Operations of the NIB bank in pakistan

Published:

Nib Bank started its operations in PaksitaninOctober 2003 when all assets, liabilities, rights and obligations of the former National Development Leasing Corporation (NDLC) and Pakistan operations of IFIC Bank were incorporated with and into the Bank with a paid up capital of Rs.1.2bn. afterwards in April 2004, the Pakistan operations of Credit Agricole Indosuez were also merged with and into NIB. In March 2005 Temasek Holdings of Singapore acquired 25% shareholding in NIB Bank, through Bugis Investments. This shareholding was further heightened to over 70% in June 2005 following an increase in NIB's paid up capital to Rs 3.4 bn. NIB Bank has since grown rapidly from a base of 2 branches in 2003 to 45 in the 4th quarter of 2007, with a corresponding increase in its assets and deposits base. The legal merger of PICIC & PCBL into NIB took place on December 31, 2007, NIB has almost 4500 employees. The major services of Nib bank are Retail Banking, Transaction Banking, Small Medium Enterprises, Commercial Banking Group, Corporate and Investment Banking Group / Financial Institutions and Treasury of Capital Market Group

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Professional

Essay Writers

Lady Using Tablet

Get your grade
or your money back

using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service

Background and Organizational Strategic change:

Indeed NIB Bank if the 7th largest Bank of Pakistan with prestigious Branch network, but there are few issue which may let it down further, here are many fuctires which cause the loss in profit and in the entire structure of the Bank.

The Nib Bank has successfully launched the new Segment "Salam Banking" on 10th October, 2008, with 100 Salam Banking branches out 240 of total in 46 cities of Pakistan with more than 2500 employees this segment was meant to provides the full range of financial services including deposits, loans, insurance and transactional products, but its major interest was providing the small loans on large scales to small businessmen who were not welcomes by other banks, indeed it was a great step and in the beginning it was pretty successful in small business loans and Nib was offering unsecure loans to customers who were in business for last 3 to 5 years and holds good reputation in market.

The Structural downfall of NIB Bank:

With the passage of time, Nib bank had faced the decline of the organization's sales and profitsand the layoffs occur and talented employees left to take positions in growing organizations. Also the resourcesof the bank had become harder to acquire and resulting the crisis had caused the organizational failure. Nib management has lost the intrust in the recovery department and later after few tremendous changes in managent it was

Add suitable referanc for this Paragraph reltingclousesalam

uncontroable for the new staff, and later on bank it had faced downfall in the collections of the loans across the country, and later in April 2010, higher management decied to close down this segment until with fresh start in the end of the following year, therefore bank had decided firing the extra staff of the Salam Segment across the country from 100 branches, more than 2100 employees were about to lost their jobs. It was cost cutting but it had bad influence on the Bank's reputation and as well as on its market share. Also it was bad impact in the unemployment rate of the country. But in the meantime State Bank of Pakistan took strong action to not to fire such a high number of skilled

employees in such a way. So Nib had to pay extra benefits to those fired employees.And also had face decline in sales and profit. And it still has to work hard to recover the loan instllments and bad debts across the country. After the sudden downfall in April 2010, there was also decres in the new loan booking volume. Therefore to continue the pace of work the management has started the rehabilitation plan to recover all the installments of the loans from their customers. Now bank is totally focusing on the collection of its previous loans disbursed across the country in 100 branches.,

Planning and implementing the Streatgicchange:

There is a need to make some changes in the line management and in the policy. Also need guideline to run the debt recovery department with the fresh start. The recover staff should be equipped with new style communication with clints who are not repying or who are bank rupt.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Comprehensive

Writing Services

Lady Using Tablet

Plagiarism-free
Always on Time

Marked to Standard

Order Now

Also there is no job security for the employess, there shold be no pressure on employees that they will lose the job in the long run. Nib has a policy to pay incremnts quarterly and it is extra ordinary approach, and Sales & Marketing staff of the bank should be awarded with insentives, to boost the intrest of work and loylalty with Organization. In the way Nib bank can recover its all bad debts and pending or delayed loan installments from 30% of its loan clints. The recovery staff should be young talented, targent oriented. And management has to set targets for the individuals with high insentives.Therer are many factors which has affected the bank's entire structes from time to time, like the economic forces such as interest rates, the state of the economy, and the unemployment rate of the country mean while the Technological forces, the development of new production techniques and new information-processing equipment influence many aspects of organization's operations. On the other hand Political, ethical, and environmental forces has influence government policy toward organizations and their stakeholders. And the Demographic, cultural, and social forces like the age, education, lifestyle, norms, values, and customs of a nation's people. Therefore not just the Nib Bank but also every organization should focus on the market before the investment and implementing the policy

There is also need to creat good will in the market, for example, sponcering sports and games in districts and national level or charity works.

