According to Association of Business Executive they define organisations that is comprised of two or more people engaged in a systematic and coordinated effort, persistently over a period of time, in pursuit of goals which convert resources into goods and/ or services which are needed by consumers.
Organisation structure is the way how organisations allocate their resources such as staff, departments basing on the authority which can be in a hierarchy the chain of command information flowing down to different levels of management . This rigid structure has been challenged by new forms of distribution of authority and responsibility which are responsive to the needs of individuals working in the organisation and to the demands of the particular operational parameters of the business. In a centralized structure, the decision making power is concentrated in the top layer of the management and tight control is exercised over departments and divisions. In a decentralized structure, the decision making power is distributed and the departments and divisions have varying degrees of autonomy  .
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When composing a structure for a particular organisation, management looks for the most effective way to categorise departments and their coordinating relationships to achieve the highest levels of production (Ball, McCulloch Geringer, Minor and McNett, 2005, pg.387-389). Organisational structure includes reporting relationships, but it also relates to job design, information flow, work standards and rules, reliance on teams, power relationships Organisational structure is also an important artefact of corporate culture and is often a critical tool for organisational change. 
According to Charles Schwab, an organisation's structure must support its strategic vision which defines how an organisation optimizes opportunities for the company. Most successful organisations develop deliberate organisational structure choices, not just adopting structures  that feel good. These structures bring a culture that produces alignment to an organisation's strategy. In organisations, there are deep-set beliefs about the way in which work should be organised, the way in which authority should be exercised, people rewarded and punishment etc. Culture embraces the influences that affect society's basic values, beliefs, perceptions and behaviour.
The culture of an organisation refers to the deep-seated values underpinning the organisation. It is manifested through the number of features and it is increasingly being recognised that the culture is fundamental to the success or failure of organisations meeting their goals. Culture is an intangible mixture of rules, relationships, values, customs, values and attitude which taken together, describe the distinctive feel of the organisation. It is within this culture that individuals work and from which they learn the norms and values to which they expected to subscribe. Organisation's culture relates to each other and associated with artifacts that are stable; evaluate beliefs that guide our preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations.
They are conscious perceptions about what is good or bad, right or wrong. Values exits as a component of organisational culture in the form of shared values, which are values that people within the organisation or work unit have in common and place near the top of their hierarchy of values. Organisation culture consists of shared assumptions- a deeper element that some experts believe is really the essence of corporate culture. Shared assumptions are unconscious taken-for granted perceptions or beliefs that have worked so well in the past that they are considered the correct way to think and act toward problems and opportunities.
Peters and waterman (1982) suggest that a psychological theory of the link between organisational culture and business performance. Culture can be looked upon as a reward of work; we sacrifice much to the organisation and culture is a form of return on effort.
MY THREE ORGANISATIONS ARE BT PLC, UNILEVER AND GLAXO
British Telecommunication has traditional type of structure within the organisation that is based on functional division and departments. These are the kind of structures that follow the organisation's rules and procedures in a hierarchy way. They are characterized by having precise authority lines for all levels in the management. BT is made up of four principal lines of business: BT Global Services, Openreach, BT Retail and BT Wholesale
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Function of each department is as follows
BT Group plc is among the companies listed by company house which has an integrated group of businesses providing voice and data services in the UK, Europe and around the world at large.
BT Retail deals with providing services to businesses and residential customers around the community; it's the major function is to channel the market for other BT branches. BT retail has 18,000 employees with 18.3 million customers in which they managed to have the turnover of £8.48 billion in 2007-2008. They concentrate on new market development and product and services innovations such as BT Fusion, BT Talk Together, BT Vision, BT Answer and BT Broadband these are potential for consumer market. BT provides guidelines and advice to the business customers in the area of business strategy and trade space portal
BT Retail operation focuses on different areas such as regions, customer service, products, mobility, strategy, enterprises and support activities.
BT wholesale which also is a part of BT Group is operating on networks and network services providing solutions to different communication companies and other UK business that rely on communication as there day to day activities in the business. They managed to network 300million and more calls every day with 350 million every month in internet connection. BT Wholesale has more than 700 customers and ensures that all of these customers are catered for in terms of call services (rapid connections). This department is made up of static and mobile communications organisations and online links.
