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An unknown author stated "leadership is about capturing the imagination and enthusiasm of your people with clearly defined goals that cut through the fog like a beacon in the light" (Unknown, 2010).Â For leaders to understand how to capture the imagination and enthusiasm of their people they must first understand the behavior of the organization.Â Â The value of understanding organizational behavior will help an organization attain the competencies needed to obtain and retain effective employees, leaders, or managers.Â Because there are many individuals from many diverse backgrounds that must learn to perform both individually and collectively to meet performance standards it is important for leaders to understand how employees are motivated and what must be done as a leader to keep them motivated.Â If managers or leaders cannot understand how individuals, people, and groups act in an organization, then the structural elements and foundation of that organization will decline. This paper proposes an analytical approach for understanding the complexities of motivational problems within an organization and how motivation through leadership will set an organization up for success.Â
Being an effective organization means being conscious of the environmental aspects of an employee's behavior and the stage on which the organization operates. Â Leaders must train, prepare, and motivate employees because without this, goals will be unmet and lost. This is why it is so important for organizations to surround themselves with positive and motivated leaders that can deliver the message of a strong management philosophy emphasizing solid values, visions, and goals.Â Organizational behavior encompasses a wide variety of topics. These topics impact how human beings interact with one another and how organizations respond to this interaction. This paper will focus on several aspects of organizational behavior as it relates to leadership and motivation. First, organizational behavior can be divided into formal, informal, and a social environment. As a result of these different types of environments human behavior develops and defines an organization. Second, organizational culture determines the types of leadership, communication, and group dynamics that will distinguish a quality of work life directing an employee's level of motivation through job enrichment. Finally, what is motivation and how is leadership incorporated so that an organization can meet their goals?
First, organizational behavior can be divided into formal, informal, and a social environment. As a result of these different types of environments human behavior develops and defines an organization. From a management perspective models of organizational behavior are "gradually evolving from an autocratic model, to a custodial model, and then to a supportive model. A further refinement is a collegial model. Each successive model serves higher order needs and is more democratic" (Davis, 1968, p.27). Each of these models are not lucid in the perception that a leader will only use one of them, meaning that in a given week a supervisor may use one or all four of the models. Autocratic depends on ones authority to give orders to another which often depicts a formal environment where the supervisor knows best and orders are to be taken and carried out without question. It is most commonly used in an organization that is seeking quantity not quality work. For example in the 1800's the empire builders successfully applied the autocratic model to leaders of engineers, scientific managers, factory foremen that help build railroad systems, steel mills, and produce a powerful industrial civilization . An organization can measure an employee's morale by his or her compliance when the autocratic model of organizational behavior exists (Davis, 1968).
Although most employees were compliant, supervisors soon realized just because the workers did what they were told, did not mean they were not containing their frustration and anger towards the boss. This type of reaction began to affect the social environment where the community did not benefit due to the employee taking their aggression out on a spouse, family members, and even neighbors. Supervisors soon began to approach the concept "if an employee's insecurities, frustrations, and aggressions could be dispelled, he might fell more like working" (Davis, 1968). The custodial model was developed from this concept to provide security to the employee through economic resources such as fringe benefits which would ensure the employee became dependant on the organization. This type of organizational behavior model results in passive cooperation by the employee and only serves the employees maintenance needs which results in low motivation. As with the autocratic model the custodial is hard to determine morale because if employees say they are happy then there must be job satisfaction. Again human behavior changed amongst employees and deficiencies were noticed in the custodial model. Managers began to ask if there was a better way to motivate employees and increase morale.
