Organizational And Business Structures Business Essay

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College is of paramount importance. It provides and supplies wide range of sophisticated man power needed for the development of individual. The citizens always look for the attainment of individual progress by joining the system. This is reflected in the aspirations of the for the enrichment of social prestige, achievement of high rate of mobility, attainments of economic gains and improvement of individual knowledge and skills over several aspects of daily life. The numbers of administrative and financial services are different in different colleges. But the most important administrative and financial services which are found in almost every college are given below

1.1 Administrative services

Facilities management

Campus security services

Facilities operations

Facilities planning and development

Health and safety services

Human Resources

Benefits and compensation

Client Services

Labour relations

Organizational development and learning

Information Technology Services

Information systems services

Learning systems services

Network services and computer operations

Project management office

Technical support services

Strategy and planning

Institutional research

Resource Planning

1.2 Finance and corporate services

Awards and scholarships

Financial services

Internal audit services

Purchasing and accounts payable

Residence and conference centre

External Relations

Centre for applied research innovation and university research

International partnerships

Marketing and corporate communications

1.3 Student Support Services


Career Services

Counseling and Accessibility services

Centre for student success

Co-operative education

Library and media services

Office of the registrar

Admission services

Customer and information services

Financial aid

Registration and Record Services

Systems and Fees services

Retail Services

2.0 TASK 3

1Organizational chart tells us great about players in the specific organization. People at high levels in the hierarchy, whether in the specific units of organization or in the broader organization, usually have powers and prerogatives that enable them shape decisions. They help make budgets; participate in hiring, firing, promoting, and supervising lower staff; obtain access to information about the personnel, programs and budgets of the agency; and have access to information about the resources and institutions in the agency's external environment

Basics to all patrons of college organization staffs are some form of line and staff relationship. The most common form of organization is line and staff structure in which the "line" is administration channel of authority. In planning organization suitable for a college it is necessary to consider staff relationship both from formal and informal viewpoint. Line college officials are administrators to whom power or authority has been delegated by district superintendent

In this plan district superintendent receives its authority from board of trustees and has authority over admin assistant but it delegates its power of administrative actions to admin assistant. Similarly

2Under this organizational structure each worker, instead of getting order and instructions from different bosses, every boss gives order and issues instructions pertaining to his specialized function. The worker in this form of organization is responsible and answerable to all his superiors from whom he takes orders and instructions for each of his specialized jobs. His supervisors are responsible for their specialized jobs and answerable individually to their superior whom they are working

2.1 Choosing of this Organizational Structure

The efficiency improves at all levels of organization due to specialized services made available with the help of this form of organization

A distinction of clarity between two types of work-mental and physical .This helps in better understanding of the problem

Comparatively more elastic consequently adaptability and adjusting capability is present there in this form of organization

To reduce the frequency and quantum of time consumed in staff -subordinate contacts,it is helpful because top authority is delegated to some capable subordinates.At the same time,the terms of delegated authority are also clear to the subordinates

Under this structure subordinate has clearity about the plans which are to be put into action with the help of delegated authority

It will help in attaining objective standards to check whether the subordinates are working according to assigned planes

3.0 TASK4

3An important element in the success of restructuring effort is the staff's ability to become psychologically comfortable with uncertainty-an important ingredient in minimizing its negative impact on the change process. The most successful principals I know are precisely those who strive to make a mark through creating a guiding vision, shaping shared values and otherwise providing leadership for the entire college community.

3.1 Ways of announcing new Organizational Structure

Create an environment of mutual Trust and harmony

Discussing new ideas and to enhance commitment and receptivity, it is important we should create atmosphere of respect and trust and think new ways to improve the standard of our college. The restructuring of the organization will demand for new risks and will bring changes in the way tasks were accomplished within the organization.

If there is lack of open communication and mutual trust and there is no tradition of risk taking it would be very difficult for the college to keep pace with fast changing environment

Be Focused and Consistent over time

Although it requires years to develop a new organizational form, it can take only a few weeks to erase years of progress through inconsistent behavior by principal and other leaders. This is especially true during the time of crises. Staff members are always watching the principal and have long memories

There should be a continuous and frequently renewed change process. Staff members are often more astute than they are given credit for. They can see through glossy programs and superficial "quasi-change" efforts. They will notice incompatible and inconsistent behavior by the principal and other leaders as college moves towards new organizational structure and developments of new technologies in the college.

It will take twenty times as many positive examples of desired management behavior to override just one example of incompatible behavior

The Principal must be involved

The Principal must get beyond the easy steps such as setting up teacher teams or planning for increased parental involvement, "making it happen" requires the principal direct involvement. The principal should be very visible at faculty staff workshops and planning meetings and in promoting new instructional and managerial innovations. He should play major role in facilitating implementation of change projects. He should participate in weekly meetings of teacher teams to hear concerns and problems. The principal active and visible involvement in college restructuring has been a crucial factor in sustaining the momentum behind reform efforts. He should guide the staff how new technology can make easier the grading and assessment procedures.

