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP."

HTTP://WORK911.COM/LEADERSHIP-DEVELOPMENT/FAQ/TRANSACTIONAL.HTM

THE THREE FACTORS OF LEADERSHIP MOTIVATION

BY BRENT FILSON

         

LEADERS NOTHING MORE IMPORTANT THAN GETTING RESULTS. BUT YOU CANNOT JUST RESULTS. YOU NEED SOMEONE TO HELP YOU. AND THE BEST WAY TO GET OTHER PEOPLE TO RESULTS IS NOT ORDERED THEM, BUT MOTIVATE. BUT MANY MANAGERS FAIL TO MOTIVATE PEOPLE TO ACHIEVE RESULTS, BECAUSE THE LEADERS MISUNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT AND APPLICATIONS OF MOTIVATION.

                 

TO UNDERSTAND THE MOTIVATION AND USE THEM EVERY DAY, LET'S UNDERSTAND ITS THREE CRITICAL FACTORS. KNOWLEDGE OF THESE FACTORS AND THEY IMPROVE IN ACTION TOO MUCH ON YOUR ABILITY TO MANAGE FOR RESULTS.

                  

1. MOTIVATION IS PHYSICAL CASE.

                                     

"MOTIVATION" COMMON ROOTS WITH "MOTOR", "DYNAMIC", "PRACTICE," "MOBILE", ETC. HAS - ALL WORDS USED TO DESCRIBE MOVEMENT, PHYSICAL ACTION. A KEY ELEMENT OF MOTIVATION IS PHYSICAL ACTION. MOTIVATION IS NOT WHAT PEOPLE THINK OR FEEL, BUT WHAT THEY DO PHYSICALLY. WHEN MOTIVATING PEOPLE TO ACHIEVE RESULTS REQUIRE IT TO TAKE PLACE ON THOSE MEASURES TO ACHIEVE THESE RESULTS WILL BE.

                          

2. MOTIVATION IS DRIVEN BY EMOTIONS.

                     

EMOTION AND MOTION COME FROM THE SAME LATIN ROOT MEANING "TO MOVE". IF YOU WANT TO MOVE PEOPLE TO ACTION, ENGAGE THEIR EMOTIONS. AN ACTION MOTIVATION IS AN ACT OF EMOTION. IN ALL STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ENDEAVOURS, MAKE SURE THAT THE PEOPLE A STRONG EMOTIONAL COMMITMENT TO THE ATTAINMENT HAVE.

                       

3. MOTIVATION IS NOT WHAT WE DO. THAT'S WHAT PEOPLE DO FOR THEMSELVES.

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IS NOT AN ACCURATE REPRESENTATION OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL TRUTH OF

MOTIVATION. THE TRUTH IS THAT WE CANNOT MOTIVATE SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING. THE PEOPLE WE WANT TO MOTIVATE CAN ONLY MOTIVATE THEMSELVES. THE MOTIVATE MOTIVATOR AND IS ALWAYS THE SAME PERSON. WE AS LEADERS COMMUNICATE, TO MOTIVATE. SO OUR "MOTIVATING" OTHERS TO GET RESULTS REALLY ENTAILS BRINGING OUR CREATION OF AN ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THEY MOTIVATE THEMSELVES TO GET THOSE RESULTS.

                         

HTTP://WWW.SILICONFAREAST.COM/LEADERSHIP-MOTIVATION.HTM

CONCLUSION

AS MENTIONED, WE BELIEVE THAT GREATER EMPHASIS ON INTEGRATING RESEARCH INTO LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION CAN FACILITATE THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE IMPACT OF CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP. WE PROPOSED IN THIS PAPER THAT TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IS AN IMPORTANT FACTOR IN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION, AND WE PRESENT A MODEL THAT DEFINES MECHANISMS THROUGH WHICH THE INFLUENCE OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IS THE REALITY. IN OUR VIEW, THIS DOCUMENT WILL HELP RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS TO STIMULATE FURTHER RESEARCH TO DELINEATE THE PROCESSES BY WHICH LEADERS INFLUENCE THE MOTIVATION OF THEIR FOLLOWERS. WE HOPE THAT SUCH AN APPROACH WOULD ALSO BE BENEFICIAL TO THE LITERATURE ON INCENTIVES PERSUADING SCHOLARS' INCENTIVE TO TAKE A BROADER VIEW OF SOCIAL MOTIVATION AND THE STUDY OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCE ON THE DISTAL MOBILIZATION OF WORKERS.

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