Organizational change issues with operational changes

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The concept of organizational change is in regard to organization-wide change, not to smaller changes. Examples of organization-wide change might include a change in mission, restructuring operations, new technologies, mergers, major collaborations, new programs such as Total Quality Management, re-engineering, etc. Transition to a new chief executive can provoke organization-wide change when his or her new and unique personality pervades the entire organization. (Armenakis, et al 1999)

Organizational change is a fundamental and radical reorientation in the way the organization operates to accomplish some overall goal. This change should not be conducted for the sake of change but efforts should be geared to improve the performance of organization and the people in that organization. (Armenakis, et al 1999)

It is Critical for Leaders and Managers to be successful at Organizational Change, because it's their job. Leaders and managers continually make efforts to accomplish successful and significant change as it's inherent in their jobs. Some are very good at this effort, while others continually struggle and fail. That's often the difference between people who thrive in their roles and those that get shuttled around from job to job.

The following effort is not a standard procedure for guiding change. However, the following resources might be sufficient to provide a framework that guides organizational change in smaller level.

MITCHELL'S FRUIT FARMS LTD

Mitchell's is the oldest food company in Pakistan. It was established in 1933 by Francis J. Mitchell under the name of Indian Mildura Fruit Farms Ltd. After the country gained independence in 1947, the company's name was changed to "Mitchell's Fruit Farms Ltd." with the brand name of "MITCHELL'S".

Since its inception, Mitchell's has gone from strength to strength, not only expanding its product line but also maintaining quality through the years to become one of the largest food companies in the country. From the procurement of best quality raw materials, fresh from our own farms and orchards to the adoption of latest production techniques, Mitchell's has been in sync with the evolving times.

The result of our efforts is that today we are among the market leaders in all our product categories. Not only that, but our products are also gaining a market abroad with exports to several parts of the world including UK, USA, Canada, the Middle-East and South-West Asia where already Mitchell's is a name to reckon with.

Mitchell's has always been keeping itself abreast with the modern technology and updating its machinery and equipment with the passage of time. That is the reason Mitchell's has the latest machines for processing of raw material and manufacturing of grocery and confectionery products. This technology update has also brought an advantage of increased production capacity.

TASK 1: SOLUTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

I used different techniques and methods to identify the required changes in the organization to increase the efficiency and sale. First of all I identified problems by using Cultural Web technique and Change Kaleidoscope.

Secondly I find the solution for these problems by using creative problem solving techniques like Effective Meeting and Questioning Technique. By using Kotter's 8 steps change model along with McKinney's frame work , i tried to implement the change that I observed during the creative problem techniques process and cultural web.

THE CULTURAL WEB

What is culture?

Culture is "how we do things around here". And while that may be true, there are so many elements that go into determining what you do and why, that this definition only scratches the surface.

Culture always looks like the boss, even when it bubbles up from the workers, since it's the boss who allows and enables it to bubble up and then supports its implementation. (Tsutsumi, et al 2000)

What is MAP?

MAP (mindset, attitude, philosophy) is the basis for everything you do.

Everything you do and say is a mindset, grounded in your attitude towards others, which, in turn, is based on your personal philosophy.

And although there are as many types of MAP as there are people, our focus is on good MAP, which (in no particular order) means positive, open, flexible, honest, secure, innovative, interested, people-centric (not me-centric), enthusiastic, patient, sincere, encouraging, caring and creativity-loving.

The Cultural Web, developed by Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes in 1992, provides one such approach for looking at and changing your organization's culture. Using it, you can expose cultural assumptions and practices, and set to work aligning organizational elements with one another, and with your strategy.

Elements of the JOHNSON AND KEVAN SCHOLES'S Cultural Web

Johnson and Scholes' Cultural Web helps you analyze your current culture, and identify what needs to stay, go or be added to if you're to achieve your strategic goals.

The Cultural Web identifies six interrelated elements that help to make up what Johnson and Scholes call the "paradigm" - the pattern or model - of the work environment. By analyzing the factors in each, you can begin to see the bigger picture of your culture: what is working, what isn't working, and what needs to be changed. The six elements are:

Stories - The past events and people talked about inside and outside the company. Who and what the company chooses to immortalize says a great deal about what it values, and perceives as great behaviour.

