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Organizational Behavior is the study of individuals and their behavior within the environment of the organization in a workplace setting. It is the study of the individual behavior in the organization to see that how and individual Perform in the work place It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication and management.Â
To explain the organization behavior , wherein Organizational behavior is the study, it does mean has three important determinants of behavior in organizations ; individual, group, structure theirs collaborate to applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups, and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organization work more effectively. There are some goals of the organization behavior which we can easily understand from the following figure.
Goals of organizational behavior
(How people behave) (Any people behave as they do)
(Which one productive or absent) (To control humanworkactivity)
Organizational behavior (employee's behavior): organizational behavior refers to the study of the individual in organization that how it feels and reacts in the environment of the organization: we can explain the behavior of the organization in the words of Buchanan:
"The study of the structure, functioning, and performing of organization, and the behavior of groups and individuals within them" (David Buchanan, p. 2.)
Organization behavior and role of the manager
Is Organizational Behavior is more important to the Role of a Manager?
Why it is always have seen that approximately 40 percent of new management hires fail within their first 18 months as manager? Is it just, because they do not having the required and technical skill and know how to gain their job functions? No, the reason for not working so good and failure is contributed to the fact they were unable to establish or build good relationships with workers and subordinates (cited A. Fisher). Organizational behavior studies the attitudes and behaviors of workers and tries to determine and find out the best paths to successfully supervise and modify them. In order for a company to be successful, administration has to struggle to construct friendly work atmosphere in the organization, and try to build up workers able of administrate their work professionally and successfully.
Organization culture:/corporate culture.
To explaining the culture of organization or corporate culture we can define this the collection/and combination of relatively uniform beliefs values tradition custom, and practice which are shared by an organization persons and which are transmitted from one generation of employees to the next"(Buchanan p.512)
Culture of the organization is the combination of ideas, customs, beliefs, values, language, codes, tool, technique, and work of art, ritual, and ceremony, among other element. The present situation of organization culture totally depends upon the ability of the human skill. The classic meaning of culture was provide by the Ninth-century English anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor in the 1st part of his Primitive Culture (1871): has defined Cultureâ€¦ is that complex whole organization setting in which include beliefs, arts knowledge, rule , morals, customs, and any other habit and capability acquire by person as a part of society. In Anthropology (1881) Taylor made it clear that man is a dominant element which alone possesses culture.
The concept of the organization culture rise by many social scholar, but the main contribution which is given to two main publication in 1980 namely by tom petr and Robert waterman in 1982. in their book. After that credit goes to Terrence deal and Allan Kennedy they wrote the book the corporate culture and they clearly explain the concept of culture on their book.
OPITO THE OIL AND GAS COMPANY
Now we can see from case study that the oil and gas academy how they treat the behavior and culture of the company:
The major thing or we may say the major benefits of the opito is to form a supply chain from that supply chain they are able to understand the behavior of the employees and the working condition of the employees, as the behavior and culture play very important role for achieving the overall objectives, so the opito starts their work form universities and colleges to attract new talented entrants into the organization. We can exhibit culture also from the following diagram. Figure
There are several factors which affect the culture as well as the behavior of the employees in the organization they are as under: Factors which influence the behavior of employees may be external and internal factors
Internal factors include the leadership style, culture of the orgtanzation, and organizational structure. A Whole external factor includes the social and family life of the individual and other social dominant factors such as other businesses etc.
The factor which influence the culture of the organization includes the following
a) Changing in the management activities/administration may greatly influence the corporate culture
b) Employees play vital role in the development of the organization if they also disturb or made change in the existing level of the employees these may also suffer and influence the organization culture.
c) Different type strategies/planning may also affect the culture of the company
d) Geographical location may also affect the culture of the organization.
