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Organization Commitment refers to willingness of an employee to strive for the fulfilment of the organization's goals and accept the norms and values that the organization propounds (Ingersoll et al., 2000).
Allen and Myer (1990) define a three dimensional construct for organizational commitment
- Affective component refers to the employee's degree of involvement with the organization
- Continuance component refers to costs that the employee perceives he might have to bear in the event of leaving the organization.
- Normative component is the employee's obligation feeling to remain as a part of the organization.
The study however relies on stating organizational commitment as a one-dimensional concept which accepts that the three dimensions are non-distinguishable from one another (Stallworth, 2003). This permits the use of a smaller item scale to measure organizational commitment.
Research Studies have hinted that there may not exist always a positive relation between commitment and identification (Bullis and Bach, 1989). For example, a person may identify himself as loyal to the organization and approves of its activities however may not be committed to the organization as in he skips meetings and misses the deadlines
Studies have indicated that committed employees contribute more to the organization than the non committed employee (Myer and Allen 1997). Prior research studies have also indicated that organizational commitment leads to reduction in the turnover, increased motivation, organization support and organization citizenship (Kwon and banks, 2004). Organization Commitment therefore is an important predictor of study for managers as they can design interventions to facilitate a more committed manpower.
Some researchers (Angle and Perry, 1981) have discerned from their research that women are more committed. Angle and Perry explain further that this could be due to difficulty faced by women in movement across between organizations. On the other hand, however other researchers (Brunning and Snyder, 1983) have not found women as more committed than male employees. Owing to these prevailing differences in the literature the group sought not to include gender as a moderating variable for organizational commitment and turnover intention.
Some literature does support the argument that the research theories propounded and verified in western cultures and settings are equally valid in non western settings (Yousef, 2000), however there have been research studies that have stated otherwise (Vanderberghe,1996). The present study being undertaken therefore is significant in the context that it tests the constructs in a non-western culture where the attitudes and values of employees could be different to that of previously examined samples.
H1: POS affects Organizational commitment
While Organization commitment refers to commitment of employees towards the organization POS may be regarded as the employer's commitment towards his employees (Cole et al., 2002).
POS derives its basis from a principal of reciprocity in which favourable treatment by the organization towards the employee creates an obligation on the part of the employee to repay by caring and working well for the organization and help the organization achieve its goals (Eisenberger et al., 1990). Increased POS strengthens an employee's effective attachment to the organization, resulting in greater efforts to fulfil the organization's goals (Eisenberger et al., 1986).
Estell and Caroline through their research study have concluded that POS is positively and significantly correlated with affective and normative commitment. The results also supported a moderating effect of Locus of control between POS and organization commitment. The sample of the study included 249 prison employees in a similar organization setting (Estell et al., 2007). The sample of the current research study undertaken does not confine to a single organization setting but however includes employees working in different organizations.
In an analysis done by Rhoades et al., they show that POS is related to affective commitment in a positively strong manner (Rhoades and Eisenberger ,2002).
If the level of POS is low, the organization refuses to acknowledge employee contributions and cannot be expected to provide the necessary emotional support and assistance in terms of equipment and challenging job (Eisenberger et al., 1986). With low level of support an organization fails to induce affective or any other form of commitment among employees.
Organizational commitment has been studied from multiple perspectives and most commonly as a predictor of consequent variables such as turnover, intention to quit, job satisfaction. (Weiner and Vardi, 1980). However, not many studies have probed organization commitment as an outcome variable. The current study investigates the impact of POS, a predictor with organization commitment as the outcome.
There exists literature which has revealed that among the factors that shape commitment is the extent of organization support provided , their freedom in the decision making process and the feedback provided by their immediate manager (Matheiu and Zajac 1990).
This hypothesis has many managerial implications as organizations want committed employees to stay as
Marchiori and Henkin (2004) found that organization commitment is high in case of female employees, contrary to this some other research studies have indicated that males are more committed (Singh et al., 2004).