Rituals and Routines - The daily behaviour and actions of people that signal acceptable behaviour. This determines what is expected to happen in given situations, and what is valued by management.

Symbols - The visual representations of the company including logos, how plush the offices are, and the formal or informal dress codes.

Organizational Structure - This includes both the structure defined by the organization chart, and the unwritten lines of power and influence that indicate whose contributions are most valued.

Control Systems - The ways that the organization is controlled. These include financial systems, quality systems, and rewards.

Power Structures - The pockets of real power in the company. This may involve one or two key senior executives, a whole group of executives, or even a department.

These elements are represented graphically as six semi-overlapping circles (see Figure below), which together influence the cultural paradigm.

Use of cultural web

I used the Cultural Web firstly to look at organizational culture as it is now, secondly to look at how we want the culture to be, and thirdly identified the differences between the two. These differences were the changes we need to make to achieve the high-performance culture that we want.

1. Analyzed Culture As It Is Now

Start by looking at each element separately, and asking questions that help to determine the dominant factors in each element. Elements and related questions are shown below,

Stories

What stories do people currently tell about this company?

What problems staff is facing?

What do these stories say about what your organization believes in?

What do employees talk about the use of the computer?

Rituals and Routines

What do employees expect?

What would be immediately obvious if changed?

What behaviour do these routines encourage?

Symbols

Are there any status symbols used?

What image is associated with your organization, looking at this from the separate viewpoints of clients and staff?

Organizational Structure

Is the structure flat or hierarchical? Formal or informal? Organic or mechanistic?

Where are the formal lines of authority? Are there informal lines?

Control Systems

What process or procedure has the strongest controls? Weakest controls?

Is the company generally loosely or tightly controlled?

What systems are used to keep control of operations, finance, etc?

Power Structures

Who has the real power in the organization?

Who makes or influences decisions?

As these questions are answered, you start to build up a picture of what is influencing your corporate culture. Now you need to look at the web as a whole and make some generalized statements regarding the overall culture.

2. Analyzed Culture as we wanted it to be.

Starting from your organization's strategy, think about how you want the organization's culture to look, if everything were to be correctly aligned, and if you were to have the ideal corporate culture.

With the picture of current cultural web complete, now is the time to repeat the process, thinking about the culture that we need.

3. Mapped the Differences between the Two.

Now compare your two Cultural Web diagrams, and identify the differences between the two. Considering the organization's strategic aims and objectives:

What cultural strengths have been highlighted by your analysis?

What factors will you encourage and reinforce?

Which factors do you need to change?

4. Prioritized changes, and developed a plan to address them

On the basis of cultural web the differences between point 1 and 2 are the changes which are to be implemented. I prioritized the changes. Like first of all I decided to introduce computer system in the office and sale department, then training the staff and then action plain to increase the sale.

THE CHANGE KALEIDOSCOPE

The change kaleidoscope is a diagnostic framework. It can be particularly useful in a context sensitive change process, which one can argue is the case in this management project.

The kaleidoscope contains an outer ring concerned with the organizational strategic context. There is a middle ring that has the features of the change context. Finally there is an inner ring which contains the design choices that can be made.

• Time:

How much time does the organization have to achieve this change? Is it in a short term crisis or is it concerned with long-term strategic development? Are stakeholders, such as the stock market, expecting short term results from the change?

• Scope:

Is the required outcome realignment or transformation? Does the change affect the whole organization, or is it only concerned with a particular division or department?

• Preservation:

To what extent is it essential to maintain continuity in certain practices or preserve specific assets? Do these practices and/or assets constitute invaluable resources, or do they contribute towards a valued stability or identity within an organization?

• Diversity:

Is the staff group concerned diverse or relatively homogeneous in terms of its values, norms and attitudes? Are there many subcultures or national cultures within the group? Are there different departments or divisions or is it one particular staff group?