The resource implications:

If the bank do not adopt the suitable changes In its strucrte, no matter how short time it will take to crash down, and without proper decision and policies of the higher management. Here are few aspects need to focus by the Management,

Need of skilled employees who should be target and task oriented and if bank is unable find such diomand cut emplyes than it can face hard time.

Nib has to focus on collection of loans and bad debts and stream line process, recovering the loop holes in the previous structure which led to the failureif unable to do so nothing will be encouraging.

New interventionsrequired inthe recovery department for the collection of bad debts better to higher or make an alliance with third party collection contract and also have some insurancecoverage plans for bad debts.

There is also need to make changes in the loan plans, making it more achievable andattractive for the new customers.

Q2

Applying Tuckman's Team Change on Nib Bank:

Tuckmanhas published his Team change Tory in 1965 which is consist of 4 steps namely Forming, Storming, Norming and Performing model. This models best suits on Nib Bank'sstructre to improve its team structure. The following are the four stpes which can best describe the Team change In Nib Bank.

(Stage 1 Forming):

In Nib Bank, the teams has to depend on their managers for guidance and direction, the line managers and group heads has to creat task for the teams, and all the tasks can be target oriented and best teams should awarded with insentives and bonuses.

The teams at Nib Bank should initally concerned with orientationa task orientted. the team members shoud behave independetly. they may or can be motivated usually relatively uniformed of the issues or objectives of the thier team. so team memebrs can show traits of uncertinty, and the team mamager should bring team altoghaterensrung that they trust each other and they abilty to develop a wrkongatmoshpere.

(Stage 2 Storming):

the formed teams of Nib Bank can gains onfodence in work and targets but still there is a fear of conflict and polarization and other issues. thereforetmea individuals should show hier own personalites as they confront each others ideas and prespectives. and the team managers should guides and projects their team through turbulent transition phase.

(Stage 3 Norming):

In nnorming, te Nib Bank's team memebrs should adjust thier behaviour to other team memebers in good maner and hey should develop agreemnts to make the joint team efforts in targets set by the managentabdtey have to make good effort to slovethier problems and to achive group harmny and team managers should let the members to act in participative style.

(Stage 4 Performing):

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

This Essay is

a Student's Work

Lady Using Tablet

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our work

in Performing, the Nib Teams structure should becomes the tool of task activites. and roles become flexable and functional and he group energy is channleled into the task.and the team is able to work as a unit as it gets the jobs done effectvely and without inapproprit conflicts or th need for external supervision and the each indivicual of the team need to clear the understanding of what is required of them at a task level. and the team manager should let the team members to take most of the necessary decisions.

 

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs as Individual Change:

in 1940-50's Abraham MAslow developed a the Hierachy of Needs models, it can help to understand the motivation, management training and personal develop ment of the indiviuals at Nib.

1. Biological and Physiological needs: in Physiological needs, these are the baisc human needs which motivates us to aaleviate them as soon as possible to satisfied ourself, after they are fulfiled than one can may think about the other issues.

2. Safety needs: the employees of Nib Bank should have the protection from various elements, there should proper job security for each employee and the internal law and order of the bank's atmosphere and there must be peoper policies and limits eqally for each individual.

3. Belongingness and Love needs: At Nib there should be affections and relationship between the other staff memebers and there must be a good realation among the rest of other so that the work atmoshprre could e enjoyed by th others

4. Esteem needs:  at Nib, there hould be achievement oriented culture among the indiviuals, they should work hard to get recongised or awarded as best in the entire country. And every work done should be finish with responcibility.