Changing in management activities
Organizational culture different strategies
As far as opito case study concern they management using a variety of techniques to have a good and sound culture in that oil and gas company, they have adopted a variety of ways to understand the individual and to form such type of culture, knowing organization culture is very essential for the manger because with out understanding the culture, manager can not in a position to better control the organization as we are seeing form case study that how opito are struggling towards their goals.
Leadership approach to management and its human resource policies:
The Longest Journey of a Hundred and Thousand Miles Begins With the Very First Step.
Leadership: different authors have defined the world leadership in different ways, but in simple words the term leadership means" is nothing but to encourage people to do work, with not only willingness, but willingness to do work with zeal and confidence.
Leader has the power to prepare people do what they want and require them to do. By the power of their personalities, they are capable to encourage other to achieve goals that they would otherwise never have even considered pursuing. Leader can really manipulate believes, dealings and thoughts of their supporters. These are the only persons who can bring a great change in the attitude as well as in the behavior of the workers and subordinates.
The behavior and approach of providing path/instruction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Leadership styles are as under.
1) Authoritarian or autocratic
2) Participative or democratic
3) Delegatives / Free Reigns:
GoodÂ leaderÂ applicationÂ of allÂ threeÂ stylesÂ depending onÂ the situationÂ of the organization,Â butÂ oneÂ of themÂ usuallyÂ dominant,Â bad leaderÂ lean toÂ glueÂ to oneÂ style andÂ do not take anyÂ more.Â WeÂ canÂ explainÂ thisÂ asÂ follows
Authoritarian style of leadership: This style is generally used when leader tell his employee what he wants to do and how they want it accomplished/achieved , without getting the advice of their followers, in this type of leadership all decision made by the leaders it self and they don't allow subordinate to become a part his or their decision.
I want both of u to follow the rules & Participative or democratic style of Leadership. ThisÂ styleÂ involvesÂ theÂ leader,Â includingÂ oneÂ or moreÂ of theÂ workersÂ inÂ decision-making processÂ (determining what needs to beÂ to doÂ andÂ howÂ to doÂ this). Here the leader allows the subordinate to take part in the decision making. This style is not an indication of failing/and lake of power; but it is the mark of power that workers will respect.
Work to gather to solve the problems and ) Delegatives (free reigns) leadership style: In this style, the leader permit and let the workers to make the decision. Though, the leader is still answerable for the decision which is made. It is used when employee are capable to study the condition and decide what needs to be done and how to do this. You may not do all! You have to place priority and assign certain tasks. Delegatives (free reigns)
You two pay attention of the trouble/issue even as I goâ€¦ We can also understand all the style from the following diagram as under.
A good leader can use all these style depending on different forces between leader, follower and situation.diagramically we may present it by the following way.
As It clear from the above diagram that the forces may affect the leadership style and the leader my use one of them by keeping view the situation of the organization.
As the case of OPITO they are using the fayol management principles
Good leadership, such as, planning, organizing,dircting,controlling and the environment of the oil and gas company different form other industries so they have arranged such environment in which at each level the employees are leading my professionals,Many managers are also leaders, but people in the oil and gas industry are encouraged to show leadership at every level.
There are several example exists in organization in which variety of organization facing problem due to poor leadership quality, as we sum up from the above discussion that leadership play very vital role in the best management of the organization, here also we can see the case of OPITO that how they are using their leadership, they form for each section and department a separate manager who best controlling the activities of the company, they are familiar about the ups and down and the leadership global problem so they managed their activities accordingly, here another example of the week leadership of deloitte touch tomhastu limited who has invested a huge amount in this regard to know clearly about the week aspect of leadership to improve the company overall activities.
HUMAN RESOURCE POLICIES:
Human resource policies of leadership that how to best manage the work force with in organization and how to get done work with other, require some solid hr policies by the leaders, as before the emerge of scientific management the proper work distribution and and discipline about work were not specify clearly but when scientific management emerge by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1977 her standardization and discipline if we follow the following rules and policies:
the job should be planned by management(leader) and doing of this should be left to workers
the job should be broken down into its elements and these element should be distributed in workers
The selection of workers should be to their fitness for job and not on friendship.