• Capability:

How capable or competent is the organization at managing change and how widespread throughout the organization is this capability? How much change has the organization and its individual staff experienced in the past?

• Capacity:

How much cash or spare human resource is there to divert towards the change?

• Readiness for change:

Is staff aware of the need for change? If they are, how willing and motivated are they towards the change? How much support generally is there for the change?

• Power:

Where is power vested within the organization? For this change to be successful, who are the major stakeholders within and outside the organization whose support must be canvassed?

THE PROBLEMS

From the result of cultural web and change kaleidoscope I found that company was facing following problems which resulted in low sale.

One of the main problems this company facing was that method of keeping the financial records of company was manually. A bookkeeper kept accounts receivable, the accounts payable and the ledgers in his best possible penmanship.

Because of the minute by minute change in finances, accurate record keeping is critical. Computerizing a business's general ledger, payroll, and other accounting tasks increases office efficiency. With a computer, you can request and receive an in house balance sheet, an income statement, or other accounting reports at a moment's notice. ( Attwell, 1984)

Another problem that I observed was lack of communication with marketing and field staff about the following,

information of the channel and markets where the product was sold (i.e., market share and optimal channel of contact),

product features, pricing of the product,

the Promotional efforts to get short term gains in market share,

identifying or generating leads, keeping track of Lead generation to Sale booking ratio and other Key performance Indicators,

These problems resulted in low sale, bad credibility of the company and lack of confidence in market and field staff.

THE SOLUTION

CREATIVITY TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS

There are many creative techniques used to solve the problems during the change process, I used Running Effective Meetings and Questioning Techniques to solve the problems faced during or after the change process. Below is the little explanation of the creative problem solving techniques,

Introduction to Creativity Tools

Reversal - Improving products and services

Brainstorming - Generating many radical ideas

DO IT - A simple process for creativity

Simplex - A powerful problem solving process

Crawford's Slip Writing Method - Gathering ideas from many contributors

Metaphorical Thinking - Using comparisons to express ideas and solve problems

Practical Innovation - Managing ideas effectively

Turn Your Idea into Reality - Getting good ideas off the drawing board

RUNNING EFFECTIVE MEETINGS

If you structure your meeting planning, preparation, execution, and follow up around these three basic criteria, the result will be an effective meeting.

They achieve the meeting's objective.

They take up a minimum amount of time.

They leave participants feeling that a sensible process has been followed.

1. The Meeting's Objective

An effective meeting serves a useful purpose. This means that in it, you achieve a desired outcome. For a meeting to meet this outcome, or objective, you have to be clear about what it is.

Too often, people call a meeting to discuss something without really considering what a good outcome would be.

Do you want a decision?

Do you want to generate ideas?

Are you getting status reports?

Any of these, and a myriad of others, is an example of a meeting objective. Before you do any meeting planning, you need to focus your objective.

2. Use Time Wisely

Time is a precious resource, and no one wants theirs wasted. With the amount of time we all spend in meetings, you owe it to yourself and your team to streamline the meeting as much as possible. What's more, time wasted in a meeting is time wasted for everybody attending. For example, if a critical person is 15 minutes late in an eight person meeting, that person has cost the organization two hours of lost activity.

To prepare an agenda, consider the following factors:

Priorities - what absolutely must be covered?

Results - what do need to accomplish at the meeting?

Participants - who needs to attend the meeting for it to be successful?

Sequence - in what order will you cover the topics?

Timing - how much time will spend on each topic?

Date and Time - when will the meeting take place?

Place - where will the meeting take place?

Use your agenda as your time guide. When you notice that time is running out for a particular item, consider hurrying the discussion, pushing to a decision, deferring discussion until another time, or assigning it for discussion by a subcommittee.

3. Satisfying Participants that a Sensible Process Has Been Followed

Once you have an agenda prepared, you need to circulate it to the participants and get their feedback and input. Running a meeting is not a dictatorial role: You have to be participative right from the start. Whatever the reason, it is important you get feedback from the meeting participants about your proposed agenda.

After the meeting is over, take some time to debrief, and determine what went well and what could have been done better. Evaluate the meeting's effectiveness based on how well you met the objective. This will help you continue to improve your process of running effective meetings.

QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES

Asking questions effectively

Asking the right question is at the heart of effective communications and information exchange. By using the right questions in a particular situation, you can improve a whole range of communications skills. So here are some common questioning techniques, and when (and when not) to use them,

Open and Closed Questions

A closed question usually receives a single word or very short, factual answer. For example, "Are you thirsty?" The answer is "Yes" or "No"; "Where do you live?" The answer is generally the name of your town or your address.

Open questions elicit longer answers. They usually begin with what, why, how. An open question asks the respondent for his or her knowledge, opinion or feelings. "Tell me" and "describe" can also be used in the same way as open questions. Here are some examples:

What happened at the meeting?

Why did he react that way?

Tell me what happened next.

Open questions are good for:

Developing an open conversation.

Finding our more detail: "What else do we need to do to make this a success?"

Finding out the other person's opinion or issues.

Closed questions are good for:

Testing your understanding, or the other person's.

Concluding a discussion or making a decision.

Frame setting.

Funnel Questions

This technique involves starting with general questions, and then homing in on a point in each answer, and asking more and more detail at each level. It's often used by detectives taking a statement from a witness:

Funnel questions are good for:

Finding out more detail about a specific point.

Gaining the interest or increasing the confidence of the person you're speaking with: "Have you used the IT Helpdesk?", "Did they solve your problem?", "What was the attitude of the person who took your call?"

Probing Questions

Asking probing questions is another strategy for finding out more detail. Sometimes it's as simple as asking your respondent for an example, to help you understand a statement they have made. At other times, you need additional information for clarification.

Probing questions are good for:

Gaining clarification to ensure you have the whole story and that you understand it thoroughly; and

Drawing information out of people who are trying to avoid telling you something.

Leading Questions

Leading questions try to lead the respondent to your way of thinking. They can do this in several ways:

With an assumption: "How late do you think that the project will deliver?". This assumes that the project will certainly not be completed on time.

By adding a personal appeal to agree at the end: "Lori's very efficient, don't you think?" or "Option 2 is better, isn't it?"

Leading questions are good for:

Getting the answer you want but leaving the other person feeling that they have had a choice.

Closing a sale: "If that answers all of your questions, shall we agree a price?"

Using Questioning Techniques

You have probably used all of these questioning techniques before in your everyday life, at work and at home. But by consciously applying the appropriate kind of questioning, you can gain the information, response or outcome that you want even more effectively.

Questions are a powerful way of:

Learning.

Managing and coaching

Avoiding misunderstandings

Diffusing a heated situation

TASK 2: CHANGE STRATEGY AND ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE MODEL

KOTTER'S 8-STEP CHANGE MODEL

A change needs to happen, but question is how the change will occur and how one can implement this change step by step. There are many theories about how to "do" change. Many originate with leadership and change management guru, John Knotter. A professor at Harvard Business School and world-renowned change expert, Knotter introduced his eight-step change process in his 1995 book, "Leading Change." We look at his eight steps for leading change below.

1) Create Urgency

By showing people poor sales statistics or talking about increased competition, develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This may help you spark the initial motivation to get things moving.

What I did?

Identified potential threats what could happen in the future.

Examined opportunities that could be exploited.

2) Form a Powerful Team

To lead change, you need to bring together a coalition, or team, of influential people whose power comes from a variety of sources, including job title, status, expertise, and political importance. Once formed, your "change coalition" needs to work as a team, continuing to build urgency and momentum around the need for change.

What I did?

Identified the true leaders in organization.

Got an emotional commitment from these key people.

Checked team for weak areas, and ensured that I got a good mix of people from different departments and different levels within the company.

3) Create a Vision for Change

When you first start thinking about change, there will probably be many great ideas and solutions floating around. Link these concepts to an overall vision that people can grasp easily and remember. A clear vision can help everyone understand why you're asking them to do something.

What I did?

Developed a short summary that captures the future of organization.

Determined the values that are central to the change.

Created a strategy to execute that vision.

