The goal of organizational behavioral management is to establish techniques, technology and practices which can change an organization for the better. This means developing techniques which make individual employees happier. When employees (or group members) are happy, the whole group working becomes happy and in turn a content group working towards one common goal is more productive than an unhappy group.
Importance of Organizational Behavior
Organizational Behavior is a systematic study of behavior of upper management, managers and employees and its impact on the performance of organization. The purpose of the study is to draw optimum performance from all the employees. In today's world, the environment of business is changing constantly. As a result, the manager has to play increasingly important role. With recent increase in workload, responsibilities and diversities, the importance of managers in a working environment has also increased. In order to help managers and supervisors learn more about the complexity of the new workforce many different studies have been developed. One area of study that has increased in importance over the years is the study of Organizational Behavior. This paper first defines exactly what organizational behavior is and discusses its importance.
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What is Organizational Behavior? The simplest definition of OB is - study of people and their behavior. It is concerned with the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations and can be understood in terms of three levels of analysis: the individual, the team, and the organization. Organizations exist in an environment that is constantly changing. As a result, they must become flexible enough to respond to these changes in order to remain successful and to survive. Some of the major changes facing organizations today include domestic and international competition and increasing diversity in the workplace. Organizational behaviors can help individuals, managers and organizations respond to these changes by understanding differences in individuals and their cultural values, managing diversity, and improving the quality of performance and thereby increasing productivity. Organizational behavior is a vast topic and a number of factors have to be considered for a complete study. In this paper we will focus on a few important factors - job satisfaction, motivation and interpersonal skills. Discussing importance of these factors will effectively demonstrate the importance of Organizational Behavior.
For long, it was assumed that only the technical skills are required to run a department or an organization successfully. Most of the studies focused primarily on technical skills to perform the job with efficiency. A technical skill, no doubt, is still very important aspect of any job. However, the focus is slowly and steadily moving towards management skills. Every manager should be concerned with employee job satisfaction for obvious reasons. First, there is a definite positive link between job satisfaction and worker productivity. If a worker is happy with the job he is doing, he is more likely to work harder. Only a satisfied worker can be expected to willingly go above and beyond the call of his duty. Second, satisfaction is negatively related to tardiness, absenteeism and turnover rate. A worker that is happy with his job is more likely to show up on time. Tardiness and absenteeism throw a project off the schedule and is a cause of major loss of revenues. Now that we have understood the importance of job satisfaction, let us look at the various factors that lead to job satisfaction.
Motivation is a leading contributor towards achieving job satisfaction. Motivation is the inner desire in every individual that drives him to strive in order to achieve more. As per Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, there is a rung of five needs -
• Physiological needs
• Safety needs
• Social needs
• Esteem needs and
• Self-actualization needs
As per the theory, as each of these needs is satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. These are the needs that keep any individual motivated.
Organizational behavior studies various factors as motivators. Every manager has to motivate his subordinates to extract optimum performance. Typically money is considered as the major motivator. However, there are following other factors that keep this desire to achieve burning.
• Congenial work environment: Hostile work environment often discourages people from delivering their duties with enthusiasm. On the other hand, a pleasant work environment encourages people to go an extra mile to perform.
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• Recognition: Every individual seeks recognition and a though that his work is recognized, gives person a sense of satisfaction to deliver his duties efficiently.
• Challenge: A challenging assignment propels many employees to achieve better results. Manager has to ensure that every ambitious person is periodically fed with challenging assignments.
There are various other factors to keep the employees motivated such as transparency, flexibility and honesty on the upper management's part.
Now that we have seen the role motivation plays towards job satisfaction, let us look at the importance of interpersonal skills from OB perspective. A good manager has to fulfill various functions such as planning, coordinating and controlling. Moreover he has to accomplish these functions efficiently in such a way that employees don't feel intimidated. This is where interpersonal skills play an important part. Interpersonal skills is the manner in which people deal with one another face-to-face. Interpersonal skills helps a person to respond, act and perceive other's response. Modern organizations recognize that in order to be an effective organization, it is essential that a healthy climate prevails within the organization. This requires staff to interact collaboratively to achieve organizational goals. This collaborative interaction will depend to a large extent on how supervisors manage interpersonal relationships with staff. Once managers have good rapport with their staff and gained the respect and confidence of their staff, staff will be more co-operative and committed to achieve the unit's goals. As a result, a manger with good interpersonal skills has a better chance of a building a high performing team. Since every individual is different, study of psychology and social psychology helps manager build rapport with every individual.
In closing, Organizational behavior studies the attitudes and behaviors of today's workers and tries to determine the best ways to effectively manage and change them. In order for a company to be successful, management must strive to build friendly work environment, conducive to develop employees capable of managing their work efficiently. The upper management should also demonstrate interpersonal skills to keep all the employees motivated. Studying organizational behavior can help companies better understand employees which will eventually lead to a better and more stable company.