Furthermore, BT Wholesale is involved in the expansion of broadband access across the United Kingdom. The majority of BT's communications exchanges are effectively through broadband
BT Global Services
BT' global provides services and solutions to the multi-site organisations in handling business communication which are complex worldwide. They provide service to the corporate and government customers, wholesale customers abroad and worldwide. It recruits approximately 37,000 professionals skilled in business area and process transformation, change and project management, solutions design and innovations in 53 countries with services to 170 countries and more. They also managed to provide a range of specialist network-centric propositions and practices with high performance networking, applications management, outsourcing and managed services, and business transformation.
BT innovates and design
BT Design and BT Innovate are joined together by BT for the purpose of creating a new organisation called BT Innovate & Design, which combines network and platform development having long-term technology strategy and research. Its objectives is to speed up the market, minimising costs for the development and providing end-to-end customer experience. Professionals employed in BT provide their service that helped BT group to go global providing network IT services to different customers and business worldwide.
They provide strategic innovation and technology vision for BT through collaborating with other BT department in an effective manner within the organisation. BT Innovate & Design's IT professionals in BT innovative and design department have a good service ensuring there delivery and development of systems and solutions, also making sure they manage a secure and resilient infrastructure. The innovations developed at BT's laboratories at Ad astral Park near Ipswich in the UK, provides BT with a high class science and engineering base for the design and delivery for the next-generation converged networks and services.
BT operate provides (deploy and run) communications services to customers within the area of core network and systems. It's responsibilities is to implement BT's global 21CN platform, operating software, hardware and networks that runs BT's services to different companies within the country such as wholesale, retailers and residential customers also globally. It organises the overall customer experience by providing IT and network services to their customers who rely on their services.
Openreach department in BT group owns, maintains and develops the access networkÂ that links homes and businesses to the other networks of Britain's communications providers. They provide access and backhaul products to with communications and internet industry such as local loop unbundling in a part way or full and wholesale line rental. They also provide their customers telephone lines and calls packages with high speed broadband connections and networked IT solutions which are complex, they deal with communications providers example companies providing electronic communication services or network to the final user such as householders and businesses but not communications retailers
Culture of BT
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Due to the dynamic world which exists presently, BT intends to maintain and further develop their core brand values so that customers can experience a top quality service with the ability to succeed in their own field without communication technologies holding them back from doing so. These values include: trustworthiness, helpfulness, inspiration and an accessible product. Similarly, customers desire a product whereby the sellers actually respond positively to all enquiries or requests made by the customers. Positive responses in the eyes of the customers can occur when customer services do what is expected of them by the customer, e.g. recording the customer's query or complaint in their system and trying to resolve such a problem with fellow employees. A customer wishes terms and conditions of products and related services to be clarified prior to purchase of service and throughout the contract. An honest seller is of prime importance to a customer and BT understands this entirely.
Unilever is one of the world's leading suppliers of fast-moving consumer goods; it represents another common organisational structure example hybrid form. They operate within three divisional regions, two product segments, and five functional segments. Unilever, managed to develop and implement organisational structure for their company in order to improve communication and resources that are available to them. The structure is organised in a top-down manner. They believe that once the executive level is satisfied with the structure, flows down to management though in some cases the organisation structure may sometimes not be visible, but judging by actions and specified reporting protocol the structure is intact and in use (Ball at al, 2005. Pg 393)
Unilever organisation culture
Unilever's culture is about what they believe in and how they act collectively.
They believe in some important things in life which varies around the world either naturally or that due to different point of view people are having where they live depending on important things that determine how they interact with each other such as their colleagues, partners, customers and consumers. Their corporate behaviours enhance the code of business principles which are of strong ethical values in terms of people and environment. People are happy with the services Unilever provide to them with the products they trust around the world having a philosophy phase stating "doing well by doing good."
They value their employees as individuals by being friendly to them in an informal way of corporate behaviour by dressing all the codes. They have the right to build up personal networks throughout the company without only basing on the area of day to day responsibilities. Unilever believe that each one have the capability of developing themselves and grow regardless of different function, role or level, each individual have equal rights in acquiring learning opportunities and progress in the ways they choose their careers.
They believe in the theory of been themselves
That is they believe that people have a passion for achievement, working for outstanding results and they are determined to get things done in their own way. Unilever makes sure that people's motives are delivered every day by creating a good working environment in such a way that people can be themselves as business need to diversify itself as millions of consumers around the world depend on them.
