According to (Hopkins, 2000) quantitative research is all about appending numbers to relationships between variables and using objective measurements and statistical analysis of data which is collected from a well-controlled scenery. Conversely, qualitative research is collected in natural settings and is based on the study of phenomena. It also involves thorough narrative data collection for the purpose of understand the way things are and the reasons they are that way (Gay & Airasian, 2003). Basically speaking, qualitative research is generally for generating theory while quantitative research centers on testing theory (Ary, et al., 2002).
Brymen and Bell (2007:135) introduced five research strategies that researchers can follow when conducting their researches. These are: longitudinal strategy, experimental strategy, cross sectional strategy, case study strategy and comparative strategy. For this study, the researcher will use the case study approach in order to achieve the research objective. This strategy will be used because the effect of corporate culture would be examined in this research in order to understand its effect on customer satisfaction.
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This observed evidence presents a test of the relationship between the elements of organisational culture and customer satisfaction in two hospitality resorts in Nigeria, one from the countries capital-Abuja and the second from country's 'financial capital', Lagos. During December 2010, 138 respondents, employees and customers from both resorts returned their questionnaires. The collected data were computerized, cross checked for errors and analysed statistically. Secondly step of statistical analysis data were regressed to cultural dimensions on a customer indicator to test the relationship between organizational culture dimensions representing organizational effectiveness factors as independent variables and the customer satisfaction indicator as a dependent variable. In order to yield four cultural dimensions and validate a customer satisfaction indicator, factor analysis which is a principal component method with Varimax normalized rotation was conducted.
SAMPLING AND PROCEDURE
The respondents in this research were chosen from among the front-line employees from the hospitality resorts and the customers or guests that were at the resort when the study was being conducted. The front-line personnel and administrative staff were part of the study, because their behaviour is seen to be crucial to customers' views of the service quality rendered (Darby, 1999). The employees of the resorts and guests evaluated the organizational culture and customer satisfaction in the hospitality resorts simultaneously. Both the employees and guests were selected at random with all having the same chance of being selected, and represent the structure at the time the questionnaire was administered. Therefore, a convenience sampling strategy was used in this study. The researcher personally distributed and collected the questionnaires.
Although a particularly large sample is not required for correlation studies, researchers recommend samples with no fewer than 30 subjects (Ary et al., 2002). They further posited that for the assumption of the existence of a relationship, a sample size from 50 to 100 is regarded as a reasonable size. In order to examine the relationship between studied variables, the total number of participants for this study was set at between 100 and 180. A total of one hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed to employees in the different departments; 12 questionnaires were returned, making a response rate of 92.0%. In the first resort, Eko Hotels and Suites, the respondents were 51 guests (31 men and 20 women), with 43.2 years of average work experience and in the second resort, 15 frontline, administrative and service staff (15 men and 25 women)with 12.5 years of average work experience. In the second resort Transcorp Hilton, 53 guests, made up of 32 men and 21 women, with 40.60 years of work experience and 18 frontline, administrative and service staff, 5 men and 13 women, with 22.35 years of working experience filled out and returned the questionnaire. They all filled out and returned the questionnaire which contained questions about organisational culture and customer satisfaction
Library and field study methods were made use of to gather information about theoretical fundamentals, literature formulation, index identification and related definitions. Quantitative study and survey instruments were chosen to highlight differences and similarities between the samples in the study and between the hospitality resorts in the study. Survey instruments with a five point Likert-type continuous scales ranging from (1) totally disagree with the statement to (5) totally agree with the statement was used to test the relationship between organizational culture and customer satisfaction.
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There are lots of widely known instruments for measuring organisational culture. Some of them are the organisational culture inventory (OCI) as proposed by (Cooke and Lafferty, 1989), the competing values model proposed by (Quinn and Rohrbaugh, 1983), and the organisational culture profile (OCP) propoed by (O'Reilly et al., 1991).