Organizations began to see the autocratic model of barking orders and custodial model of ensuring dependency of the organization by the employee was not the only solution. The main reason for developing another organizational behavior model was because in the autocratic and custodial models the employee felt there was no need to move beyond what was in front of them professionally so they stayed out of dependency if even there was something better. The supportive model of organizational behavior came into play to support an employee and direct them toward job performance and participation. It was first introduced in the classical experiments of Mayo and Roethlisberger at Western Electric Company in the 1930's and 1940's (Davis, 1968). The experiments showed that an employee was more satisfied when their needs of status and recognition within the organization were met. This was support through Rensis Likert's research which showed that just because an employee is happy does not mean that employee is productive. Also, "the leadership and other processes of the organization must be such as to ensure a maximum probability that in all interactions and all relationships with the organization each member will, in the light of his background, values, and expectations, view the experience as supportive and one which builds and maintains his sense of personal worth and importance" (Likert, 1961, p. 103). The supportive model addressed the upward progression of employees within organizations and although it is very popular the collegial model of organizational behavior offers further opportunities and improvement.
The collegial model is an extension of the supportive model. The term collegial refers to a group of individuals working together to achieve a common goal. The employees are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline which results in the need to meet self-actualization as described in Maslow's Hierarchy of needs. The supervisor is not formally addressed as the boss as to not place a barrier between the employee and the supervisor. In other words the supervisor is being a leader who motivates the team to do their best (Davis, 1968). In this type of environment an employee will "normally feel some degree of fulfillment and self-realization, although the amount will be modest in some situations. The result is job enthusiasm, because he finds in the job such Herzberg motivators as achievement, growth, intrinsic work fulfillment, and recognition. His morale will be measured by his commitment to his task and his team, because he will see these as instruments for his self-actualization" (Davis, 1968, p.35).
Second, organizational culture determines the types of leadership, communication, and group dynamics that will distinguish a quality of work life directing their level of motivation through job enrichment. It is important to understand the models of organizational behavior and how each of them is built upon the accomplishment of the other to develop a positive organizational socialization which "is the process by which a person acquires the values, attitudes, and behaviors of an ongoing occupational social system" (Stojkovic, Kalinich, Klofas, 2003, p.214). A supervisor must be able to be an effective leader to move from one model to another so that an organization meets their goals. When this is accomplished an employee's quality of work life is increased and they will be motivated through job enrichment and job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is the degree to which an employee likes the actual work required of them and the job as a whole (Champion, 2003). It is usually linked to variables such as "ability, absenteeism, achievement, administration, advancement, aspirations, autonomy, education, experience, fatigue, freedom, health, human relations, job enlargement, marital status, mental health, mobility, motives, occupational level, opportunity to learn, peer group, physical hardships of the work, recognition, responsibility, routine, security , self esteem, supervision, training, turnover, and working considerations" (Champion, 2003, p. 104).
Job enrichment implies infusing tasks with problem solving activities and more complex and challenging duties that require thinking and creativity (Champion, 2003). Job enrichment, as a managerial activity includes a three step technique. First a leader must turn an employee's effort into performance. For example, a supervisor must define objectives and ensure they are understood especially the goals of the individual but more importantly the goals of the organization. Other variables would be providing resources, supportive culture, freedom, skill improvement, and job variety. Second, link employee's performance directly to reward by defining, explaining, and implementing the right reward for the job. If the reward is not given to the employee, a supervisor must give an explanation. Third, make sure the employee wants the reward by asking them or using surveys. The importance of job enrichment is to motivate employees so they do not show symptoms of boredom, dissatisfaction, and lack of flexibility. (Mione, Unk).
Why is job enrichment and job satisfaction important? It is absolutely without a doubt two of the most important factors that effects an employee motivation. If an employee does not have these two things their whole quality of work life will suffer. "Quality of work life can be best described as the extent to which employees can enhance their personal lives through their work environment and experiences" (Business Dictionary, 2010). As discussed in the organizational models it was apparent that the autocratic model began to suffer from employees being told what to do all the time and where taking their frustrations out on their friends and family. The progression of these organizational models shows how the impact of job enrichment and job satisfaction has improved an employee's quality of work life (Petty, McGee, Cavender, 1984). Job enrichment can be further described by Frederick Herzberg's two factor theory.