4) Communicate the Vision

It's also important to "walk the talk." What you do is far more important - and believable - than what you say. Demonstrate the kind of behaviour that you want from others.

What I did?

Talked often about change vision.

Applied the vision to all aspects of operations - from training to performance reviews.

5) Remove Obstacles

Removing obstacles can empower the people you need to execute your vision, and it can help the change move forward.

What I did?

Identified, and hired, change leaders

Recognized and rewarded people for making change happen.

Identified people who were resisting the change, and helped them see what's needed.

Took action to quickly remove barriers.

6) Create Short-Term Wins

As nothing motivates more than success. Give your company a taste of victory early in the change process.

What I did?

Established projects

Analyzed the potential pros and cons.

Rewarded the people who helped to meet the targets.

7) Build on the Change

Quick wins are only the beginning of what needs to be done to achieve long-term change. Each success provides an opportunity to build on what went right and identify what you can improve.

What I did?

After every win, I analyzed what went right and what need improving.

Set goals to continue building on the momentum achieved.

8) Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture

It's also important that your company's leaders continue to support the change. This includes existing staff and new leaders who are brought in. If you lose the support of these people, you might end up back where you started.

What I did?

Kept telling success stories about the change process.

Included the change ideals and values when hiring and training new staff.

THE MCKINSEY 7S FRAMEWORK

It was developed in the early 1980s by Tom Peters and Robert Waterman, two consultants working at the McKinsey & Company consulting firm, the basic premise of the model is that there are seven internal aspects of an organization that need to be aligned if it is to be successful.

The 7S model can be used in a wide variety of situations where an alignment perspective is useful, for example to help you:

Improve the performance of a company.

Examine the likely effects of future changes within a company.

Determine how best to implement a proposed strategy.

The Seven Elements

The McKinsey 7S model involves seven interdependent factors which are categorized as either hard or soft elements:

Hard Elements

Soft Elements

Strategy

Structure

Systems

Shared Values

Skills

Style

Staff

"Hard" elements are easier to define or identify and management can directly influence them: These are strategy statements; organization charts and reporting lines; and formal processes and IT systems.

"Soft" elements, on the other hand, can be more difficult to describe, and are less tangible and more influenced by culture. However, these soft elements are as important as the hard elements if the organization is going to be successful.

The way the model is presented in Figure 1 below depicts the interdependency of the elements and indicates how a change in one affects all the others.

Let's look at each of the elements specifically:

Strategy: the plan devised to maintain and build competitive advantage over the competition.

Structure: the way the organization is structured and who reports to whom.

Systems: the daily activities and procedures that staff members engage in to get the job done.

Shared Values: called "super ordinate goals" when the model was first developed, these are the core values of the company that are evidenced in the corporate culture and the general work ethic.

Style: the style of leadership adopted.

Staff: the employees and their general capabilities.

Skills: the actual skills and competencies of the employees working for the company.

How to Use the Model

Whatever the type of change - restructuring, new processes, organizational merger, new systems, change of leadership, and so on - the model can be used to understand how the organizational elements are interrelated, and so ensure that the wider impact of changes made in one area is taken into consideration.

You can use the 7S model to help analyze the current situation (Point A), a proposed future situation (Point B) and to identify gaps and inconsistencies between them. It's then a question of adjusting and tuning the elements of the 7S model to ensure that your organization works effectively and well once you reach the desired endpoint.

7S Checklist Questions

Here are some of the questions that you'll need to explore to help you understand your situation in terms of the 7S framework. Use them to analyze your current (Point A) situation first, and then repeat the exercise for your proposed situation (Point B).

Strategy:

What is our strategy?

How do we intend to achieve our objectives?

How do we deal with competitive pressure?

How are changes in customer demands dealt with?

Structure:

How is the company/team divided?

How do the various departments coordinate activities?

How do the team members organize and align themselves?

Is decision making and controlling centralized or decentralized? Is this as it should be, given what we're doing?

Systems:

What are the main systems that run the organization? Consider financial and HR systems as well as communications and document storage.

Where are the controls and how are they monitored and evaluated?

