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1.1 Organizational Behaviour
Organizational Behaviour is a field of study which has its primary interest the understanding of groups or individuals within the organizations and managing them to work effectively (Johns & Saks, 2008).
"Organizational behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and organizational structure have on behaviour within the organization, for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organizational effectiveness".
The study of organizational behaviour always involves two distinct features such as: Interdisciplinary and Explanatory.
There are number of study area which can be integrated into organizational behaviour. It involves aspects such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, philosophy, political science, system science and economics.
Organizational behaviour will set out to explain the relationships between various variables. It does not provide any intention to prescribe the interactions or relationships between the variables that should exist.
2. Organization Behaviour in Today's Context
2.1 Learning Organization
The concept of learning organisation was introduced by Mr. Peter Senge with five disciplines to it: personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and system thinking. This learning organisation is used to enhance the effectiveness of organisation. The learning organisation basically focuses on the philosophy of continuous organisation learning and a transformation stage of knowledge management. The learning organisation is also a process of powerful and collective learning and used to manage the knowledge. It involves in creating a culture of encouraging learning by capturing the updated knowledge and by sharing it to others and also supporting it by facilitating and rewarding it. We can also call this as a strategic strategy for a long term success. However a learning organisation may not directly contribute to the organisation performance but it is a key factor which ensures that the organisation performance graph has a rising curve consistently. So the individual in an organisation should enhance his knowledge while working and utilise the technology for maximum learning and should be productive out of it.
For a learning organisation it's very much necessary to consider the external environment because the organisational structure may be affected by the factor called environment uncertainty. One of the elements is environmental complexity, where the complex dynamic environment has the highest level of uncertainty.
To create a learning organisation the facilities must be improved properly to support learning and properly align it with the business operations. The organisation should also take steps to communicate the importance of learning and the degree of commitment to its employees. The organisation should also take steps to reduce the bureaucracy and encourage their employees for continuous learning and also measure the employees in terms of knowledge and identify the employees who are adapted to this learning organisation and consider them as the building blocks of the organisation. The learning organisation must be comprised of the following factors like learning's based on
Team and collective performance
Competition, cooperation and collaboration
Coaching, support and feedback
Intuition, outcome and process
The learning maybe of two type's individual learning or team/group generative learning:
Learning organisation basically focuses on the current and future success. Learning organisation must be designed in such a way that it is parallel to the work and objective of the organisation. System thinking should be made fundamental where it involves the examination and reflection upon all aspects of organisational life such as mission and strategy, structure and culture. So system thinking helps in maximising the strength and also minimising the weakness and enhances the overall operations. People should have continuous access to the information. Even the failure should be considered as the opportunity for learning. The learning organisation should be agile and flexible. The learning organisation should possess continuous adaptation and renew and revitalize itself in response to the changing environment.
This can be changed by changing the way in which the things are handled, changing the role models according to the new environment, changing the criteria for selection and recruiting the new employees and also for dismissal, by changing the reward systems.
Each and every individual inside an organisation has some resources in terms of their skills so all the employees can contribute their part to achieve the organisation objective. The people who are able to identify the problem are the one who can solve it effectively from the root. Learning organisation is exclusively meant for people at all levels of the management. The people should be recognised according to their performance where rewards and incentives come into play. Learning organisation is the one which makes a mistake only once and learns from it and ceases the mistake throughout once for all.
In order to create a learning organisation the culture should be encouraging the experimentation, collaboration and innovation. They also need to have the multiple feedback system and lot of learning channels to maximise the learning opportunities and continuous reinforcement.
It's not easy for us to implement this concept suddenly, where the senior management and the employees will be subjected to some resistive factors. The senior management should be having a very good financial status, experienced campaigners and lot of resources to implement it. It also alters the structure of the organisation considerably which has to be faced by the management. When it comes to employees they would not accept the sudden change, where they have to be moulded in terms of generative learning and continuous evaluation by performance measurement. The on job training will be the best fit practise. Using this technique a management as well as the employees could identify their current status and areas of improvement.
