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The contemporary definition of organizational culture includes what is valued, the dominant leadership style, the language and symbols, the procedures and routines, and the definitions of success that characterizes an organization. Organizational culture represents the values, underlying assumptions, expectations, collective memories, and definitions present in an organization (Cameron & Quinn, 1999).
The central issue associated with organizational culture is its linkage with organizational performance. Connections between Organizational culture and performance have been established. An increasing body of evidence supports a linkage between an organization's culture and its business performance. In the business arena, evidence has confirmed that companies which put emphasis in key managerial components, such as customers, stakeholders and employees, and leadership, outperform those that do not have these cultural characteristics (Kotter & Heskett, 1992; Wagner & Spencer, 1996).
The culture of Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College plays an important role in the way personnel plan, implement, and evaluate educational programs. Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College is perceived by its personnel to be an institution devoted to satisfying the needs and wants of its clients through programs that are clearly defined, sensible to public needs, constantly monitored for success, and pro-actively implemented. (Berrio & Henderson, 1998). Therefore, with this in mind, this paper is aimed to assess the nature of present and preferred culture, and to suggest strategies how to move to the preferred culture in the case of Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College
The Statement of the Problem
The purpose of the study discussed here was to describe the dominant culture type of Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College. The research study was designed as an evaluation survey with the purpose of exploring and describing Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College s organizational culture. It is also an organizational survey because its results were used as part of a larger change effort to diagnose issues related to leadership, teamwork, and management behavior and to determine the impact of these issues on employee outcomes (Wagner & Spencer, 1996).
The current and preferred dominant culture types were analyzed in order to establish a profile of Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College. The study was guided by the following basic questions:
What are the behavior, values, and unwritten rules of the College?
What do the current organizational culture of the Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College look like in terms of competing values framework?
What type of culture do the employees of the College desire to see after 5 years from now?
How can the College change its culture to the desired one?
1.3. Objectives of the study
The over all objective of this study is to asses, identify, and understand the current and desired organizational culture of the College and to suggest appropriate culture change strategies.
The specific objectives of the study include:
To identify and understand the value, behaviors and unwritten rules of the college
To identify the dominant culture type and current culture profile of the college
To identify the type of culture desired by the College staff
To suggest the ways to change the College's culture
1.4. Significance of the Study
Conducting this study at this time has the following significance
It enables the researchers to learn how to assess the current and desired culture of an organization.
Its findings can benefit the College to change its culture to the preferred one.
It paves the way other institutions assess their culture.
It helps other researchers to conduct a research activity on the topic.
1.5. Scope of the Study
This study considers the current and desired culture of the Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College in 2008/2009 interims of the competing values framework. Besides this it focuses on identifying behaviors, values and the unwritten rules, the current dominant type of culture and the preferred or desired culture type of the college.
1.6. Limitation of the study
While conducting this study the researchers faced different constraints, such as: time, and cost. In addition to this, out of 50 questionnaires distributed to respondents, 13 questionnaires were not returned.
1.7. Research Methodology
1.7.1. The Research Approach and Design
The study makes use of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The researchers used descriptive and case study design.
1.7.2. Data Source
The data sources for the study covers both primary and secondary sources.
Primary data was gathered from staff members and human resource department of the college.
The secondary sources of data cover the basic texts and relevant materials obtained from the Internet.
1.7.3. Sampling Techniques
The sample size covers 50 employees out of 127employees of the College. Since the nature of population has common attribute, the researchers found the sample size representative. The study used simple random sampling technique for selecting staffs of the College. This is done because it helps the population to have equal chance of being selected.
1.7.4. Data Gathering Tools
The instrument used in this study is semi-structured interview, questionnaire, and observation checklist.
1.7.5. Data analysis Tools
The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.
Conceptual Frame work of Organizational culture
2.1 Definitions of Organizational Culture
The Wikipidia (2009) defines Organizational culture as "an idea in the field of Organizational studies and management which describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values (personal and cultural values of an organization. Organizational culture is a specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization."
George and Jones (2005), on the other hand, define organizational culture as the set of shared values, beliefs and norms that influence the way employees think, feel and behave toward each other and toward people outside the organization. In addition, Schein cited in George and Jones(2005) said that culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions a group learns' as it solves its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that is considered valid, is thought to new members as the correct way you perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.
As to McNamar (2000) Culture is one of those terms that are difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. He said that organizational culture is the personality of the organization. He also added that culture is comprised of the assumptions, values, norms and tangible signs (artifacts) of organization members and their behaviors.
And finally, he concluded that Organizational culture consists of an organization's shared values, symbols, behaviors, and assumptions which allow its members to frame events in a similar fashion and provides the stability an organization needs to survive in an ever changing world.
Organizational culture, for Hoy and Miskel (1996), is an attempt to get at the feel, sense, atmosphere, character, or image of an organization. Wilkins and Paterson in Hoy and Miskel (1996) define organizational culture as the tradition and beliefs of an organization that distinguish it from other organizations and infuse a certain life in to the skeleton of its structure.