5. Self-Actualization needs: As an Nib's Indiviual the, he/she has to realise personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

Kotter's 'eight steps:

Kotter has preseted his reseach that follows 8 step to help any organization, and at Nib Bank it can explained as follow,

Increase urgency: - In Nib Bank the Management should hire the inspire employees who should objectives real and relevant to the job. And it has to foucs and Identify potential threats, to develop scenarios showing what could happen in the future also need to request support from the cutomers and outside stakeholders for the betterment of the entire organization.

Build the guiding : -In the next step Nib has to focus on this matter that it has to bring forward the the righ people with right emotional commints and perfcts right mix of skills and abilits and it also has to identiy the the true leadrs and maangers for the the strong structure.

Get the vision right: - The Bank has to creat the team structre and make a fucture vision for the fucture to make the most powerful strategy . it also has to determine the values that are the central to the change.

Communicate for buy-in: - the Bank has to Involve as many employees as possible, to communicate the essentials, simply, and to appeal and respond to employees's needs. Talk often about the change in the entire Bank and its vision.bank also has to apply its vision in all aspects of the operations and also has to lead with examples.

Empower action: - further the Bank has to Remove obstacles, enable constructive feedback and lots of support from staff and also has to increase rewards and bonous and incetives for the best work force. Aand for more change its better fot the bank to hire change leaders for better results.

Create short-term wins: - the Nib Bank has to set small targets tso that easily achived so that the aim and motivation can be set.and small and easy targets in the begeing are he best motivation approach for entire work force. And also need to rewards those who help to meet the targets./

Don't let up: - Kotters argurs that some times victory is declared too early and the change some timers failed. After every win, analyze what went right and what needs improving. Bank has to build momentum to achine the goals and later it has tro analyize what wne t wworng and what need to hzange, change on every step can be help ful.and keep learinmg the experaices for keep making new changes.

Make change stick: -Finally the Bank has to strengthen the value of successful change through recruitment, promotion and has to promote its successful change and discus the secuess stories it is also necessary ythat bank has o continue the asupport the change and also the people who took part int he change to keep the pace.

(E) The need of change in the current economic climate:

Nib Bank has to cover a long distance to over come its ec0omic and structural issues. It has to focus on its redesigned Orginixsational, team and indiivdial change,. To continue its pace it has consider yhr behavioral approach to keep to atteact the people and and how to put people to achive the desired results and to maximize the benefits and ON other hand in team change, the Bank has to consider the basic needs of the trweams and how to utilize the teams with the diffrnt targets from time to time. And as organizational change it has to consider that it has done sutiable divicon of the teams and the indivial sin the those teams to run the business so that each indivual have the key objective for the better of banks economics situation.

Infect thr change can be designed and palned and it can only work if well performed ansd controlled.

(F) the value of trategic intervention techniques AT Nib Bank:

a) Role Playing

This is integral part for the Nib Bank for the training purpose that could be used to act out a realistic situation that involves indivicuals with purposes to enable participants handle a given situation on given circumstances.

b) Team Development

The Team Develpnet can also play an important role for the Nib Banks's structure in the form of designing the teams to fulfill the targets set by the management, this can aslso help the bank to set goals and priotoes and analze the way of work and the deciosn making process.

c) Survey Feedback: "must see feedbacks as a stimulus for action rather than a final statement". (Nadler, 1997:147-148).

This is very important step to be followd by the Bank regarding to its Change , in this process it has to gathered the information through personal interviews or survey questionnaires to analyzed the real facts observed from the results of the survey, and that it has to discus and share with its workforce. Ther is a chance that the feedback can be limited and or can be inspiring.

d) Inter-Group Problem-Solving

The perfect way of the problem solving in the grpup, if the problem developed on the floor the join group discussion can solve the isse on the floor,.in such disciuions or meeting all members can discus the issues, so the healthy environment can flourished.

e) Process Consultation

This is esenatial process to help the disputed teams like two or more teams having disputes, The process of consultation has the

edges of conflict and sharpens the sword of peace.

g) Managemnt By Objective Approach:

The most suplendid approach is Management by objectives to seek to involve subordinates in the decision-making process. Its purpose is to ensure managerial value while solving interpersonal problems.

Q3

Its is natural that when ever change occurs in any organization, a lot of people involves in it from Managers, to Leaders, from general work force to external Stakeholder.

IN Nib Bank the Stakeholders play important roles they have the ability to influence the objectives and directions of the entire bank.

