Organisation which resembles different cultures

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Culture is a set of value that are adopted by people the culture is the main part of the society as the people who are in different community follow the culture which explore their life style, Their rituals and many.

Organisation culture is not tangible. It should be understood well about the behavior and the value of belief system of employee of the business entity which the organisation laid emphasis on culture since growth and success depends on kind of culture prevalent in the company. An organization always adopts the principles of the culture in order to have a healthy or organisational work culture.

Organisational culture refers to the values the norms other intangible qualification that personality the organisation.

Basically organisational culture is the personality of the organisation culture is comprised of the assumptions, value, norms and tangible signs of organisation members. Their behaviors, members of an organisation soon come to sense the particular culture of an organisation. Organisation culture is one of those terms that difficult to express distinctly but everyone knows it when they sense it for example, the culture of a large for Profit Corporation is quite different than that of an organisation by looking at the arrangement of further what the brag about and what the member wear.

Corporate culture can be looked at as a system inputs include feedback from examples:-Society, profession, laws, strong values on competition or service. The process is based on our assembles value and norms. Value on money time, facilities space and people output or effects of our culture.

The concept of culture is particularly important when attempting to manage organisation. Wide change practitioner is coming to realize that despite the best laid plans organisation change must include not only changing structure & process.

There is a great deal of literature generated over the past decade about the concept of organisation culture particularly in regard to learning how to change organisation culture. Organisational change efforts of rumored to fail the vast majority of the tine usually this feature is created to lack of understanding about the strong scale it plays in organizations. That one of the reason that many strategy planners now place as much emphasis on identify strategic values as they do mission and vision.

These are the types of organisation culture.

� Innovation and risk taking

� Team orientation

� Aggressive

� Stability

� Attention to details

� Outcome orientation

� People orientation

Identify how organisation culture and structure affects business performance of an organisation?

Organisation culture

Culture is a set of value it defines the personality of an organisation culture is culmination of norms value and principles that an organisation adopts reach the principles by adhering to healthy organizational work culture.

� Innovation and risk taking

� Team orientation

� Aggressive

� Stability

� Attention to details

� Outcome orientation

� People orientation

Organisation structure

It�s the form of structure that determines the hierarchy and the reporting structure in the organisation it�s also called organizational structure or chart.

� Work specialasation

� Departmentalisation

� Chain of command

� Span of control

� Centralisation and departmentalization

� Formalisation

Organisation structure. Its determinants & outcomes

Determines Leads to

A virtual oraganisation

Structure of business organisation

An organisation is a group of people who co-operate together for a common purpose. Generally the business organisations carry out the activities with the view of profit. The business organisations can be categorize according to ownership, scale, legality and Function.

Analyse the factors which influence individual�s behavior at work?

Individual behavior

Human behavior is complex and every individual is different from another, the challenge of an effective organization is in successfully matching the task, the manager and the subordinate. Under ideal situation, a manager would first analyze the task, then determine the required skills and assemble a team that complement each other skills; thereby creating an enriching & conflict free team. In reality, a manager has to use the existing resources for a given task, and must have the ability to understand the differences in individual behaviors and use them appropriately to increase the synergy.

Types of individual behavior

Individual Personal

Types of Individual Personal

According to John Ivancevich and Michael Mattson, the major factors that influence individual differences in behavioral patterns are demographic factors, abilities and skills, perception, attitudes and personality.

Demographic Factors

The demographic factors are socio economic background, education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc. Organisations prefer persons that belong to good socio-economic background, well educated, young etc as they are believed to be performing better than the others. The young and dynamic professionals that have good academic background and effective communication skills are always in great demand. The study of demographic factors is significant as it helps managers to pick the suitable candidate for a particular job.

Abilities and Skills

The physical capacity of an individual to do something can be termed as ability. Skill can be defined as the ability to act in a way that allows a person to perform well. The individual behavior and performance is highly influenced by ability and skills. A person can perform well in the organisation if his abilities and skills are matched with the job requirement. The managers plays vital role in matching the abilities and skills of the employees with the particular job requirement.

Perception

The cognitive process meant for interpreting the environmental stimuli in a meaningful way is referred to as perception. Every individual on the basis of his/he reference can organize and interpret environmental stimuli. There are many factors that influence the perception of an individual. The study of perception plays important role for the managers. It is important for mangers to create the favorable work environment so that employees perceive them in most favorable way. The employees are likely to perform better if they are going to perceive it in a positive way.

Attitude

According to psychologists, attitude can be defined as a tendency to respond favorably or unfavorably to certain objects, persons or situations. The factors such as family, society, culture, peers and organisational factors influence the formation of attitude. The managers in an organisation need to study the variables related to job as to create the work environment in a favorable way that employees are tempted to form a positive attitude towards their respective jobs. The employees can perform better in the organisation if they form a positive attitude.