Much of the empirical research in the area has addressed how to measure culture (Marcoulides and Heck, 1993), what culture types are most effective (Bhaskaran and Sukumaran, 2007; Cameron and Ouinn, 1999; Denison, 1997; Denison and Mishra, 1995; Kotter and Heskett, 1992; Mavondo and Farrell, 2003), and how to change organizational culture to more effective types (Cooke and Rousseau, 1988; Korte and Chermack, 2007; Rashid, Sambasivan, and Rahman, 2004; Schwartz and Davis, 1981).
After studying a wide set of organizational culture texts and taking into account organizational culture models introduced by management thinkers , the researcher decided that The Denison Organizational Culture, an organizational culture framework designed by (Denison & Neale, 2000)) is the most relevant to this survey and was used as a base for the current study in two hospitality resorts in Nigeria. DOCS is made up of four dimensions of an organizational culture which Denison synthesizes into a framework. These are namely (involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission), each contain containing three indexes, making a total of 12 indexes with five items each. (see Table 1 for a description of the traits and indexes).
The first hypothesis, involvement, suggests that when
The involvement trait focuses on employees' commitment and sense of ownership, involvement in decisions that affect them, and team orientation. Effective organizations empower their employees, use teamwork, and continuously develop the capacity of their employees (Becker, 1964; Deal & Kennedy, 1982; Denison, 2000; Fey & Denison, 2003; Lawler, 1996; Likert, 1961; Peters & Waterman, 1982).
Consistency refers to the existence of organizational systems and processes that promote real alignment and efficiency over time. It is the focus on a common set of management principles, consensus regarding right and wrong ways to do things, and coordination and integration across the organization. ''The fundamental concept is that implicit control systems, based on internalized values, are a more effective means of achieving coordination than external control systems that rely on explicit rules and regulations'' (Denison, 1990, p. 9). Organizations are more effective when they are consistent and well-integrated (Saffold, 1988). Effective organizations combine involvement and consistency in a continual cycle such that ''[i]nvolvement is used to generate potential ideas and solutions, which are then refined into a more precise set of principles'' (Denison, 1990, p. 11).
Adaptability is the organization's capacity for internal change in response to external conditions (Denison & Mishra, 1995). Companies that are highly internally focused and integrated can have difficulty adapting to external market demands (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967); hence it is important to ensure a capacity for creating change, understanding the customer and meeting their needs, and continuing to learn as an organization (Fey & Denison, 2003; Nadler, 1998).
Finally, mission refers to the degree to which an organization is clear on why it exists and where it is headed. Effective organizations pursue a mission containing economic and noneconomic objectives that provide meaning and direction for their employees (Denison & Mishra, 1995). More specifically, these organizations have a clear purpose and direction, goals and objectives, and a vision for the future (Fey & Denison, 2003; Mintzberg, 1987, 1994). Operationally, each of these four traits is comprised of three factors or indexes, as shown in
(58714669 table 1)
Customers who recently bought houses from the home-building company completed a customer satisfaction survey that was administered by an independent third party. We used the overall customer satisfaction question: ''Thinking back to your overall experience with XYZ home-building company, how much of your experience was positive?'' Eleven response options ranged from 0% to 100% in increments of 10%. A response of 0% was coded as a ''0'', a response of 10% was coded as a ''1'', a response of 20% was coded as a ''2'', and so on, up to the maximum of a ''10'' (100%) on the 11-option scale. The mean for this question was 8.48 (SDÂ¼0.51) out of a possible range of 0 - 10. The response rate for this survey was 37%.
In addition to job position, age, gender, and tenure were also examined as control variables, in an attempt to rule out possible influences on the examined relationships. The variables were examined in the following sequence:
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(a) Demographic (control): Age, gender, and years of working experience at the organization.
(b) Independent: Organizational culture dimensions organizational effectiveness.
(c) Dependent: customer satisfaction.
According to (Ary, et al., 2002), the reliability of an instrument is the degree to which it is accurate and consistent on what is being measured. They further opined that is no validity in a test unless it shows reliability and consistency. With the myriad of method of measuring reliability of a study, Cronbach's alpha estimate of reliability was used to establish the reliability of scales used in the questionnaire.