There are basiclay two types of stakesholdrs Internal Stakeholders and External Stakeholder.

Internal stakeholders:

Internal stakeholders have their own interests which they might follow - e.g. managers might seek organisational growth over profits, employees seek high wages and favourable working conditions.

Internal stakeholders can have have negative power to impede the implementation of strategy and also these internal can threaten industrial action or can threaten to resign.

External Stakeholders:

In Nib Bank External stakeholders do not own or work with the Bank, but they still have an interest in the Bank's Structure. They can also be independent share holders government agencies e.g State Bank of Pakistan.

Developing a change management strategy with stakeholders:

Nib Managemnt has to keep on mind that it is not palaing any change on its own, it has to get togather the internal and external Stakeholders all togatheres. The most easy way to involve the Stakeholders in the change is havng defined communication strategy and being and consistent about sharing information and also need to consider using a variety of media to reach people, and there is also need to support staff with training and opportunities to practice. The higher maangemnt also has to listen and act on questions, feedback and concerns as well. And also has to celebrate ideas, achievements and successes. Infect there is also need to a clear reason for implementing change.there should be a a shared vision about what the change will achieved.

When developing strategies, consider the barriers to implementing change and cater for them within the strategy development. In this way it will be the most suitable and easy strategy to demonstare the change in the organization.

Other Key Responsibilities for Nib Management:

Recognise the change required

Decide the major issues

Identify and assess the key stakeholders

Win the support of key individuals

Identify the obstacles

Determine the degree of risk and the cost of change

Understand why change is resisted

Recognize the need for change, identify current position, devise a suitable method

Develop a clear vision

Make it people clear about what a change involves and how they are involved in it

What is involved

What is the proposed change

Why should we do it

What the major effects will be

How we can manage the change

appropriate model of change for Nib's Stakeholders:

In the need of hour, the higher Management of Nib has to put all intrust on this step to involve all the strakeholdrs internal and xtrenal to palan and design the change in the Bank. Therefore Peter Senge has delivered in his famous Fifth Discipline Fieldbook. It shows the different steps of participation and contribution in change routes,

Telling: In Nib Bank the decisions about the change process should be taken on the highest managerial level. Stakeholders have only the choice of accepting the top-down plan. The Implemention of an entire change process from top-down leads to frustration and refusal of co-operation.

Selling: In the tep the Banks has to change the plans that are designed at top-level and stakeholders are invited to join in the change. On the other hand the top management wants to hear a "yes", and the staff wants to hear that they will keep their jobs. therefore, the most will give a compliant "yes", which is not a safe option for commitment.

Testing: Nib Bank has to involve the stakeholders and asks for their comments. The management means to find out whether stakeholders support the change process or not?, and opens up for proposals. Testing can be done on a limited scale, perhaps better to expand, to differentiate between illustration and leading, but could also concern the whole system. The vision remains as is, but the way to reach the vision is subject to negotiations between the different stakeholder groups.

Consulting: At this stage the Nib Managemnt has to decide that the chosen appliance for a management that diagnoses that it can not have possibly have all the answers. Accessing the stakeholders about the change, supports the vision of change. However, such a procedure takes time and needs assurance at the top-level to correct early results.

Co-creating: In the last step Nib Bank has to consider the vision mutually with stakeholders from the very start. It safeguards the highest step of ownership.

Q4

Measuring & monitoring progress of the change process Nib Bank:

implementing the change at the bank could be a big chanllege for the Nib managemnt.because the shcge always strat from the single emplyes to the entire structre, because Nib Bank has to work hard to come over its orginizatinal issue, the managemnt has to consider all the internal and external stakeholders and keep them in contact and united with the bank, they need to be updsted from all the issues and outcomes of the change in the Bank, wehter the putcomes are positive or negative.

all the issues must be sorted out and also there is a need to exploreer the foundation of the problem to decide the soluton, so that Bank Managemnt can figure out what went wrong? and how Bank can retrive the its loan collection department, becsue the bank has to collect its loan installments that it has dispuesed in the last 2 years, and also the bad debts of the Bank. Meanwhile there must be another plan how to implement the change at the Bank. Tehrer are more few issues bank has to consider for the long term strategy and change inside it. The employees should be awarded insentives and increments and there must be job surety to all the staff. Becausew Nib Bank can only gain the loylity if he offers secures jobs. And the hiring must be fresh graduates with extra ordinary educational back grounds. And non perfoermers must be dismissed when they failed to show the good reslts. The targets orinated job can be a good option in this way the emplyess will work hard to achive the targers and to achive good insentives. Nib Managemnt need to implement total quality manabent and respect and cultural change in all directions, I think first they should conduct open debate later managent has to fininlisze the change and plan to implemtn. It will be easy for both staff and management. Hare are few ppoints that need to be considerd by the Bank Maangement.