In this world of uncertainty it's not easy to predict the future like our past because things are changing dynamically. So it's essential for us to adapt the changes and necessary for us to change ourselves to live with paradox which is very much possible if we create leadership within our self so it is very much necessary for us to inject this leadership through this learning organisation.
In the modern organisation humans are considered as assets of the organisation. So it is the assets who own the assets in a organisation which proves the essentiality to convert an organisation into learning organisation. So the organisation can invest more in their training and development program in order to spread the concept of learning organisation powerfully for continuous learning.
2.2 KEY AREAS OF ORGANZIATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
The base of the organization will usually rest on the philosophy, vision, values and goals of the management. All these will in turn drive the culture of the organization which will be composed of the formal, informal organization and the social environment. The culture of the organization will determine the type of leadership, communication and the group dynamics within the organization. The workers in the organization perceive this to be the quality of work life which will direct the degree of motivation. The final outcomes of all this are individual satisfaction, performance, and personal growth & development (Mills and Bratton, 2007). Some of the most important key areas of organizational behaviour are the following.
The organization behaviour is usually shaped by four main forces:
Organization's environment and choice leaders make about strategy
People selected and promoted
Behaviour of leaders and their top team
Organizations have to naturally evolve towards the alignment of the above elements. In order to organize and manage people completely depends on the situation and it is implicit in this formulation to be a contingency perspective (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967).
2.2.2 Group Behaviour
It is evident from the research that interventions to change the design of the organization and behaviour will basically result in the improvement of productivity and faster development of products. Usually, the new manufacturing plants which involve and empower employees will perform more effectively on various dimensions rather than implementing traditional more hierarchical counterparts (Pfeffer, 1998).
2.2.3 Training & Development
Training and development is a vital tool for the effectiveness of the organization. Training not only facilitates the level of productivity but also helps in the development of personnel in any organization. In order to make the employees function effectively and perform efficiently is because knowledge is the ability, the skill, the understanding and the information which is required for all individuals.
According to Abiodun (1999), Training is a systematic development of the knowledge, attitudes and skills required by employees in order to perform adequately on a given job or task. It can basically take place in a number of ways; either on the job or off the job; inside the organization or outside the organization.
Training and development is a work activity which can make a very significant contribution to the overall profitability and effectiveness of any organization (Adeniyi, 1995).
Some of the main objectives of training and development are to improve the qualities of the trainee, formulation of objectives for different needs and ways of achieving it. The objective of training is very important because it helps to determine the designed and content of the training programmes. Basically the contents of the training remain the same no matter the type of training involved. It usually increases the efficiency of the personnel, professional growth, smooth and more effective organization's operations (Akinpeju, 1999).
2.2.4 Change Management
An organizational change occurs because of many important reasons; say it's external or internal to organization. But there are five potential forces for change:
Growth Pressures - Growth Pressures are usually implemented when the company ages and would need a change in the form of growth.
Integration & Collaboration Pressures - Some changes are enforced in order to better integrate the organization or create economies of scale across different business units.
Identity Pressures - Identity pressures implement change because it would enhance the identity as well as the commitment of the employees.
New Broom Pressures - New Broom phenomenon is a signal that would show that the old ways and methods are changing and there are so many new things evolve from a change.
Power & Political Pressures - These pressures implement change from the higher authority and because of various political reasons.
Support for change
There are various reasons why people are more likely to be supportive of change. Kirkpatrick identified some outcomes that show a positive side towards the change.
Support for change
Signs Of Resistance To Change
Resistance to change may take many forms when they are considered. Hultman draws a distinction between the active and passive resistance and also identifies a range of symptoms associated with each.
The symptoms of active resistance are identified as:
Appealing to fear
Blaming or accusing
Some of the symptoms identified with passive resistance are:
Agreeing verbally but not following through
Failing to implement change
Withholding informations, suggestions, help or support
Standing by and allowing change to fail