The lessons are clear. To achieve a fundamental change in college culture and practice, the principal should use hands on procedures. He must be physically present at important events, must repeatedly state their support for change and must reward those who respond to the challenge. The change should be consistent with college mode of conducting business, this will help the subordinate such as vice principal to manage the process. The principal must be active participant in urging, persuading and making it clear how important are changes to those who affected as well as to administration. It is important not to confuse change in policy with change in practice. Aligning practice with policy takes hard work. It creates opportunities for miscommunication because those most important to change effort-teachers-are not accustomed to focusing on what is occurring outside of their classrooms or do not talk directly with each other about change issues.

In the first of Deming's well-known fourteen points for quality management, the principal should establishes the preeminent need for management to create constancy of purpose for the improvement of products and services. Quality insists Deming cannot and must not delegate. Responsibility for quality process, systems and outcomes rests with management; in the case of colleges it rests with Principal and the members of administrative team. Teachers acting by themselves can't create the optimum school wide conditions under which change processes can take place. That is the job of management. It is entrusted with the responsibility of fully adapting any new philosophy throughout the organization by building relationships of the trust from the top down and by empowering and enabling teachers to make ongoing reflection and continual improvement the new way of working. By removing the barriers to change and garnering the necessary resources to provide ongoing training ,Principal can keep the engine of change moving in the right direction

Finally and most importantly, Principal must use the hands-on approach in his effort to drive fear out of college. The old fear based system of compliance, control and command has no place in the college where teachers are key to successful change and where people must think creatively, work in self-directed teams and build cultures of mutual support for everyone's continuous improvement

3.2 Potential problems arising due to structural change

4It's the habit of people to avoid the change; even proposed changes which are in their favor are opposed by the employees. Resistance to change is an emotional or behavioral response to real or imagined treats to established worked routines. Resistance can be as subtle as passive resignation and as covert as deliberate sabotage if change is not properly communicated to all of staff involved. Some of leading reasons are given below

Staff approach change differently depending on nature and magnitude, when employees must rely on grapevine for information, the result may be stress, anxiety and lower productivity. Some even quit the job in fear of what might happen

Surprise and fear of unknown: When innovative or radically different changes are introduced without warning affected employees become fearful of the implications.

Grapevine rumors fill the void created by lack of official announcements

Climate of mistrust: Mutual mistrust can doom to failure an otherwise well-conceived change. Mistrust encourages secrecy which begets deeper mistrust

Fear of failure: Intimidating changes on job can cause employees to doubt their capabilities. Self-doubt erodes self confidence and cripples self growth and development

Peer Pressure. Someone who is not directly affected by a change may actively resist it to protect the interest of his or her co-workers and friends

Loss of control(real or perceived)


Disruptions of habits and routines

Increased workload

Inability to do the new job

3.3 Conclusion

Leading is helping, coaching, and supporting; it is not treating and punishing. Because of this, administrators and other college leaders play essential roles in initiating and maintaining the transformation process required to build new colleges. Because the journey is never-ending, college leaders must be enabled and supported by all of college stakeholders in their continuous efforts to make college better and better, day by day, year by year

4.0 TASK 5

Most managers have budgets .Their budgets state that how much it should cost to operate their department for set period of time. In other words budget tells us what financial resources you have available to achieve your objectives. As a finance manager he is responsible for seeing that your department does not waste resources

The management plans their budgetary control for assigning the authority and responsibility in order to help making estimates and plans for future endeavors, to assist in analysis of variations between estimated and actual results and to develop basis of measurement or standards with which to evaluate the efficiency of operations. The following measurements was taken by the finance manager in controlling the both central and departmental budgets

4.1 Measurements to Control Central and Departmental Budget

Centralized Purchasing

Earlier a weak control environment and break downs in key control exposed to fraud and abuse in its use of purchase cards was found. The weak control environment and inconsistent card policies contributed to break downs in specific key controls. The new finance manager also found lack of documentation that key purchase card internal controls were found.

5In order to overcome this new finance manager focuses on centralized purchasing .There tends to be believe that more centralized control and more centralized purchasing is in the college, the more efficient the operation and the more cost containment and that can be realized by the college. It can result in savings by consolidating the departmental needs and by reducing the number of employees involved in purchasing functions. Further central purchasing provides the means for strengthening the purchasing organization and for establishing clear purchasing policy.

6In the case of Colleges it can be more economical to place one large order for several departments than to place several small orders separately. Often big organizations have central purchasing office through which all large purchasing must go. Large colleges often standardize much of equipment needed by all of the college. Buying sizeable quantities often results in discounts from the distributor. Big distributors usually have centralized warehouse facilities that are responsible for receiving, inventory and repair all of equipment and supplies, in addition to ordering and distribution


Control consists of action necessary to ensure that the performance of the college conforms to the plans and objectives. Control of performance is possible with pre-determined standards which are laid down in a budget. Thus, budgetary control makes control possible by continuous comparison of actual performance with that of the budget so as to report the variations from the budget to the management of the corrective action.