According to Frederick Herzberg's two factor theory people are influenced by motivation factors and hygiene factors. The motivation factors include achievement, responsibility, recognition, advancement, interest in job, and growth. These motivation factors are needed to motivate an employee into a higher performance. The hygiene factors include the organization, policies, administration, supervision received, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, job status, and job security. These hygiene factors ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied, however the employee does not require a higher level of motivation, but without them they will become dissatisfied. Research determined that the factors do not necessarily lead to a higher level of motivation however if they are negated there is dissatisfaction. However there were certain elements which enriched a person's job. When employees were satisfied with their job it produced long term positive effects in job performance while dissatisfied employees produced short term changes relating to attitudes and performance (Gawel, 2010).
Finally, what is motivation and how is leadership incorporated so that an organization can meet their goals. So far this paper has discussed organizational behavior models, job enrichment, job satisfaction, and quality of work life. How does a leader implement these variables through leadership to motivate workers? The primary concern of leaders is to motivate employees by establishing direction. Further, "leaders develop a vision of the future, align people though shared values, and vision, and motivate and inspire people to move them toward that shared vision" (Kotter, 1990, p. 31).
Motivation is encouraging employees to work together towards a common goal. A leader must create and sustain the desire of employees to achieve goals of the organization. Motivation involves three aspects which can determine the outcome; choice, effort, and persistence. It affects not only the addition of an employee's skills and abilities but also how these skills are utilized (Locke & Latham, 2004). Researches from Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor's Theory X & Theory Y, Victor Vroom' Expectancy Theory, and Clayton Alderfer's Existence/Relatedness/Growth have played a role in understanding motivation in the work place each adding input as new research is developed.
"Individual variables depict personal perceptions of the work environment and tasks performed. The employee has numerous attitudes, orientations, and dispositions toward various work roles" (Champion, 2003, p. 103). Abraham Maslow research into human behavior developed Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, which consists of five sets of goals or basic needs. The hierarchy begins with the lowest physiological needs to the highest self actualization needs. Other needs in between those two are safety needs, belongingness needs, and self esteem needs. Maslow contends the lowest need, physiological, involves basic needs for humans such as hunger, thirst, or sleep. Once these are satisfied safety needs such as the desire for protection against danger and deprivation. Belongingness needs like love and friendship replaces safety needs. Next esteem needs are desired such as self esteem, self respect, which impact a person's reputation, and their need for recognition and appreciation. At the top of the hierarchy is self actualization which is the development of a person's potential for self development, creativity, and job satisfaction. An example of how the hierarchy of needs works for a law enforcement officer would be as follows: An officer has a guaranteed salary and benefits. This enables the officer to fulfill the physiological and safety needs. Next, the officer searches to establish good social relations with co workers, and others within the criminal justice system. Esteem is fulfilled by the officers desire to seek promotion or some sort of advancement for recognition. Finally, self actualization is fulfilled when the officer seeks to improve the effectiveness of their job, or by accepting more challenging work assignments (Gawel, 2010).
In the early 1900's "organizational leaders gave little or no consideration to worker sentiments and attitudes. The philosophy was that workers were paid to do their jobs and nothing more. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y characterize this early view of workers in the organization by describing a set of beliefs" (Champion, 2003, p. 55). In McGregor's book The Human Side of Enterprise, he explains the differences between Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X describes the basic human being as having a dislike for work and will avoid work if at all possible. Most employees who fall under this theory have to be coerced, controlled, directed, and sometimes threatened with some sort of discipline to put forth some sort of effort to get the job done. McGregor believes "the average human being prefers to be directed, wants to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, and craves security above all" (McGregor, 1960, p. 33-34). Theory Y focus is the opposite of Theory X, in that the basic human being belief that work is as natural as rest. Further creativity, imagination, and ingenuity are used to solve problems and if the job is satisfying there will be a commitment to the organization from the employee. McGregor explains that both theories impact an organization because at one moment a supervisor may be giving orders and in other situations they may be able to explain to the employee the objective so that the employee may exert self direction (McGregor, 1960).