What internal rules and processes does the team use to keep on track?

Shared Values:

What are the core values?

How strong are the values?

What are the fundamental values that the company/team was built on?

Style:

How effective is that leadership?

Do employees/team members tend to be competitive or cooperative?

Staff:

What positions or specializations are represented within the team?

What positions need to be filled?

Are there gaps in required competencies?

Skills:

What are the strongest skills represented within the company/team?

Do the current employees/team members have the ability to do the job?

How are skills monitored and assessed?

Using the information you have gathered, now examine where there are gaps and inconsistencies between elements. Remember you can use this to look at either your current or your desired organization.

TASK 3: ORGANISATIONAL RESPONSE TO CHANGE

I used SWOT Analysis method to check the response of the company towards this change.

SWOT Analysis

The SWOT analysis is an extremely useful tool for understanding and decision-making for all sorts of situations in business and organizations. SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. The SWOT analysis headings provide a good framework for reviewing strategy, position and direction of a company or business proposition, or any other idea. Use SWOT analysis for business planning, strategic planning, competitor evaluation, marketing, business and product development and research reports.

SWOT analysis came from the research conducted at Stanford Research Institute from 1960-1970. The background to SWOT stemmed from the need to find out why corporate planning failed. The research was funded by the fortune 500 companies to find out what could be done about this failure. The Research Team were Marion Dosher, Dr Otis Benepe, Albert Humphrey, Robert Stewart, Birger Lie.

These are 4 pillars of swot analysis,

Strengths

Opportunities

Weaknesses

Threats  

Strengths

Because I was the change leader, I knew the benefits related to this change. In all of my presentations to company staff, I emphasized on these strong points, as

Increased Productivity

Better Information

Faster Operations

Higher Sales

Convenient way of storing and retrieving information fast.

Can print out stuff repeatedly unlike a typewriter

You can do a back up of your data in one click

Increases mental processes rather than physical

Coordinate work easily through the internet

Send mails faster and safer

Weaknesses (Problems related to change) and Threats

Following are the major problems faced by company staff related to computer, as they were not used to it,

Mindset of using paper for accounts handling

1) People don't understand what things are, where things are,

3) Terminology was not understandable (like Window, mouse, browse, copy paste, hard disk, memory, keyboard, laptop, search engine, download, antivirus, internet, network, site, byte, megabyte, desktop, motherboard, server, chipset, tools, tool bar, link, home, format, software, hardware, table and many many more)

4) Typing problems

7) Fears to deal with computer troubleshoot

8) the most important problem was to transfer all the previous data on to the computer which was the time consuming and laborious work.

9) Cost problem. These include the costs of purchasing computers hardware, peripherals and software; network development and administration; staff training.

Opportunities

Increased Productivity which will result in more jobs

Better Information which will increase the confidence level

Faster Operations resulting in better credibility

Higher Sales

TRANSITIONAL CURVE

When managing change it's important to recognise that transition is an individual reaction. The role of managers is to help others through to new beginnings whilst maintaining the level of activity or service. Here are some points to bear in mind when assessing where people are on the transition curve.

Some people repeat sections of the curve to best handle transition (there's no right or wrong sequence).

People will exhibit different emotions depending upon the nature and number of changes occurring to them at the same time and their 'emotional intelligence'. This is normal.

Realising where you and the people around you are on the curve will help you initiate appropriate actions and respond effectively.

The three stages of transition are shown in a Transition Curve and whilst this curve is over simplified, it is a useful tool for understanding the sorts of issues people might be facing during a change.

Figure 4: Transition curve

Here is the explanation of transitional curve,

Endings

In the 'Endings' stage, staff may want to deny the existence of the initiative and other related change events. Their denial can move them to fear and uncertainty about the future. This diminishes their level of activity and readiness to deal with the accelerating pace of change as the process starts to impact on the organisation.

Neutral Zone

The Neutral Zone or exploration stage is the time between the current and the desired state. Staff will be attempting to orient themselves to the new requirements and behaviours. During this time, they will be confused about the future and will feel overloaded with competing demands.

