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When we discuss any organization, we need to understand some important issues its faces to maintain its health. As every organization desire growth in order to prosper and sustain with competitors, they look for change. And often these changes hold edge from competitors. These changes also became a distinguish factor for these organizations to maximize growth. But often the process of obtaining growth differs from organization to organization, although the main objective or goal remains the same, which is to maximize the profitability for organization and its stake holders. In today's world, the organization faces many challenges to sustain its position and its becoming very tricky day by day to overcome these challenges. If an organization won't able to keep up with the pace of changes then the chances of sustainability become very less in fact in many cases these organizations who fail to adopt the changes usually collapse.
Why we need change?
As discussed earlier, to achieve goal for an organization they must apply some changes, these changes are associated with the progress of an organization and their employees. As changes are essential within an organization, it is necessary to underline the different types of changes which are commonly known as objective and natural. Objective changes are those which an organization sets at the beginning of a financial year as its profit taking or share holds returns and natural changes are those which incorporate within a changing environment of technology or demand & supply of world. Without the combination of these changes it is very unlikely for an organization to develop and grow. Furthermore, the current natural developments which lead an organization to change are rapid modification in demand & supply, IT, globalisation of the market place and countries new rules & regulation.
As the world is becoming smaller day by day with the help of IT and the concept of globalization becoming a reality, the changes are very much unavoidable. As we have noticed, that due to the pace of IT innovations are taking place, new technologies are opening new opportunities for every organizations which often requires the high speed computers and high data transferring technology. As we have also noticed that the development of IT, computing and internet leads to the elimination of geographical borders. Now as the organizations having access to the modern technologies and as they can operate from worldwide locations without any major issues, they end up providing more than the satisfactory services to their target market.
As the importance of IT applies, there are some other factors for organization to look into to maintain its sustainability with its competitors; among them the growing competition may be named. In the current situation the international competition is growing dramatically because of international free trade and elimination of financial barriers which lead to the faster growth of new markets and number of competitors. In this situation, organizations needs to changes in order to remain competitive. On taking into consideration the recent trends and the necessity of the organizational changes, it is quite noteworthy to refer to Robbins, who estimates that "technologies developments, financial constraints, expanding markets, restructuring and merges, new philosophies and government legislation are all putting pressure on organizations to change and stay dynamic" and, probably what is more important to highlight is: " Yet the process of change is far from easy, and implementing it successfully makes considerable demands on the managers involved" (Robbins, 2003) so the organizational changes are obvious and inevitable if a company wants to remain competitive in the market. On the one hand changes are essential but on the other hand they face a strong resistance from the employees which can only overcome with the help of proper management.
Resistance to change
As we can say now that the changes are necessary for any organization and without a change an organization can never achieve their objectives. But before bringing these changes, it is necessary to realize that the changes directly affect the employee and they hold strong resistance to adapt them. Anyway organizations usually do not have much of a choice as these changes are the only way to progress and sustain. As Robbins states," More and more organizations today face a dynamic and changing environment. This, in turn, is requiring these organizations to adapt. "Change or die!" is the rallying cry among today's managers worldwide" (Robbins, 2003:556).
The resistance always shown by employees, there are lots of factors that contribute the employee's resistance and each factor demands a specific respond from the part of the managerial staff in order to overcome it. So to understand the resistance is extremely important. As Woldring states, "understanding of these four reasons will not only establish the employee's responsibility to resistance, but management's as well" (woldring, 1999:187).
Additionally, the most important reason of resistance is a lack of understanding of changes by the employees. Simply they do not know what is the aim of the changes, why they are introduced and what will be the affect on the employees? It is quite natural when people do not understand about the change they cannot accept it. According to Robbins, "changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the known" (robbins, 2003). Actually people become accustomed to a certain way of doing things and feel that they will not be able to do which is something new. The resistance is quite natural reaction for an employee who does not clearly understand the purpose, mechanics, or potential consequences of a change, the chances are they will likely to resist it. If an employee will affect from the changes, it is important for him to understand the changes which will be made. When the mechanics of changes are not clearly understood by an employee, they cannot be carried out even if the implementer is willing" (584).