Training should be given to selected workers.
Monitor the worker to ensure the work.
The payment to workers should be based on the piece of work, which they have performed, and produced.
These above rules and policies of the Taylor must be follow by the functional leadership style to implement in the organization to control the activity of the organization now the question is that what is functional leadership we can briefly explain in the following way,
Functional leadership: this type of leadership which are responsible for the advices to line authority and must be accepted by line manager, we can explain this by the following figure also,
General Manager figure 1.4
Personal dept 1 finance dept
Dept 1 head dept 2 head dept 3 head
As now we can study how the opito has use their leadership and how they are achieving their objectives, the opito using the fayol suggested principles and also they are using for motivation the Abraham Maslow need of hierarchy.
To explaining the culture of organization or corporate culture we can define this the collection of relatively uniform values, beliefes,customs, traditions and practice which are shared by an organization members and which are transmitted from one generation of employees to the next"(Buchanan p.512).
Realizing and assess the organization's culture may mean the distinction between success and failure in today's rapid varying business atmosphere. (Richard Hag berg, PhD.. HCG, and Julie Heifetz PhD. HCG (Corporate Culture 2000). Organizational culture can be closely define as the shared, belief, assumption and "normal behavior" of the group. They also state these are powerful influences on the way public take action and exist, and define what is "normal" and how to pass those whose are normal "normal". To large degrees what we do is determine by our culture. (Toolpack Consulting, LLC, (Organizational Culture 2003)
Organization attitude: attitude may be concern with person or individual, it is a tendency to respond in certain way favorably or unfavorably to objects persons or situations.
Models of the corporate culture:
From the culture perspective, all organization are held to possess cultures, such as we have studied in the case of OPITO oil and gas academy, having a variety of culture, due to their nature of business, but if is only a minority which have strong that is highly visible ones, which clearly distinguish them from other companies, and which affect the behavior of their employees. To explain how a strong culture is created we shall consider it under four headings,
Constituents of org, culture
It is clear form the above figure that how different things combine to form organization culture, but here the question arise again that person attitudes.,perception,behavior, is very necessary to form organization culture as we have seen from the case study of oil and gas company opito. How they have combined their workforce team to done work and how they are using different management techniques to solve the problems.
Each organization has its own different culture. It is a combination of variety of elements which includes the founders, past leadership, present leadership, , events, history, crises and size (Newstrom, Davis, 1993).
The climate is the feel/satisfactory condition of the organization, where individual share perception and attitude of the organization's members to have understanding with each others and to develop coordinated environment and culture (Ivancevich, Konopaske, Matteson, 2007). While the culture is the important and strongly embedded nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems, policies, tradition, rules and customs; climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current/present leadership. Climate represent the beliefs about the "feel of the organization" by its members that how they feel in the context of the organization. This individual perception of the "feel of the organization" comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization. These activities with great extent influence disturb both individual and team motivation and satisfaction,
this statement is true because it is very important for manger to have a complete awareness about the individual behavior and attitudes, because if no manager not no the perception and attitudes of the employees so he can not manage his business or organization successfully, as we have seen from case study that how opito are knowing the attitudes and behavior of the employees they form a separate supply chain through that they are able to best manage the employees. they have developed a leadership style at each level of the organization they are applying the authoritative and democratic leadership style which giving best support to the company on managing the organization activities and helpful for the management understanding of the employees behavior and attitudes, and perception in the company, as we as the opito have applied the fayol principles of management which give support in this behalf.
Conclusion: with sum up our discussion, as it is clear that the study of the behavior of the individual and group is much important by the manager/leader, as well as the culture and the perception, attitude, beliefs also have dominant position in the study of the behavior of the individual as all these things should be study by the leaders and motivate workers to achieve the maximum objectives of the business concern.