Having said this much about the definition of organizational, let us see some points related to it. It is said that the ultimate sources of organizational culture is the people who make up the organization. George and Jones (2005) said that if you want to know why culture differs, look at their members that different organizations develop distinctly different cultures because they attract, select, and retain people who have different values, personality, and ethics. This implies that there is direct interrelation between individuals in an organization and its culture. They also added that the founder of an organization has a substantial influence in the culture of an organization because of his or her personal values and beliefs.
Martin (2006) categorized organizational cultures as the following
For him, the "Power culture originates from centralized power in a charismatic leader. This leader acts decisively and unilaterally, but always with the best intentions for the organization in mind. Power cultures are demanding of the people within the organization. Late nights and weekends in the office often are the norm. In a dysfunctional stage power cultures can produce inefficient organizations where everyone waits for approval before moving forward on an idea. This is seen in organizations that have become too large for one person to maintain all the control and authority".
Secondly, "the Role culture: is a highly structured environment where clear objectives, goals, and procedures exist. An employee is judged almost solely on how well they meet these objectives and goals. In a functional stage role cultures operate highly efficiently and include built-in checks and balances of power. This culture rewards dependability and consistency and, due to its well-articulated procedures, produces little stress. However, taken to extremes role cultures can create an organization of automatons that simply follow the rules and have very little concern for that which is not in their prescribed area. This mentality creates an environment where cooperation and collaboration are non-existent and a person's talent may go unused. Change comes very slow in role cultures and those within the culture, especially a dysfunctional one, may become afraid to take risks".
The third category of organizational culture is Achievement culture: in this case, "people work hard to achieve goals and better the group as a whole. This culture generally consists of highly motivated people who need little to no supervision. Rules and procedures are limited as they may interfere with the accomplishment of work. When a rule gets in the way of achieving a goal the rule is simply ignored. The best tools and methods for producing results are utilized, and when one goal is met, everyone quickly moves on to another. Because of this environment and mindset, achievement cultures tend to be highly adaptive. Unfortunately members of an achievement cultures tend to burn out on their work. It may be difficult to establish control if the need arises as the culture cultivates individuals. Members may also become highly competitive with each other and the mindset of "whatever it takes" can lead to dishonest and illegal behavior".
Finally, "Support culture: acts like a tiny community where people support and trust each other. Members of this culture will cooperate, make sure everyone is together on an idea, and do all that they can to resolve conflict. Support cultures consist of good communication and excellent service both internal and external. This culture creates a nurturing environment where members like to spend time together and sometimes personal and professional lives can become blurred. When a support culture becomes dysfunctional the needs of the individuals are placed over the needs of the organization. Due to a commitment to consensus decisions come slowly. Support cultures tend to not be very task oriented. And too much time spent together fosters personal differences that often hinder work and ruin the excellent service that is a hallmark of support cultures."
Therefore, in this paper, Martin's categorization of organizational culture as power culture, role culture, achievement culture and support culture will be implemented in data presentation and data analysis part to show the existing and the preferred organizational culture of Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College.
Data Presentation and Analysis
Brief Backgrounds of Sunshine Business and Teachers' Education College.
Mission of the college
The mission of sunshine business and Teachers' college is to achieve excellence in producing competent professionals in the discipline of Teaching and business and be a model in research and consultancy service through practical base, life long learning and promote democratic culture to contribute to the national development of the country.
Core values of the college
Creativity, intellectual curiosity, innovation, critical thinking, knowledge, high academic and ethical standards, diversity, ideas and support of the local people, human dignity and fairness, freedom in open pursuit of knowledge, inspirationâ€¦.are the core organizational values of the college.
Data presentation and analysis
From the data collected through questionnaire, the following result is observed.
As it is shown in the above table, the dominant existing culture of the organization is a power culture; this implies the organizational decision making power is very centralized in top leaders. The top leaders in the organization acts determinedly and unilaterally, but always with the best intentions for the organization in mind. The second dominant culture in the organization is the role culture, in this case, in the organization; there is a very prepared atmosphere where apparent objectives, goals, and procedures exist. A member of staff is judged more or less only on how well they meet these objectives and goals.
Graphically, the finings of the organizational culture can be summarized in the following chart.
When we come to the ideal organizational culture, the support culture is the top dominant one. In this case the staff members of the College are in need of their college to be a small community where people support and trust each other. Since members of this culture will cooperate as vividly seen in definition, the staff members of this organization want to make sure everyone is together on an idea, and do all that they can to resolve conflict. Ideally the members of the college want to see their College in a support culture which consisting of good communication and excellent service both internally and externally.
The second desired organizational culture of the college is an achievement culture. Here the staff member of the College at least demanding their College to be a place of hard working to achieve goals and better the group as a whole. They also need their College to be a working place of highly motivated people who need little to no supervision. Rules and procedures are limited as they may interfere with the accomplishment of work. When a rule gets in the way of achieving a goal the rule is simply ignored. The best tools and methods for producing results are utilized, and when one goal is met, everyone quickly moves on to another. Because of this environment and mindset, achievement cultures tend to be highly adaptive.
Summary conclusion and Recommendations