The second reason is that employees do not have the time to engage with the changes in the routine work as it will delay or increase the work load for time being. Addition, as employee will need some time to get used to new environment and on most of the occasions it is impossible to make change in a day or get used of new installed systems. As humans are not machines they need time to learn things and by the age or constant practice on a particular system, it's become hard and hard to learn new things. Simply when a change is introduced, an employee first fulfil his current responsibilities and then get use to the change which is quite difficult and it may increased load of work. As for this Dessler indicates that, Sometimes, employees say they want to change (and may actually mean it), and yet they resist the program. What accounts for this? Two organizational psychologists recently suggested that this resistance may be the result of "competing commitments." In other words, the employees say they want to change (and may even think they do), but in fact a competing commitment makes them resist it. (dessler, 2004).
The third reason of the resistance is that the employees fear that they lack the competence to adapt changes. Introducing change can create many doubts in their mind as whether they have the required skills and experience which will support them in new conditions. These doubts usually increases the uncertainty about their future as if they will not be able to perform or hold new competency level which are required for the new system and they think that they can lose their jobs. This insecurity forced them to resist which make them assume that the current situation is more comforting and better for them and also for organizations future. At this situation, Robbins draws an interesting example, when "ifâ€¦ the introduction of quality management means production workers will have to learn statistical process control techniques, they may fear they'll unable to do so. They may, therefore, develop a negative attitude towards a quality-management program or behave dysfunctional if required to use statistical techniques" ?????
Among all the previous reasons this is the fourth and the last reason which can be presented as if anyone resist because they don't contribute the value driving towards organizational transition. It means that employees believe, it is a fault to start an organizational transition and they tryout to resist aggressively in order to sustain their self-esteem. At the exact time employees should realize that abstaining to the organizational transition they put under an intimidation their future career in the organization. At this respect Pritchett and Pound underline that "some people cling desperately to the past. They hang on to what's familiar, snuggling ever deeper into their comfortable routines to avoid the chilling thought that they might have to change. Change always means giving up something and the greater the personal sacrifice the more you feel like dragging your feet" (Pritchett, 1990)
however, the reason mentioned above are quite inspirational, it is important for employees to realize that the change is important for an organization and they should realize that their resistance against the organization is harmful for the organization and to themselves. On the other side, the harm from the organizational change may be imaginary and it needs time so that the employees could get used to the change. Parallel to that change, organizational changes is essential and may be profitable and useful for the organization while the resistance to the organizational change can be overcome with proper ideas, approaches and better communication through proper management.
How to overcome resistance to change
All that above we discuss about the change and the reaction of people who affect that change. At this particular part we have to discuss about HOW TO OVERCOME RESISTANCE. But first we should be able to understand the role of management in an organization. Management is very important for the implementation of any change. It is clear that without proper management the organizational change will fail because the employee's resistance will not be overcome and it will prevail. At the same time the failure of the organizational change implementation lead to the uncertainty in the efficiency of management within the organization because basically it is managers who should provide the efficient implementation of the organizational change and persuade employees to accept it as necessary for companies and their own career success. The success may be achieved when there is proper management based on the mutual understanding of managers and employees that an organizational change is necessary.
As Adubato emphasizes, "Successful change agents know they must understand the position of their employees and communicate accordingly "
Different organization deals the resistance in different ways. But the main aim of every organization is to overcome resistance in a positive way. There are different approaches to overcome the resistance and all these approaches depend on circumstances, means which type of resistance a company face and what could be the best way to tackle resistance. Furthermore we could talk about some important strategies to overcome resistance to change.
PARTICIPATION AND COMMUNICATION: One of the best ways to overcome resistance in an organization and helps people to understand the importance of change; A better knowledge and communication program can be very useful when resistance is caused by lack of information and analysis. Communication program can involve in different formats. for example, management dialogue sessions with supervisors and employees, what we are doing for the best interest of employees and organization and the change will influence the best working capabilities of our employees, to convey our massage to stakeholder and employees arrange some meetings with them which deals with the importance of change and what happens when organization never adopt it, talk about competitors products and their services, develop a newsletter that discuss issues relevant to change, organize a future research conference where all managers and employees sit together and seriously discuss about the future of the organization and its achievement. We need to listen to them what they suggest and deliver ideas so that the certain issues could be further discussed to bring implementation. These are all the strategies of communication and education, these strategies develop a healthy relation between initiators and resisters but the only disadvantage of that approach is so much time consuming or in other words wasting of time.