Gain support of key decisions makers, facilitators and stakeholders

Change attitudes among employees who deal with customers

Obtain employees' commitment to making the strategic plan work by

Involving them in the ownership of the plan

Rewarding them on the plans' attainment

Train staff - develop new skills that will contribute to the effective implementation of plans

Recommendation:

Rapid technological advancements has become challenge for NIB Bank Ltd • Already many huge banks are doing business in the banking sector. • Devaluation of Pakistani currency. • The bank is facing threats with the emergence of new competitors especially in terms of foreign banks. 2.4.2. Recommendations First of all there is no Job security in the NIB Bank. The employees in the organization should be insured job security so that there is no pressure on the employees while performing their tasks. NIB needs to advertise it's self as it is not so familiar among the people like other banks. They should give training to its staff about the knowledge of the products of different banks as they then able to compare the advantages of their product with respect to others. They should provide the facility of online submission of utility bills. They should launch home and car loans services. NIB should also introduce "Dress-Down" day i.e. employees should be given permission to wear dresses other than formal dresses on certain days so as to make them relaxed while work. I found many complaints regarding the ATM issues in NIB. Most of the time ATM remained offline. NIB needs to make sure the alternative links for the customer. At last they have a very small building and there is no space for sitting for customer they should try to expand their building.

• Assessment Of Performance Of Employees There are no proper criteria for assessment of performance of employees and most of the time it is on the personal judgment of the manager who forward the assessment sheets of all employees to area office for their promotions.

• Problem With Information System 16

NIB Bank Ltd information system is not very good and most of the time online transaction service of the Bank network is down, which occurs to be a big issue in smooth working, management really needs to work on it.

• No Rotation Of Employees From Department To Department There is not any rotation of employees within departments and cross departments. Therefore, the top management should immediately start thinking in terms of rotating the employees in various departments, as this alter work force into human capital.

• Implementation Of Management Policy NIB Bank Ltd Limited should develop a very serious management policy to attract multi NIB corporations as its clients.This action, if actualized, would not only prove to be highly profit generating, but it would also contribute a lot towards NIB Bank Ltd's image building. • Advertisements/Marketing Bank needs to use more marketing channels to make public aware of its products and services. In the presence of intense competition NIB Bank Ltd has to realize the importance of marketing.

• Distribution Of Work Management should distribute work equally among different employees. Some of the employees are overburdened while some sections are overstaffed. • Staff Training & Improvement In Processes To keep staff well equipped and updated with enormous changes in current banking environment, training are an important part of survival. Especially for the customer service staff and phone banking department as they are at front end and need more efficient performance for having satisfied customers.

3. CONCLUSION 17

Internship Report During my stay at NIB Bank limited I have learned a lot of things about professional field like culture of the organization and the behavior of employee like how to deal with customer to become a loyal customer of the organization. NIB is a Singapore based business group. Group has diversified type of business all across the globe.In NIB Bank, employees have very good relationship among themselves and also with their customers. Employees treated me very well during my internship duration and helped me to understand the way of doing work. NIB Bank has since grown rapidly from a base of 2 branches in 2003 to 45 in the 4th quarter of 2007. The internship helped me to improve my confidence level and I learned the way how to deal the organization level colleagues. It also increases my interaction with different people from different background and helped me to learn and understand their values and how to deal them in effective manner. In NIB Bank Selections of employees are very rare from internees I learnt a lot from my internship which will help me a lot in my professional career. The Pakistan economy continues to face the challenges arising due to global economic crisis. Though the economy has shown some positive trends, however, many indicators need to be further improved to put the economy back on stability track.