Personality

Personality can be defined as the study of the characteristics and distinctive traits of an individual, the inter-relations between them and the way in which a person responds and adjusts to other people and situations. The several factors that influence the personality of an individual are heredity, family, society, culture and situation. It implies to the fact that individuals differ in their manner while responding to the organizational environment. Personality can be regarded as the most complex aspect of human beings that influences their behavior in big way. It can be concluded that the study of personality traits offers an opportunity to understand the individuals. It helps them properly in directing their effort and motivating them for the accomplishment of the organisational goal. It refers to the fact that different environmental factors may generate different responses. The study of these responses is very important for the organisation. Every organisation demands a particular type of behavior from their employees and such behaviors can be discovered through observation, learning, exposure, training, etc.

Identify different styles of leadership? In your opinion which style is effective in an organisation�s context? Give reasons.

Leadership

Leadership is the art of organising the work to be done, and motivating people to achieve objectives. Leadership involves in leading and guiding by influencing other people behavior individually and as a group, in the process of willing cooperation, interest, loyalty and participation towards achievement or desired objective.

In the past several decades management experts have undergone a revolution in how they define leadership and what are their attitudes towards it. They have gone from a very classical autocratic approach to a very creative, participative, approach somewhere along the line, it was determined that not everything new was good rather different styles are needed to know when to exhibit a particular approach.

Types of leadership

� Autocratic leadership

� Democratic leadership

� Bureaucratic or constitutional leadership

� Charismatic leadership

� Paternalistic leadership

� Laissez-faire leadership

Autocratic leadership

This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retain as much power and decision making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees or they allowed to give any input. Employees are expects to obey orders without receiving any explanations.

Democratic leadership

The democratic leadership style is also called the participative styles as it and courage�s employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects the work and share the decision making also the problem solving responsibilities. The style requires the leader to be a coach who is the finder.

Bureaucratic or constitutional leadership

Bureaucratic or constitutional leadership is where the manager manages by the book. Everything must be done according to procedure or policy. If it isn�t covered by the book the manager return to the next lead about him or her. This manager is really work of a police officer than a leader he / she enforces the work.

Charismatic leadership

Charismatic leadership styles are similar to transformational leadership because these leaders inspire lots of enthusiasm in their teams and are very energetic in driving other forwarding however charismatic leaders can tend to believe more in themselves than in their terms. This create a risk that a protect and even the entire organisation might collapse if the leader leaves in the edges of the follow success is directs connect to the presence of the charismatic leadership.

Paternalistic leadership

Paternalistic leadership is an approach that is based, intentionally or unintentionally, on the idea that the leader is in a better position than the followers to know best what is good for the organization, or the followers. In a nutshell it's the "leader as expert father figure�. In today's climate where participation and involvement in the workplace are much more popular than before, the paternalistic leader often acts in ways that many leadership gurus would criticize.

Laissez-faire leadership

The Laissez Faire Leadership Style was first described Lewin, Lippitt, and White in 1938 along with the autocratic leadership and the democratic leadership styles. The laissez faire style is sometimes described as a "hands off" leadership style because the leader provides little or no direction to the followers.

How do group norms and status influence on individual�s behavior?

Group norms

The rules of behavior that are part of the ideology of the group. Norms tend to reflect the values of the group and specify those that are inappropriate as well as rewards for adherence and the punishment for conformity.

Define group and what are the five stages of group development?

Two or more people who share a common definition and evaluation of them selves. Or the collection of people who interest with one an other accept right and obligation as market and who share a common identify.successful organizations generally foster the formation is one type of oranisational dynamics that is impacted by network structure. There are five stages through which the team must progress to become highly effective. There are

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

Adjourning

Forming

At this stages the individual group members have not yet become a group. They are still finding out about each other and need to feel include, they seek to know one another`s attitudes and background, and to establish the ground rules.the group is just coming together. Each members wishes to impress his or hrr personality on the group. the individuals will be trying to find out about each others and about the aims and norms of the team.

Storming

This is the stage during the formation of the group, where most conflict is encountered. It can be a very difficult time within the group, where group members will engage in conflict and test the limit . individual will communicate their personal goals and it is at this stages that conflict may prevail when differences in individual goals are revealed.this frequently involves more or less open conflict between team members. There may be changes agreed in the original objectives.

Norming

A period of setting down, there will be a agreements about work sharing, individual requirement and expectation of out put. this is the stage where group norms are established such as the norms of behavior and role allocation. The team focuses on goals and delivery results

Performing

This stages is concerned with actually getting on with the task in hand and achieving the overall objectives. The team sets to work to executed its task.

<Tuck man added fifth stages ten years later>

Adjourning

In this final stages the tem may disband because they have either completed the task or fellow members have left.

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