GlaxoSmithKline has over six percent of the world's pharmaceutical market with different products such as prescriptions medicines, vaccines and consumers healthcare. It collaborates with academic institutions, governments and other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies in the research and development of new ways of treating diseases and illnesses. 
GlaxoSmithKline organisation Structure
GlaxoSmithKline is publically traded in the London and New York Stock Exchange. The executive body of the company is the Board of Directors, consisting of 14 directors, 11 of which are independent directors. The chairman of the board is a non-executive director meaning is not one of the directors in the company but involves in decision makings. The shareholders elect the company's directors at the annual general meeting. GSK has got a Corporate Executive team consisting of senior managers and is headed by the CEO. They are responsible for managing the company's businesses. The board has six committees such as audit, remuneration, nominations, financial results, corporate responsibility and corporate administration. The corporate responsibility committee oversees stakeholder and investor relations, environment, health committee oversees stakeholder and investor relations, health and safety and other public policy issues.
GlaxoSmithKline organisation culture
Their primary objective is to run the boundaries of traditional drug discovery and development, they are committed in researching new and more productive ways to develop medicines. They are using the latest automated scientific technologies to speed up the early stages of drug discovery. Organisation structure sets them apart which allows them to have an opportunity in large corporation's resources and operating within small company ethos.
They have Centres of Excellence for Drug Discovery that promotes an entrepreneurial way of working and encouraging scientists to direct their course of research. Within their drug development area, small, therapeutically aligned units, called Medicine Development Centres, they are having full responsibility for Phase II to Phase IV clinical studies, helping to improve their productivity and enabling them to create one of the best pipelines in the industry. They have strong belief that their people are their best asset that came all over the world with five Nobel Prize winning scientists. Talent and skills are diversified in a way that leads to the innovation and creativity which is necessary for discovering and developing new medicines.
Contributions of organisation structure and culture to the performance of the business
The key performance indicators for measuring the business performance are growth, market share, balance scorecard
Within an organisation, a key indicator of performance is entity culture. A culture can arise in two circumstances. Firstly, a leader can intentionally create culture within an organisation by incorporating his beliefs (in accordance with business strategy) into every- day life within the organisation. For example, reward systems in place for achieving a certain level of medical sales to a client in GlaxoSmithKline's sales department. Secondly, a culture can be formed merely be the beliefs of employees if the leader does not lead effectively. Such a culture may not result in optimal performance as key stakeholders may not be served effectively.
It is believed that successful business leaders hold characteristics such as an internal locus of control, ability believe in a vision, enthusiasm, great decision making skills and good team working skills on the other hand, leaders who are arrogant, fail to communicate to staff, do not have expectations and who inappropriately use disciplinary measure are working towards a poor overall performance of an organisation.
Once a culture is formed it becomes hardened like granite, and changing it can be a lengthy and difficult proposition. Therefore, creating and sustaining a vibrant and robust culture should be a very deliberate process. Care should be taken when attempting to change a culture, as it can have dramatic impact detrimental if not carefully planned and facilitated on the long term viability of the business enterprise.
The external environment influences an organisation's overall strategy as well as its culture and the results it achieves. While managing external forces is challenging if not impossible, an organisation's strategy and structure should ideally take into account these external influences that represent opportunities and threats. Once strategy is defined, the internal, organisational requirements for the appropriate execution can then be put in place (i.e., strategy must drive structure). Both culture and business performance result directly from the degree of alignment between the strategy and the organisational requirements. While this model may appear static, managing the levers is a dynamic process that requires ongoing attention.
Other factors that can be used to measure business performance are as follows Balance scorecard, sales, financial statement, growth and market share
The balanced scorecard is one of the method business uses for measuring a performance example GlaxoSmithKline uses balance score card in measuring its business performance. The idea of the balance scorecard is that people should not evaluate a company on an on the basis of just single measure. It is effective if people could measure company's performance according to four distinct perspectives, which are as follows the financial perspective (a measure of company earnings); the customer perspective (a measure of performance related to clients); the internal process perspective (a measure of how effectively the organization functions); and the growth perspective (a measure of how well the organisation is able to learn and develop). Such perspectives measure could be used to know how the company is progressing. Balance scorecard can be used within the business to measure the growth in the business.