Victor Vroom' Expectancy Theory explores why human beings choose to follow certain avenues of actions within an organization, specifically in decision making and leadership. The focus of the Expectancy Theory is that an employee is motivated to complete a task based on the probability and outcome of completing the task. Further, human being will make decisions that they feel will be painless and lead to a reward. The most important fact is the impact that outcome will have on the individual and not the goal itself. According to Vroom three factors determine an individual's opinion: expectancy, valence, and instrumentality. Expectancy, the first factor is an individual's belief that they can complete a task. A number of things that can influence expectancy are resources, training, and supervision needed. Another factor influencing expectancy is the employee's previous experience in completing the task and whether it was successful or not. The second factor, valence, is determined by how much an individual wants the consequences of completing the task. Positive outcome may result in praise, promotion, recognition, or a raise. However, a negative outcome can result in an individual becoming exhausted, and bored. The third factor and final factor, instrumentality, focuses on the probability of securing the desired outcome, following successful completion of the task. Employees will put forth more effort if they believe that their performance will meet the desired goal (Outlaw, 2010).
Clayton Alderfer's Existence/Relatedness/Growth (ERG) is a response and reaction to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory. Alderfer's ERG reduces Maslow's 5 levels of need to just 3: existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence relates to Maslow's first two levels (physiological and safety needs) which focus on the basic requirements such as food, shelter, clothing, etcâ€¦ Relatedness relates to Maslow's third and fourth levels (belongingness and esteem needs) which focus on establishing and maintaining relationships with co-workers, friends and family in reference to time spent at work with co-workers. Growth relates to Maslow's fourth and fifth levels (esteem and self actualization needs) which focus on being creative and productive to enhance a human being's self-esteem. Alderfer's believed the ERG was not intended to be a hierarchy therefore a person behavior is motivated from bottom to top but two needs can be met simultaneously. For example, an individual may satisfy their growth needs by completing a project even though their relatedness needs are not satisfied (Outlaw, 2010).
This paper has discussed an analytical approach for understanding the complexities of motivational problems within an organization. "As a leader, you need to interact with your followers, peers, seniors, and others; whose support you need in order to accomplish your goals. To gain their support, you must be able to understand and motivate them. To understand and motivate people, you must know human nature. Human nature is the common qualities of all human beings. People behave according to certain principles of human nature" (Outlaw, 2010). Organizational behavior models, autocratic, custodial, supportive, and collegial help to understand how motivation through leadership has evolved since the early 1900's. Each behavior model has different characteristics and supervisors will more than likely use each model at some point and time. By understanding the organizational behavior models leaders began to realize that most employee wanted job satisfaction, and job enrichment, both influenced an employee's quality of work life. Frederick Herzberg's two factor theory showed that people are influenced by motivation factors and hygiene factors. Research determined when employees were satisfied with their job it produced long term positive effects in job performance while dissatisfied employees produced short term changes relating to attitudes and performance. Further researches from Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor's Theory X & Theory Y, Victor Vroom's Expectancy Theory, and Clayton Alderfer's Existence/Relatedness/ Growth (ERG) played a role in understanding motivation in the work place each adding input that affect motivation through leadership. Each researcher added to the one before improving on how a leader can motivate employees. From 1943 to 1954 Maslow's hierarchy of needs defined the basic needs of a motivated human being. Then in 1960 McGregor defined his Theory X and Theory Y, which separates workers into two categories: motivated or not motivated. Later in 1964 Victor Vroom' Expectancy Theory explores why human beings choose to follow certain avenues of actions within an organization, specifically in decision making and leadership. The focus of the Expectancy Theory is that an employee is motivated to complete a task based on the probability and outcome of completing the task. Finally in 1969, Clayton Alderfer's Existence/Relatedness/Growth (ERG), responds to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory, and reduces Maslow's five levels of need to just these three categories: existence, relatedness, and growth. Because the ERG was not dependant on a hierarchy, Alderfer's belief was that a person's behavior is motivated simultaneously by more than one need at the same time. If you understand that "human needs are an important part of human nature and even though values, beliefs, and customs differ from country to country and even within group to group, all people have a few basic needs. As a leader you must understand these needs because they can be powerful motivators" (Outlaw, 2010).