New Beginnings

The New Beginnings stage of the Transition Curve is that time when people are ready to commit to the new direction and the change. They feel secure in the new organisation and are ready to function as a significant contributor. This typically occurs as the initiative starts to achieve some of its desired goals.

CORE COMPETENCE ANALYSIS (Get Ahead, Stay Ahead.)

The idea of the "core competence" is one of the most important business ideas that have shaped our world. It is one of the key ideas that lie behind the current wave of outsourcing, as businesses concentrate their efforts on things they do well, and outsource as much as they can of everything else.

By using the idea, you can make the very most of the opportunities open to you:

You can focus your efforts so that you develop a unique level of expertise in areas that really matter to your customers. Because of this, you'll command the rewards that come with this expertise; and

You can learn to develop your own skills in a way that complements your company's core competences. By building the skills and abilities that your company most values, you'll win respect and be more likely to get the career advancement that you want.

Explaining Core Competences: The Value of Uniqueness

The starting point for understanding core competences is understanding that businesses must have something that customers uniquely value if they're to make good profits.

The question, though, is where this uniqueness comes from, and how it can be sustained.

In a paper in 1990"The Core Competence of the Corporation", C.K.Prahalad and Gary Hamel argue that "Core Competences" are some of the most important sources of uniqueness: These are the things that a company can do uniquely well, and that no-one else can copy quickly enough to affect competition.

Hamel and Prahalad give three tests to see whether they are true core competences:

Relevance: Firstly, the competence must give your customer something that strongly influences him or her to choose your product or service. If it does not, then it has no effect on your competitive position and is not a core competence;

Difficulty of Imitation: Secondly, the core competence should be difficult to imitate. This allows you to provide products that are better than those of your competition. And because you're continually working to improve this competence, ir means that you can sustain your competitive position; and

Breadth of Application: Thirdly, it should be something that opens up a good number of potential markets. If it only opens up a few small, niche markets, then success in these markets will not be enough to sustain significant growth.

Using This in Your Business and Career:

To identify your core competences, use the following steps:

Brainstorm the factors that are important to your clients.

Brainstorm your existing competences and the things you do well.

For the list of your own competences, screen them against the tests of Relevance, Difficulty of Imitation and Breadth of Application, and see if any of the competences you've listed are core competences.

For the list of factors that are important to clients, screen them using these tests to see if you could develop these as core competences.

Review the two screened lists, and think about them:

If you've identified core competences that you already have, then great! Work on them and make sure that you build them as far as sensibly possible;

If you have no core competences, then look at ones that you could develop, and work to build those; or

If you have no core competences and it doesn't look as if you can build any that customers would value, then either you need another way of being unique in your market (see our USP Analysis article), or you need to consider finding another environment that better suits your competences.

Think of the most time-consuming and costly things that you do either as an individual or a company.

TIPS FOR A GOOD LEADER

All of these problems only can be solved and resistance can be reduced, if the change leader got some extra qualities as mentioned below

1 Motivate: Everyone wants to feel important. Good leader motivates his followers.

2 Listen: You have to be a good listener. To become a good leader listen to everyone in the team and take a conscious decision.

3 Trust your team: To get 100% from your team trust them fully. The good leader must learn to trust.

4 Say thanks: Understand the power of these two words. Saying thanks makes the leader better.

5 Be courteous: It is very obvious that the good leader should be courteous to everyone in the team.

6 Keep your ears to ground: This will help you to spot a looming staff crisis before it happens and this leads to success for a leader

7 Be flexible: A good leader recognizes peoples needs outside work life in order to achieve better result on the work.

8 Stay cool under pressure: How do you expect people to respond if the boss looks like to be under pressure. A good leader never passes his stress to his subordinates.

9 Lead by example: Be first in the office and last out. Especially in hard times the good leader sets the example to be followed by others.

10 Celebrate: The leader always celebrates a win.

TASK 4 IMPACT OF CHANGE STRATEGY

Change Initiation Review Process

After a need for change has been recognized and the change initiator has raised a request for change (RFC), the change is categorized and prioritized based on the initial information available. As a result, the path for the change is defined, and the authorization process continues from this point up to the Change Initiation Review. If the change is authorized, it continues into development. If not, it is returned to the change initiator for more information and rework before it is resubmitted.