The budgetary control co-ordinates the various activities of the firm and secures co-operation of all concerned so that the common objective of the college may be successfully achieved. It forces executives to think and think as group. It coordinates with the broader economic position of an undertaking. It is also helpful in co-coordinating the policies, plans and actions. An organization without a budgetary control is like a ship sailing in a chartered sea. A budget gives direction to the business and imparts meaning and significance to its achievement by making comparison of actual performance and budgeted performance.


A satisfactory budget can be developed only by adopting a proper system of accounting. The information for formations of budget is taken from cost accounting system. The budgetary control gives us important information about our direction. Through budgetary control we compare our targets or estimates with the actual performance which determines our future direction. This function can be discharged only on the availability of reliable and prompt accounting information. The accounting system should provide classified information in terms of organization, authority and responsibility so that responsibility for pitfalls may be fixed and corrective action may be taken. The accounting system should be consistent with requirements of budgetary control so that satisfactory budgets may be developed


A budget is a plan of the policy to be pursued during the defined period of time to attain a given objective. The budgetary control will force management at all levels to plan in time a given objective. The budgetary control will force management at all levels to plan in time all the activities to be done during the future periods.

5.0 TASK 6

An important part of making your day go smoothly is handling administrative tasks quickly and developing strategies for making transitions and interruptions as short and orderly as possible-even using them as teachable moments. These routines and procedures become the backbone of an efficiently run classroom and help student feel secure in the classroom. There are different administrative tasks which are manually performed, now I decided to automate different tasks through the applications of IT.i decided to install different software packages in the college. It is evident small business play vital role in our economy.

5.1 Tasks to be automated Through the Application of Information Technology

Information technology promises college administration revolutionary ways of administrating their functions. Information technology is not just a tool to automate tasks, it posses strategic and competitive advantages. Products can be displayed on the website. Offers can be made to the website and accepted. Since the production of documents is done by using typewriter, which is very slow, therefore I recommended to Support service team to use Word processing software which has numerous advantages over using typewriter

Word Processing

7Word processing are application software which are used for word processing. Word processing is mostly used software technique for typing, editing storing, formatting, manipulating and printing documents with the assistance of computer and printer. It has several advantages over typewriting

Edit the text as and when required

Checking the spelling of any word of the document

Save the document on the disk and print single or multiple copies

Improved worker productivity

More accurate , higher quality of work

Faster turnaround time in document production

Reduced communication costs

The bottom line is that effective use of office automation systems results in increased organizational efficiency and reduced communication costs. These benefits allow businesses to be more competitive and to more effectively meet their organizational goals

Since there is lack of controlling over budgets The costs are high and all the students and staff data was manually entered on registers which was very tedious and time consuming. It was very difficult to interpret that data for decision making. Therefore I recommend before the Support service team to use spreadsheet software, which has several advantages over using registers. The spreadsheet software will also help the college administration to manage purchasing activities. All the purchasing entries can easily managed by spreadsheet software

Spreadsheet Software

8The implication of technology is that it has given many people the power and responsibility to analyse data and make decisions on the basis of quantitative analysis. The spreadsheet programs are very helpful for management in making decision making because they can very easily summarizes the information taken from different departments in a format which is easily understandable for management

This software can help college in the following ways

The spreadsheet has become a "thinking tool" that help you organize and analyse data in the ways that are impossible by hand

Additional benefits are gained when correction or changes are required and the ability to adapt the solution to other similar problems

Financial planning services

Direct Analysis of large student data

Graphical analysis of data just on few clicks

Logical application of spreadsheets in teaching is student grade reports

Teacher can easily track student progress towards specific learning goals because it contains many mathematical functions

There was lack of sharing information between the different departments. It usually takes time to convey information from one department to another department. Since data was manually managed by registers, so it was easily accessible by an irrelevant person. The sharing of data will reduce the time to transfer data from one location to another location. The only authenticated people will access the data within moments. So I recommended to them to use Database applications in the college. It also help management to keep an eye on all the students attendance and keep backup of the data. So if the data is lost it can easily be retrieved by using database system

Database Applications

9The database and associated DBMS software together are known as database system. The four basic element of database are Data, relationships, Constraints, Schema

The database management system provides services for manipulating database while maintaining the integrity of data. The advantages of using database system in college are

Sharing of data across all departments

Security of data

Consistency of data can be maintained

Data is non-redundant

Faster Query Processing

Improved Performance

Economical: It costs less to create a network of smaller computers with single large computer

10The college is currently using manual mail system, fax or telephones to have correspondence with other institutes or departments which is time consuming and expensive. So I advised to support service team to use email system which has several advantages over manual mail system. In this way college can easily correspond with the international students


Email is cheap and fast way to correspond

They are more safer only relevant person can open that email

You can attach documents with email without extra cost, even to foreign countries

Emails are reliable way of communication

It can easily transferred to a document in a word processor or reformatted to other users

One email can be sent to multiple users, It is very helpful when sending date sheets, syllabus and timetable to students

Pictures and graphics data can easily be sent through emails