The purpose of the essay is to examine and critical evaluate are organization seeks to control by using mechanistic and culture perspectives. In order to support the argument, academic journals, organizational portfolio and own experiences has been used to develop and underpin the point of view.
Organization seeks to control the entire corporate, even in the goal, the policy, the organizational structure, the operation and the company culture. According to Huczynski and Buchanan (1991) "the concept of control stands for predictability, order, reliability and stability. The absence of control from this point of view means anarchy, chaos, disorder and uncertainty. " Organization realizes that control can turns out good quality and avoid errors in order to perform efficiency.
On the other hand, mechanistic perspective is to set objectives and regulations to provide guidelines for employees in order to standardize performance and increase the productivity. To be contrast, culture perspective is a form of ideological control by sharing beliefs and values. The ultimate purpose of mechanistic is to be productive whereas culture is to achieve success.
Firstly, based on the Mechanistic perspective, Organization needs different systems of control, information conveyance and authorization (Burns& Stalker, 1961:97). Mechanistic forms of organization, Characterized by hierarchical control, are more suited to stable environments which provide a high level of control over tasks.
As well as, Mechanistic structures have high degrees of formalization and standardization and information are one side and from unidirectional top-down which is the top management level have authority to the lower level of employee, and power in an organization is wielded. Furthermore, Departmentalization which is separates the employees into different department by functional, product, customer, geographic and process. All the Decision making are centralized which a top manager retain most decision making power to her and efficiency.
On the other hand, employees in mechanistic structures are constrained to conform to their job description and high degree of work specialization in order to ensure the consistency. In school, there has a principle, vice-principle, and teachers, each teacher have divided into different subject which they familiar with. In each subject, it has a Director to control the quality and policy of teaching. The principal who is in the top management is to set the goal and objectives and instruct the vice principal to transform into messages and guidelines to the lower level of directors and teachers.
As the organization seek to control the whole operations, many of the company using the mechanistic structures as bureaucracy which is to protect lower-level administrative positions from arbitrary actions of owners and higher-level managers. For example, in bureaucracy, top managers should be protected from indiscriminant changes in work hours, wages, and responsibilities through formal rules, regulations, and grievance procedures.
For instance, the university would consider the strict and formal college entrance and registration procedures. The reason for such procedures is to ensure that the organization is able to deal with a large number of people in an equitable and fair manner. Although many individuals do not like them, regulations and standard operating procedures pretty much guarantee uniform treatment. But those same rules and procedures, with their time-consuming communication and decision-making processes, tend to bog down organizations
In order to predominate the control and everything run in effective way, the terms of mechanistic suggests that organizational structures, processes, and roles are like a machine in which each part of the organization does what it is designed to do.for example, the staffs who work in the Cathey pacific's Catering kitchen have been divided and specific in different working position by doing the same process every day.
Mechanistic structures are highly formalized, which simply means that nearly all processes and procedures have been administratively authorized. The organization considers processes and procedures out-side these established protocols as variances that must be brought under control. Such formalization is driven by efficiency; reduction in variance increases predictability, and increases in predictability allow for improvements in efficiency. Examples pertinent to product or service distribution include the processes a store clerk uses when presented with a customer's credit card or how returns of products by customers are to be handled.
For example, the reason of McDonalds falls as a mechanistic perspective is that in its production activities, tasks, the extremely division of labor, the standard work activities, relatively small, and simple with a very clear definition of authority and responsibility. The management structure will be more hierarchical and rigid. The communication which in flowing from the top to the bottom is vertical and the decision making in mechanistic organizations tend to be highly centralized toward the top of the organization.
However, the limitation of mechanistic perspective is that when there are any problems, the organizations cannot cope with changes as they often standardize performance. On the other hand, as all the procedures are centralized and standardize, if there is anyone absent, the whole organization would become insufficient to operate which there would lack be of staff who familiar with the same process. McDonalds' take as an example, because of the division of labor, there has divided different employees in different duties that are in the back or front office, the front office would not help without knowledge when was lack of back office staff in operation.
By controlling the structure and the operation in using mechanistic perspective, the Organizational cultures which the organization also seek to control. Culture which exist in all corporations, and have significant effects on the morale and motivation of organizational members. Similarly, it is communicated through artifacts which are the Symbols of culture in the physical and social work environment, values that reflect underlying beliefs and basic assumptions is guide behavior and tell members of an organization how to perceive and think about things that are both visible and invisible. As well as Stories are considered by some as the most effective approach to reinforcing an organization's values, and frequently involve the CEO.
Likewise, Culture at work can be shown in a variety of ways including how people dress, how the employees are treated and the way the company interjects its culture into its products services and how it projects itself to its customers, and many of the company trended to set the dress code in order to present their profession. For instance, Virgin Atlantic members have to wear consistent uniform which represent they are professional and formal. They are passionate and always believe in what they do and have a fun, it helps them to pull together to create the fantastic service so that they have become well-known for.
Gabreil (2000) indicated that "It Enables individuals to make sense of their experience and to share it with others; it infuses their actions with meaning and value; and it supplies them with a sense of belongingâ€¦" Culture would affect how things are done and which is linked to organizational identity.
From a management perspective, culture in the form of shared expectations may be thought of as a social control system. Howard Schwartz and Stan Davis offer a practical definition of culture as "a pattern of beliefs and expectations shared by the organization's members, these beliefs an expectation produce norms that powerfully shape the behavior of individuals and groups." Culture perspective is to control organization members' behavior, whether it is a business organization, a club, community or nation, social systems need to limit certain behaviors and encourage others. At one level organizations setup rules, procedures and standards along with various consequences for compliance and non-compliance.If there is common consensus among members, they would be more committed and devoted so that increase their sense of belongings and lead higher performance.
The socialization process centers on the transmission of the organization's core values to newcomers. Newcomers are exposed to these values through interaction with and observation of role models, through training, and through the rewarding and punishing of specific behaviors.For example, Apple. Inc which the new employee must attent trainings in order to familiar with the company information and products, as well as the service standards.On the other hand, it has provided the discount for all the staff that work in Apple, so as to reward and motivated their loyalty.
Base on the control, organizations seek to standardize the culture, sometimes norms a rather they are determined by organizational rules and practices. Accordingly, cultural norms are defined as organizational practices and values.
In McDonalds' the Quality, Convenience, Service and Value are the core beliefs of the company culture, as well as the managers learn the techniques and communications at Hamburger University to make the world franchisees together. For the front office of counter staff, they have to follow the checklist which set by the upper level of management by standardizing behaviors, so as to make eye contact and smile to customer during transaction in performing each task. The traditional idea of culture as a bounded entity with a fixed identity and checklist of characteristics is deployed in a centralized system of command and control. McDonalds has a Universalistic approach to culture where no relevance is given to it and standardization and global integration is treated with more importance. McDonald's bureaucratic culture supports a methodical approach to doing business. It emphasizes in following established policies and practices as a way to achieve goals.
On the other hand, the culture perspective have defined into Strong culture which is said to exist where staff respond to stimulus because of their alignment to organizational values and the organization who want to control its culture tightly. Kilmann, Saxton, and Serpa, (1986) defined strong cultures as 'those where organization members place pressure on other members to adhere to norms.'
So as to, organization trended to control the organization start from integrate new employees to maintain the strong culture into the business to get them up and running as quickly as possible. For example, nowadays, many coroparate when interview the new hire, they look for the behavior and who are fit for their corpate culture, as well as requir the interviewer to answer the questions that will determine if the person is a behavioral fit for the company. Someone who prefers to work independently and alone on projects, for instance, would not be happy in a culture that relies heavily on teamwork to achieve its goal.
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