Monitoring the sales totals that are coming into the business is a good tool to measure performance. Sales are a separate entity from the balance sheets and financial documents. They show how your products are being perceived, whether they are fairly priced, and how your sales team presents them to customers. BT tend to increase their sales by doing aggressive marketing they could have many customers within and outside the country providing them offers on broadband BT Vision and telephone. The way how BT is structured influence the behaviour of the individuals in the organisation due to the activities carried by different departments that people adopt for the customer satisfactions.
Performance of the company can be measured by the way the company is expanding its business internally and externally. Example Unilever company in the beginning specialised in making toiletries such as Colgate, bath foam, deodorants but they have expanded their business by making cleaning products such as domestos, Cif etc which led them to have more customers resulting the business to grow from multinational company to global one this due to the way the company has been structured influencing the behaviour of individual that the company focuses on meeting the quality of the products that could meet customer standards.
Market share can be used by businesses to determine their competitive strength in the market in a sector as compared to other companies who can be their competitors in the same sector. Example BT company is competing with Virgin media gaining market share in the market. It allows business to provide accurate information and assess their performance from year to year. If they decide only to use sales to measure their performance, they won't be able to take into account the market conditions that might have been improved or decreased their sales. Their sales might have gone up because to certain percentage of increased popularity of the type of widget, or they may have gone down because of an economic problem facing many companies which is recession. By measuring market share, companies can see if they are doing better or worse compared to other companies that are facing the same challenges and opportunities that they have
Association of Business Executive defined role as a set of behaviours which are expected of an individual and associated with a particular position example of main roles in which employees undertake defined by their work manuals such as job descriptions, rules and procedures etc.
Role of an accountant
Accounting is often referred to as 'the language of businesses'. The role of a financial accountant is to handle the financial records of the company and the preparation of financial statements, organised for the big decision makers of the company in question. The following are the roles of an accountant example GlaxoSmithKline company
To prepare financial information such as cash flow statement, cost analysis and budgeting or profit the target
Recording the financial transactions example profits made within the organisation, wages and any other expenditure during trading, also profit and loss accounts.
Recording tax returns
Preparing debtors and creditors ledgers that is the customers who have purchased through credit or suppliers who the business owing money to.
Role of a marketer
Marketer is a person who have specialised in marketing as Chartered Institute of Marketing define it as management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirement profitably. The following are the roles of a marketer in an organisation example in Unilever plc.
Doing some research and development about the market Unilever is going to sell its products.
Having a face to face marketing with the customers about the product so that attract customers to but their products.
Marketers have got the duty of segmenting their products according to demographic structure, age, income and sex
Marketers introduces the process of differentiation of products as the way they target their products as Unilever target their products to all customers as their products are the basic need of the day to day consumption.
FACTORS INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR AT WORK AND ITS IMPACTS ON THE ORGANISATIONS AS A WHOLE
Individual behaviours at work are influenced by a variety of factors, namely: perception, attitude, personality of worker, ability and skills.
Personality as been defined by Wright et al, 1970 that are "those relatively stable enduring aspects of an individual that can be distinguished by him or her from other people surrounding them and at the same time forming the basis for their predictions concerning his or her behaviour. Personality can be influenced by genetic factors such as children twins who inherit traits which are commonly in the family, social factors, cultural factors and situational factors."
Personality can be said to be one of the most important factors affecting individuals' behaviours in the work place. The human brain is a highly complex organ. Human beings are unpredictable without doubt. Writers made a conclusion that the study of personality traits can offer an opportunity to understand individuals, regardless of the differences in age, nationality, race and religion. These studies have helped individuals to direct their effort in a proper manner and have motivated them towards meeting the goals of the organisation. It can be argued that different environmental factors may generate different responses. The study of these responses is very important for the organisation. The human resources team of organisations have the duty of knowing personalities of their staff so that all factors affecting an organisation, within an organisation, contribute to the development of the company. BT individual behave in the way that they could provide the customers with best network service regardless of the difference in religion, race, sex etc
Association of business Executive have defined perception as a mental process involving the selection, organisation, structuring and interpretation of information in order to make inferences and that will give meaning to it. Individuals at work the way they perceive things differ from one individual to the other. Example an employer in GlaxoSmithKline may perceive one person from certain race having particular behaviour but perceiving it as whole (stereo typing) this does influence individual at work and can bring bad impact within the organisation perceiving things or people in the negative way were there won't be a team work between staff and type of communication that will take place within the organisation will be informal way. Though perception also can be of advantage to the organisation because having individual with different perception to carry out different tasks such as introduction of new product, a project, research on customer needs that leads to profitability.
