Organizational development Knowledge Creation and Change Management

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Literature review:

The topic under consideration is organizational development, knowledge creation and change management. The main focus of this research is to see how the process of change management is affected by organizational development and knowledge creation. In order to get an overall view of that these broad areas are their relationship with each other, a literature review was conducted.

The first article under consideration is 'From organizational development to change management, the emergence of a new profession, by Nicolay A.M Worren & Keith Ruddle & Karl Moore.' This article basically talks about how over the years people have moved from organizational development to a more holistic view which is change management. According to this article the tools used in change management and organizational development are the same but the rationale behind it is different. For example attitude surveys are used in both. In organizational development it was used to gauge job satisfaction and the climate of the organization but in change management it is part of a strategy driven and holistic change program.

The variables taken from this article are change management and organizational development. It is defined in the following words.

Change management is the discipline that ensures organizations and employees meet new and existing performance targets rapidly and effectively. We do this by helping clients create the right management disciplines and processes, organization structures, culture, competencies and capabilities for superior human performance so that change goals are achieved and sustained. At this essence, change management is based on two concepts:

That human performance is at core of business performance, therefore we help clients build the human performance in their organizations.

That it's possible to optimize an organization's revenue and profit delivery during change: therefore we help clients determine ways to manage the change process effectively to ensure this occurs.

Organizational development refers to a long range effort to improve an organization's problem solving capabilities and its abilities to cope with changes in its external environment with the help of external or internal behavioral scientist consultants or change agents.

This variable is very important for the research as it clearly defines what the word change management would mean when it would be used in the research. The above definition also takes both the culture and structure aspect of change management into account.

The article, 'Explaining development and change in organizations, by Andrew H. Van de Van & Marshall Scott Poole', give a theoretical overview of how development and change management basically occurs. The article classifies four ideal type development theories namely; life- cycle theory, teleological theory, dialectical theory and evolutionary theory.

The variables include change, development and stability.

Change is imminent: that is, the developing entity has within it an underlying form, logic, program, or code that regulates the process of change and moves the entity from a given point of departure toward a subsequent end that is prefigured in the present state.

This theory view development as a repetitive sequence of goal formulation, implementation, evaluation, and modification of goals based on what was learned or intended by the entity.

Stability and change are explained by reference to the balance of power between opposing entities. Struggles and accommodations that maintain the status quo between oppositions produce stability.

The variables mentioned above helps us to understand how development and change basically occurs in organizations. It gives a wholesome view of the entire process which lays the foundation of the research being carried out.

In the article 'A dynamic theory of organization knowledge creation, by Ikujiro Nonaka' gives a comprehensive view of how knowledge is created within the organizations.

The main variable identified for knowledge creation is innovation. It is defined as follows'

Innovation is a process in which the organization creates and defines problems and then actively develops new knowledge to solve them.

The article also identifies three dimensions of knowledge creation. This includes epistemology, ontological and the 'spiral' model of knowledge.

The epistemological dimension can be explained by the distinction between two types of knowledge 'tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge'.

"Explicit" or codified knowledge refers to knowledge that is transmittable in for-mal, systematic language. On the other hand, "tacit" knowledge has a personal quality, which makes it hard to formalize and communicate. Tacit knowledge is deeply rooted in action, commitment, and involvement in a specific context

.The ontological dimension basically includes three variables; intention, autonomy and fluctuation. Their definitions are as follows,

Intention is concerned with how individuals form their approach to the world and try to make sense of their environment. It is not simply a state of mind, but rather what might be called an action-oriented concept.

Individuals within the organization may have different intentions. Every individual has his or her own personality. From the standpoint of creating knowledge, such an organization is more likely to maintain greater flexibility in acquiring, relating, and interpreting information

Even though intention is internal to the individual, knowledge creation at the individual level involves continuous interaction with the external world. In this connection, chaos or discontinuity can generate new patterns of interaction between individuals and their environment.

The spiral model basically talks about four modes of knowledge conversion. These include:

Socialization- from tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge.

Combination-from explicit knowledge to explicit knowledge

Externalization-from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge

Internalization-from explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge

The variables mentioned above are very important for the research as they help explain how knowledge is created. The creation of knowledge has a direct impact on change management which is the topic under discussion.