2. Terms of reference or aims and objectives:

Problem solving

Here we also want to share that in NIB Bank we did not find the employeerecognition programs like (employee of the year, employee of the month) and wefeel that this kind of recognition program can also increase the level of motivationand productivity of employees of NIB Bank.

Conclusion ⇒

NIB Bank is a global bank which is also operating in Pakistan. As the requirement of growing banking sector it is necessary to set challenging and effective goals so as to become market leaders. Despite of setting challenging goals the employees of NIB Bank are satisfied with these challenging goals and performing well to achieve the goals which were provided to them. ⇒The management style in NIB Bank is kind of participative management in which employees are given chance to share their ideas for decision making so the NIB Bank is utilizing its employees by getting different ideas from different employees this provides greater chances for getting better and innovative ideas. Not only this but from this activity employees feel motivated because they think they also have the authority in decision making process and they are also a part of an organization. During the interview of an employee NIB Bank he told us "All the employees here are given title of relationship officer rather than any other designation and at the beginning of each month the top level management visits every branch and arrange meeting with all the employees of the branch and discuss the problems faced by every employee and immediately tries to resolve the problem and this is the major motivating factor for us". ⇒For motivating their employees management uses different types of motivating tools the innovative ones we found are ESOP (Employees Stock Ownership Plan) and the pay plan for less productive workers. By providing ESOP the employees gains the ownership of an organization and work hard not only for their benefit but also to maximize the profit of the organization. ⇒The next thing about the pay plan for less productive workers the company motivate their employees whose performance is not up to the mark by giving them the salaries equivalent to the market value of the any other employee of same rank. ⇒As the motivation and reward systems are up to the expectation of the employees so the employees are very much satisfied and don't want to leave the organization. ⇒The leadership styles in NIB Bank are mixture of both the task oriented and relationship oriented but it is little lien towards relationship oriented leadership style. ⇒Overall we concluded NIB Bank inherits strong organizational culture having values for leaders and as well as for employees and customers and the organization behavior is up to the mark for any company being in Pakistan. Fatima Jinnah Women University 26

Recommendations NIB Bank should offer training and development sessions for undergraduates; this will help NIB Bank in future while recruiting employees. NIB should introduce "Dress-Down" day i.e. employees should be given permission to wear dresses other than formal dresses on certain days so as to make them relaxed while work. Customer retention: Customer retention is one of the main priorities for banks today. With the entry of new players and multiple channels, customers have become more discerning and less 'loyal' to banks. Given the various options, it is now possible to open a new account within minutes. Or for that matter shift accounts within a couple of hours. This makes it imperative that banks provide best levels of service to ensure customer satisfaction. So NIB bank should remain focused on continuous improvement. Perquisites and Allowances: the number of allowances and perquisites for the employees should be increased to ensure that they put their body and soul in the jobs assigned to them. The fresh hiring should be made permanent so that they are secured of their future. Further the allowances and perquisites attached with the permanent jobs will also increase the motivation level of the employees. Empowerment Of employees to participate more in the decision process. In order to implement total quality management, bank need to respect a cultural change in direction, set the strategy and give employees a chance to look at things differently. Reorganizing products and services according to customer requirements

Recommendations 

NIB Bank should offer training and development sessions for undergraduates; this will help NIB Bank in future while recruiting employees. NIB should introduce "Dress-Down" day i.e. employees should be given permission to wear dresses other than formal dresses on certain days so as to make them relaxed while work. Customer retention: Customer retention is one of the main priorities for banks today. With the entry of new players and multiple channels, customers have become more discerning and less 'loyal' to banks. Given the various options, it is now possible to open a new account within minutes. Or for that matter shift accounts within a couple of hours. This makes it imperative that banks provide best levels of service to ensure customer satisfaction. So NIB bank should remain focused on continuous improvement. Perquisites and Allowances: the number of allowances and perquisites for the employees should be increased to ensure that they put their body and soul in the jobs assigned to them. The fresh hiring should be made permanent so that they are secured of their future. Further the allowances and perquisites attached with the permanent jobs will also increase the motivation level of the employees. Empowerment Of employees to participate more in the decision process. In order to implement total quality management, bank need to respect a cultural change in direction, set the strategy and give employees a chance to look at things differently. Reorganizing products and services according to customer requirements