Attitude is simply a mental state of readiness which are organised through experiences to behave in a characteristic way towards the object of the attitude. ABE, Organisation Behaviour pg 108. They are feelings that can be towards people and things such as the way people feel and believe in it, what action they may take in some extent relates to the process of perception. Individual attitude towards people or things may change but their behaviour may not change they can be determinant. Individual may change their attitude such working as team in order to adopt the culture of certain environment in order to achieve organisation objectives. As being part of the group individual may reduce their fears of change as other group of individual that might be affected by the change. Threats and reward may change the attitude of the individual as well as their behaviours. Individual in Unilever plc may be rewarded in monetary or positions that changes the attitude toward the organisation that individual could work hard and bring progress in the organisation though some threats within the organisation could change peoples' attitude as well as their behaviour and that they will decide to quit their jobs and join other companies that could bring negative impact within the organisation especially if such individuals were of potential in the organisation.
Ability and Skills
Goals in a workplace need to be achievable in order for employees to become confident and motivated workers. As ability and skills held by employees vary from one to the other, such targets or expectations may be different for each individual employee. However, if specifications for certain posts within a company are identical, then ability and skills may be very similar for these employees. Thus, performance management indicators would be based on fact that ability and skills are the same for such members of the entity. There are limitations to this belief, of course. The human element imposed on all aspects of life results in variances in ability and applied skills of employees. Although employees in BT plc enter a company sector with the same skills and capability, appliance of such skills may change. This may be due to unhappiness of the employee (demotivated) within the organisation or poor management though lack of effective assessment of the employee, e.g. managers not getting evidence of work completed over a period of time (this could provide employees the opportunity to shirk from their duties).
Organisation which is well structured in a formal way can have an impact to the culture within the organisation. Different structures having different functions influence the individuals in terms the way they perform their tasks basing to the objective of each department such as human resources, marketing, sales, finance etc all aiming at enhancing company objectives in achieving their goals. Company's performance can be measured in terms of its profit, market share, sales, balance scorecard and financial statement such performance is due to the contributions of individuals at work though their behaviour may be influenced in different ways that some of them bring success to the organisation were others may bring impacts to the individuals and organisation at large. Managers need to evaluate such influence of individual behaviour in a well organised managerial way that could benefit the company internally and externally.
Frederick W Taylor introduced the scientific management thought where in 1911 wrote a book about management called The Principles of Scientific management where such theory approach are been applied by many organisations practically. Taylor came out with the views saying that the process of work can be arranged in a professional manner by subdividing the tasks by providing the best means that could organise each task meeting the organisational objectives. Taylor viewed that each task should be processed and analysed accurately in order to identify the activities taken by each task. He came out with the idea of time and motion study that the activities carried out within the organisation and methods of doing the work should be reviewed so that individual could do their work properly.
Working methods, equipment used and procedures for doing a job need to be monitored in order to produce a good quality performance for each task. Workers should be provided training for the development of the organisation and themselves too also wages and salaries should be introduced in a different form depending on the type of work at that particular time such as piecework basis for the purpose of maximising profit though there should be some deductions in the wages if the result of work does not meet the organisation standard. In today's organisation have adopted such theories in their organisations example BT plc job role is been reviewed well analysing the routines and procedures which is normally in the contract of employment which summarises job description including the wages, induction and training.
Classical administration (Administrative management school)
Henri Fayol was an engineer in France wrote a book called General and Industrial Management which was written in French in 1916 later translated in English in 1949 in the USA. Fayol came with the views that activities carried out within the organisation can divided into different groups or department as many organisations do example Unilever plc have finance department, information technology, department, security department, marketing department etc so that individuals' qualification could be identified and grouped and each department could work together towards achieving the organisation objectives by communicating to each other. He said organisation should have a clear picture of where it is and future prospective by planning and added that there should be line of authority in a hierarchy way showing the flow of command and decisions flowing from the top management to the bottom same system is being used by Unilever plc by having organisation structure the show the line of authority. He also mentions that staff should be involve in the decision making of the organisation also providing training to the staff for developing them.