SUPPORT is another way to overcome resistance to change and provide better result when resistance comes from adjustment problems, so this time management follows this process. Its management responsibility to deliver the all resources and fulfills all promises which they made in communication. Sometime certain jobs in place needs to be following a new change in an organization, to make sure whether these particular jobs would be done according to the new change they have to check with their employees capabilities if they are well trained or equipped and just in case if not then the management should bring in some well trained people to make every employee capable of performing these certain tasks for an excellent outcome of their implemented change which are going to be introduced. So management is one of the best choices to help people to adjust these frequent organizational transitions. First, management should manage seminar and training session where manager's speaks out to those people who face difficulty adjusting to new jobs, second, visit other organization that are next to in the process and study from them, third, interviews and select new employees who understand this kind of work. Support is useful for adjusting problems but only drawbacks of this process is that it is time consuming and very expensive. When time, capital and tolerance is not available then using this method is not very sensible.
NEGOTIATION AND AGREEMENT is always the best approach to resolve differences when one group will misplace and have power to resist. As if it falls to a situation where work force resistance occurs then the best possible way to deal with it is negotiation, which could be offered as in terms of pay rise to the workers union by doing this an organization could achieve its target to meet certain set targets and this will break any resistance against the organization which stands in the time of transitional arrangements to follow a change. And these terms of negotiation could offer incentives to increase benefits towards an early retirement of an individual person. Negotiation is particularly suitable when it is clear that one would go to be on the losing end as a result of a transition and yet their power to resist is significant. Negotiated agreements can be a comparatively easy way to go over major resistance, though, like some other procedures; they may end up becoming way too expensive. And once a manager of a team makes it very clear to his team members that he will negotiate to avoid any major resistance, he then let himself open to the possibility of shake down.
MANIPULATION AND COOPTATION Manipulation refers to covert instigate attempts. Twisting and distorting facts to make them come out more attractive, with holding undesirable knowledge, and creating fake rumours to get employees to accept a change are all examples of manipulation. If corporate management pressurizes to shut down a specific fabrication plant if that plant's employees back slide to acknowledge an across-the-board pay slash, and if the threat is actually not true, management is using manipulation to manipulate employees.
Cooptation, on the other side, is a form of both manipulation and participation. It seeks to "buy off" the commander of a resistance group by giving them a key role in the change decision. The commanders' advice is sought, not to seek an efficient decision, but to get their endorsement. These two terms, manipulation and cooptation are relatively inexpensive and easy ways to go along to attain the support of adversaries, but the tactics can bounce back if the targets become aware that they are being tricked or used. Once found, the change agent's credibility may drop to zero in front of the employees and in an organisation.
Everything which is mentioned in this whole assignment leads us to this conclusion that it is possible to say that organizational changes are essential, particularly in the current economic state of the fast growing competitiveness, achievement of new technologies, and globalization. In this crucial time companies must be aware the need of change. They must think about the different ways and implement some changes and inject some ideas which make the organization different from others and as much profitable. But its not an easy task when organization introduce some changes then they face a strong resistance from the employees because every person who work in an organization never want change they are happy with their current position unless there are more better opportunities are around. The resistance caused by different factors: as the lack of understanding, people feel overwhelmed; people predict a loss of status and lots of other factors.
It is obvious that to deal with the obstacles that the implementation of organizational change may face, it is required to provide the cooperation of management and employees. It means that managers should provide the brief knowledge about change how is it necessary, and what can we achieve after that, it's up to the manager how they deliver this message because sometime managers take a one-size-fits all approach to change. They suppose that they can handle the resistance on the same way. To comprehensive knowledge about the change is compulsory for manager if they want better result and it can only be possible when manager communicate with their workforce and collect useful information about change. And naturally in the end the vision of manager and employees on the change should be similar. They both want success and see better image of their organization.
As the result, the role of management is extremely important for organizational change.
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