The article 'Knowledge management strategy and its link to knowledge creation process, by Byounggu Choi, Heeseok Lee' uses the same variables used in the article 'dynamic theory of knowledge' mentioned above. They used empirical data to prove the variables. This study basically shows how qualitative variables can be measured quantitatively. I will be using the study as a guide when formulating the survey form etc.

This article also gives guidelines for future research. These guidelines are as follows;

First, which knowledge management enablers trigger which knowledge creating modes?

Strategies still need enablers such as organizational structure, culture, or information technology for actually implementing their strategies. Second, our results may differ in particular industries or companies. A comparative study is of interest (e.g. consulting vs. manufacturing). Third, further exploration of the relationship between knowledge creation and department types may be necessary.

These guidelines would be helpful as this will enable to come with more authentic generalizations.

The article ' Understanding the influence of organizational change strategies on information technology and knowledge management strategies, by James M. Bloodgood & Wm. David Salisbury' talks about that organizations can implement change and gain and maintain a completive advantage but this cannot be achieved by knowledge creation alone. Knowledge transfer and knowledge protection is equally important.

Organizations that use a strategy of knowledge creation focus on creativity, experimentation, and, to a significant extent, creating a shared understanding within the creating group to construct new knowledge that can be used to develop new products and services. Organizations that use a strategy of knowledge transfer focus on rapidly disseminating knowledge through their organization in an effort to utilize it to its fullest extent as quickly as possible. Organizations that use a strategy of knowledge protection focus on maintaining knowledge in its original and constructive state i.e. not losing it or allowing it to become altered or obsolete. And keeping knowledge from unauthorized transfer to other organizations i.e. using security and legal measures.

The above diagram gives a comprehensive view of how the entire process works and how the different variables affect the process. This figure will be the basis of the research.

The last article taken into account is 'Organizational change management: A critical review, by Rune Todnem.' This article basically talks about things which should be taken care off when conducting research in the field of change management. This article basically takes into account various researches conducted in this field and then draws consensus based on the data they have. The two main consensuses are as follows:

Firstly, it is agreed that the pace of change has never been greater than in the current business environment (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Burnes, 2004; Carnall, 2003; Kotter, 1996; Luecke, 2003; Moran and Brightman, 2001; Okumus and Hemmington, 1998; Paton and McCalman, 2000; Senior, 2002). Secondly, there is a consensus that change, being triggered by internal or external factors, comes in all shapes, forms and sizes (Balogun and Hope Hailey, 2004; Burnes, 2004; Carnall, 2003; Kotter, 1996; Luecke, 2003), and, therefore, affects all organizations in all industries.

Dianne Waddell and Amrik S, Sohal, 'Resistance: a constructive tool for change


Resistance is as a critically important factor that can influence the success of change management.

Resistance, in an organizational setting, is an expression of reservation which normally arises as a response or reaction to change (Block 1989)

Resistance which is seen as an obstacle to change has various advantages:

Greater stability

It draws attention to aspects of change that may be inappropriate

Influx of energy

Scott Keller and Carolyn Aiken, 'The Inconvenient Truth about Change Management.'

This article talks about some stereotypes which are prevalent about change management

These include:

What motivates you doesn't motivate (most of ) your employees.

Your leader believes that they already are 'the change'

Influence leaders aren't that influential

Good intentions aren't enough

Phillip Ash, 'Fast and Effective Change Management.'

This article basically talks about how can change be managed efficiently

According to him organizations generally fail to minimize the negative consequences of transition.

Most organizations do little to allay such fears and concerns which results in slow change process.

People initially resist change is the uncertainty change creates.

Theoretical framework



H0= organization size will have an effect on change management?

H1= organization size will not have an effect on change management?

H0= internal stability would have a positive effect on change management?

H1= internal stability would have no or a negative effect on change management?

H0= business performance will have an effect on change management?

H1= business performance will not have an effect on change management?

H0= knowledge creation has a positive impact on change management?

H1= knowledge creation has a negative impact on change management?

H0= innovation results in knowledge creation?

H1= innovation does not result in knowledge creation?

H0= knowledge transfer has an effect on knowledge creation?

H1= knowledge transfer does not have an effect on knowledge creation?