If one wants to make things happen the ability to motivate oneself and others is a crucial skill. At work, home, and everywhere in between, people use motivation to get results. Motivation implies that a balance is maintained between communication, structure, and incentives. Motivation is defined as the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior. This hypothesis is inferred through a study of different theories of different people .Some of the theories are explained below to give the reader an insight into motivation and its effects.
Maslow'sÂ Theory of MotivationÂ - Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is a very famous and an interesting theory on needs. This theory was developed by Abraham Maslow in 1943. Maslow's hierarchy was shown through a triangular diagram that is broken down in five horizontal parts. Each part represents a "need" that humans have. The theory divides human needs in five categories: Physiological needs, Safety Needs, Social Needs, Esteem Needs and Self Actualization Needs. (Anne Bruce)The final need occurs when the first four needs are fulfilled. When these needs (4 needs) are subdued, the fifth and the last need arise wherein a human being wants to explore himself and reach his maximum potential. It is his undertaking of the spiritual journey that he wants to set forth on.
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(Abraham H. Maslow)
Motivation in theory - McGregor - theory x and theory y
McGregor developed two theories of human behavior at work: Theory and X and Theory Y. He did not imply that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes - with a whole spectrum of possible behaviors in between.
Theory X workers could be described as follows:
Individuals who don't like work and avoid it where possible
Individuals who don't possess the desired ambition, dislike responsibility and prefer to be led
Individuals who vouch for security
The management implications for Theory X workers stressed that in order to achieve organizational objectives, a business will have to impose a management system of coercion, control and punishment.
Theory Y workers were characterized by McGregor as:
Consider effort at work as just like rest or play
Ordinary people who do not dislike work. Work conditions also give a clear cut idea of how satisfied the employees there are
Individuals who look out for responsibility (if they are motivated0
The management implications for Theory Y workers stressed that in order to achieve organizational objectives, rewards of various kinds are likely to be the most popular motivator. The challenge for management with Theory Y workers is to develop a working environment (or culture) where workers can show and develop their creativity.
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory:
Herzberg's theory said that there are certain factors in an organization that directly motivate employees to work harder. These are the motivational factors. Various other factors should also be kept in perspective in the organization. Absence of these factors will de-motivate the employees. But these factors will not motivate the employees to work harder. These factors are hygiene factors.
Motivating factors include the following: To what extent is the job interesting? Does it offer any incentives for recognition? Does it reward? What kind of empowerment does it offer? There are various other factors that surround the job. These are as follows: How reasonable is the pay? Is it a safe working environment?
The content and the function of the job itself should be made challenging and motivation should be done through a variety of methods. Communication in the work environment should be well managed. Herzberg's theory has been kept into perspective by managers. Improvements have been brought about in work places especially where hygiene is concerned. Employees are provided with meal coupons, free medical and health services, clean and silent work station etc.
(Michel Avital, 2008)
Motivational mechanisms at CSHK Dubai Contracting
After studying CSHK Dubai Contracting and visiting the organizations many time, we observed that CSHK Dubai Contracting uses job design as a motivating tool. Job rotation is an important component of its design.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Job rotation is a technique used to ensure that employees don't get bored of their work. Job rotation basically is moving an employee from job to job. EmployeesÂ are moved between two or moreÂ jobsÂ in a planned manner. One of the purposes of job rotation is to give employees the exposure to different kinds of organizational activities. Other objectives are to expose the employees to differentÂ experiencesÂ and a wider variety ofÂ skillsÂ to enhance his Â job satisfactionÂ through job variation.
Managers at CSHK Dubai Contracting think that their employees get bored by doing the same assigned task again and again. Although practicing job rotation is a difficult task as changing employees from one task to another can be time consuming but the managers make sure to plan it as it gives higher satisfaction and performance rates. CSHK Dubai Contracting has experienced that through job rotation new talents in their employees are revealed which wouldn't have been possible had their job have being rotated in a planned manner. Ambitious employees are revealed as any employee gets a job of his passion at which he is very good and keen to work.
Job rotation is also practiced when any employee leaves the organization and CSHK Dubai Contracting needs to hire a new employee. First the organization itself is scrutinized in search of an employee to fill in the missing seat .