The change manager and change initiator are the primary participants in this Change Initiation Review discussion, but formalized discussion can also include representatives of other interested groups. This body is named the change advisory board (CAB) in the Change Management service management function (SMF).

Change Initiation Review's Four-Step Process

The Change Initiation Review process contains four essential steps:

Plan review meeting

Prepare for review

Conduct review

Follow up on review

If it is approved, the RFC is assigned a change owner and moves into change development preparations, as led by the change and development teams. Otherwise, the RFC is rejected and returned to the change initiator until the necessary improvements in the request are made, or it is cancelled.

DATA GATHERING BY FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW

Definition

Open-ended interview with a group of similar respondents who engage in discussion about a specific topic under the direction of an interviewer. The interviewer is usually an outsider to the organization and may take a directive or unobtrusive role.

When are focus groups useful?

When you want in-depth information about the experiences, attitudes, knowledge and opinions of program participants and other stakeholders.

To gather information at various points in time: during program planning, for a needs assessment, and to evaluate processes and outcomes.

To assess the satisfaction of program participants, determine whether participant expectations have been met, or obtain suggestions for improving a program.

Advantages of focus groups:

Like open-ended interviews, the participants are able to raise their own issues that they feel are important.

Discussion among focus group participants can generate new information and raise new issues providing a range of responses with useful information.

Disadvantages of focus groups:

Focus groups should be run by a skilled facilitator and often by an outsider to the program.

May be expensive and time-consuming to conduct

What I did?

Reviewed the evaluation plan and research questions.

Determined whether focus groups are the best way to obtain the information.

Developed a focus group topic guide that lists the topics or questions you would like to address in focus groups. The topics you choose should be based on the information you want to learn about.

Aimed to have 6 participants and planed to invite a few more participants in case some are unable to come.

FINDINGS OF CHANGE ANALYSIS

Following benefits defiantly welcomed this change with open arms, as

You can improve communication by connecting your computers and working on standardised systems, so that:

staff, suppliers and customers are able to share information and get in touch more easily

sharing information can make your business more efficient - eg networked access to a common database can avoid the same data being keyed multiple times, which would waste time and could result in errors

staff are better equipped to deal with queries and deliver a better standard of service as a result of sharing customer data 

You can reduce costs and improve efficiency by storing information in one centralised database and streamlining working practices, so that:

staff can deal with more customers at the same time by accessing customer and product databases

network administration can be centralised, less IT support is required

costs are cut through sharing of peripherals such as printers, scanners, external discs, tape drives and internet access

Similarly the following point or say advantages of introducing the new computer system resulted in improved efficiency of the company,

Increased Productivity

Employees can process more information in less time using computers. Additionally, all business operations can be connected through computers, improving overall business operations.

Better Information

Businesses will usually implement a computerized Management Information System, which allows all information from individual departments to be monitored. This allows information to be collected and reported easily with computers.

Faster Operations

Computers can increase the speed of business operations. Ordering materials, inspecting products, and collecting customer feedback via computers allow businesses to operate faster and produce better results.

Higher Sales

Computers can generate higher sales for businesses through the use of websites. Businesses can now stay open around the clock, allowing customers from around the globe to shop their stores.

CONCLUSION

For organizations to develop, they often must undergo significant change at various points in their development. That's why the organizational change and development has become widespread in communications about business, organizations, leadership and management. Change is always for success and progress, so all should welcome the changes.

Organizational change is a fundamental requirement for the development, improvement and performance of any organization.The introduction of the computer system and internet in Mitchell's Fruit Farms Ltd resulted in significant increase in sale, office staff reduction, no more book keeping, all of the staff, owner, stakeholder, customers, suppliers and every one related to Mitchell's Fruit Farms Ltd appreciated the benefits of this change in company, Now they are thinking of spreading their business on a multinational level. The main role in all this process was of style of implementation of change and of the change leaders.

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