EQUITY THEORY AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
Equity Theory of employee motivation tells the relationship between how fairly an employee thinks he is treated and how hard he is motivated to work. The idea behind Equity Theory is that employees, in order to balance what they put in to their jobs and what they get from them, will unconsciously assign values to each of their various contributions.Â
Apart from their time, employees contribute their experience, their qualifications, and their personal strengths such as ambition. Money, of course, is the primary motivator for an employee, but it is not the only factor. Power and status are also prime motivating outcomes, as are flexibility, perquisites and variety.Â
Equity theory stresses on the fact that, the most highly motivated employee is the one who thinks his rewards and contributions are equal. If he gets the feeling he is working and being rewarded the way his peers are being rewarded, then he will judge that he is being treated fairly.
This doesn't mean that managers should treat all employees identically, because every worker does not measure his contributions in the same way. For example, flexible working hours might motivate a working mother more than a pay raise will. Similarly an across-the-board wage increase may delight most employees but the highest producers may become less motivated if they perceive that they are not being rewarded for their ambition. Research on Equity Theory and employee motivation has demonstrated that, usually, over-rewarded employees will produce more and than will under-rewarded, less motivated employees.
There has been considerable research conducted to support the fundamental equity principle in Western work groups. When the theory is examined on an international basis, the results are mixed.
Equity theory international perspective
Professors David Hickson and Derek Pugh did some research on personal experiences from cross-cultural management. They presented the cultural characteristics of seven different slices of the world in the book Management worldwide. They attempted to convey the differences between different cultures. The goal is to help the reader become respectful, rather than judgmental, of the cultural expressions of people who have grown up in cultural contexts different from theirs. They present an overview of the cultures of the world retaining the respect of alternative views.
Equity perceptions for different cultures are very different and some writers even argue that equity theory isn't applicable worldwide. Research tells that equity perceptions among managers and non managers even belonging to same culture are different. In an organization where everyone was treated in the same way, managers reported lower satisfaction levels than the workers who perceived their contributions to be greater than other groups and felt under compensated for their value and effort.
Even the perception amongst male and female differs. Men and women in Japan and Korea (and Latin America) receive different pay for doing the same work.Employees in Asia and the Middle East often readily accept inequitable treatment in order to preserve group harmony.
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Anglo cultures and those that reward entrepreneurial effort to support achievement and their human resources should be managed accordingly. They should be motivated instead of being given monetary outputs by giving recognition and telling them the value of their time. (Elaine Walster)
Assessing Motivation & Job satisfaction using Equity Theory
Outputs typically include: Financial rewards (salary, benefits, perks, etc.) and Intangibles that typically include:Â RecognitionÂ ,ReputationÂ ,ResponsibilityÂ ,Sense of AchievementÂ ,PraiseÂ ,StimulusÂ ,Sense of Advancement/GrowthÂ ,Job Security (Elaine Walster)
While some of these points can't be exactly quantified and perfectly compared, we tried to study all these factors and to what extent are they followed at CSHK Dubai Contracting.Â
High motivation is related to experiencing three psychological states while working:
Meaningfulness of work:Â That the employee has meaning to the company, something that he can relate to, and does not occur just as a set of movements to be repeated. This is also a sort of intrinsic motivation.
Responsibility:Â Sufficient freedom of action has been given to the employee to make a task a success or a failure. This includes the power to make changes and incorporate the learning one gets while doing the job.
Knowledge of outcomes:Â it is very important as it tells the worker what has been the result or outcome of the work he has been doing and putting so much effort into. It gives purpose to work by emotionally connecting the employee or worker to the customer of his work.
Performance appraisals to induce job satisfaction and performance:
Another very important feature of the strategic HRM would be Performance appraisal and feedback. Dulewics was of the view that performance appraisal should be made an inevitable practice. He claims that it is human nature to judge his work and to judge the work of others working with him. According to Dubrin, unless a carefully structured system is present, people will judge the performance of others involuntarily. Different organizations have different kinds of appraisals but most appraisals fall in these categories.
Result appraisal: this will be based on what they have accomplished. How successful have they been in developing positive relationships with customers and how many customers have come back to the organization because of the effort invested in by them
Subjective appraisal: This will be an appraisal which will be given to them on the basis of their traits and behavior. How have they behaved towards customers? In what way can they improve? And any peculiar encounters that they came across. (Porter, 1990)
Both appraisals will help induce personal development within employees and would bring about a sense of belongingness for the organization within them.
Following are the job characteristic followed at CSHK Dubai Contracting to bring about the above listed psychological states of mind in its employees:
Excess of Skill variety is overwhelming and too little makes the job boring. CSHK Dubai Contracting uses job rotation technique to make sure its employees have enough variety that it doesn't become boring for them
At CSHK Dubai Contracting workers are able to identify with the work at hand as they are involved in the job from starting to end . Project teams are also made to complete big projects wherein members are involved in everything they do and each member is apart of everything. Hence employees take more pride in the outcome of that workÂ
Whenever a task is assigned it is made sure that each one involved in it completly and understands the meaning and purpose of the task in relation to the whole organization- CSHK Dubai Contracting and beyond it as contributing to something wider, to society or a group. People are more motivated when they think and know that their work will be benefiting a larger scale a society rather then just going in the pocket of one person.
Autonomy when experienced in CSHK Dubai Contracting is very low. Most of the tasks are time bound and the worker is not flexible when carrying out the task he has to complete it in the given set of time. Although employees are considered responsible and some decision making power is given to them but the level of autonomy at lower level is still low.
The feedback system at CSHK Dubai Contracting is a very organized and good one. There are a number of ways in which the employees gets feedback. There are regular meetings and various ceremonies held to recognize the hard work of the employees. They are given awards based on different efforts they put in.
At CSHK Dubai Contracting people at managerial levels are given high salaries and fringe benefits. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside, i.e., from the environment. Money, competition, awards and accolades, appreciation and praise are all examples of extrinsic motivation. Giving high salaries extrinsically motivates the employees.
Through its contracts CSHK Dubai Contracting offers job security to each employee. Even the physical security of the company and its employees is realized and proper security procedures are there for all visitors, fire extinguishers and fire alarms are present, etc
There is an environment of love and affection in the company. Everyone works like one big happy family and not just co workers. The need for recognition support appraisal is full filled through this mechanism.
Employees are thought to be as dependant able individuals. The people at upper level do not just carry out all the tasks by themselves and giving routine level tasks to employees at lower levels below them. They are given responsibility assigned difficult tasks so that their esteem needs are satisfied.
Asian culture emphasizes needs of society: Chinese hierarchy of needs might have four levels ranked from lowest to highest: Belonging (social); Physiological; Safety; Self-actualization (in service of society). Another study of East Asian managers in eight countries found autonomy and self-actualization in most cases ranked high.
Job Satisfaction is an effective or emotional response to one's job. The level of job satisfaction in any organization depends on factors such as job security, work flexibility, interpersonal relations, nature of supervision, organizational climate, career opportunities, difficulty of task and quantity of work assigned, etc. Same is the case in CSHK Dubai Contracting. In CSHK Dubai Contracting the organizational climate is very friendly and people are closely knit. Even when assigning tasks the employees are involved and their opinions are valued. The one thing in particular that is important for job satisfaction to be high is job security and CSHK Dubai Contracting as organization is known to provide this security to its employees. This is also evident from the fact that turnover rate of CSHK Dubai Contracting is lower than industry average.
To check the level of job satisfaction in CSHK Dubai Contracting we conducted a test. The test results were to be interpreted by the following guideline: low satisfaction 0-58, medium satisfaction 59-95 and high satisfaction 96-132. Although results of the test below show that a higher number of employees had a medium level of satisfaction, but a notable fact is that even in the medium level of satisfaction range quite a lot of employees score 90 or above, thus signifying that majority of the employees were close to the level of high satisfaction.
The preceding analysis highlights major motivational factors at CSHK Dubai Contracting and its organizational environment. I saw a positive and healthy environment at CSHK due to which CHSK has a very low employee turnover rate.
Through this assignment I was able to increase my knowledge base dramatically; it provided me with great practical experience and exposure to such a giant company. Visiting the working environment and coming in close contact with the corporate world is an invaluable experience gained by me and a learning that no text can teach.