Need for personal and professional skills

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Personal skill is the ability to do something which means those abilities which force a person to do something. Every organisation requires different personal skills from its employees and at the time of appointment those skills are considered and analysed. If those skills are fulfilling organisational requirements than management or panel offers place to that person who has those skills. Here are some examples of those skills which are desirable in a person for organisational prospective, communication, cooperation, carefulness and relation building. A person having personal skills can drive the organisation very easily and contributes in firm's profit and efficiency. Here are some major personal skills which a person should have to boost his career and also profitable and advantageous for the company.

Communication:

This is basic skill which organisation needs to its every employee. A person have sound grip on communication skill. In the communication skill, there are two main categories included, one is oral and second is written communication. In oral communication, meetings, seminars, presentations, speeches, lectures, arbitrations, interviewing, networking, negotiations and conferences are considered and written communications include memos, letters, proposals, reports, position papers, assessment, manuals, press releases, articles and marketing and sales promotions.

Carefulness:

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A person who wishes to build his career and wants to be accepted by every employer then he should have a tendency to think and plan carefully before acting? This helps with reducing the chance for costly errors, as well as keeping a steady workflow going. It is also develop a trust on employers and they delegate more powers and authority to the employees because of his carefulness in every work.

Cooperation:

A key factor which enhances your ability of learning and development is cooperation with cooperation with your colleagues and junior staffs. This personal skill develops you as an ideal person who makes happy to his peers and subordinate staff. Cooperation is very important in any organisation because it is Willingness to engage in interpersonal work situations is very important in the workplace.

Creativity:

Another high valued skill is Creativity. The sense of creativity invites new methods and techniques to do same work but with more quickly and efficiently in organisation. Employer wants to complete tasks very fast and in efficient manners and it can only be possible when a person who is managing those activities has sense of creativity. Creative minded people handle the situation much better than those who just follow the others as example.

Discipline:

Every organisation establishes its own rules and regulations and also implements policies and procedures. These rules and policies are imposed only to run the business and organisation in a particular framework. Organisation wishes that all employees must obey organisational policies and instructions from the management so company wants to keep those people who maintain discipline and enforce others to continue their activities within discipline which present the actual picture of organisation internally.

Good attitude:

The licence to success in organisation and also for the betterment of and prosperity of an organisation is good attitude of employees which includes predict counterproductive work behaviours, job performance and theft, dealing with the customers, reduce personal conflicts and respect of peers and subordinates.

Influence:

A good and proactive employee should have capability to create his own influence to other employees, management activities, decision making and for the development of other employees. This influence must be in positive direction and groups need strong leaders to guide the way. Influence includes a tendency to positively impact social situations by speaking your mind and becoming a group leader.

Self mover:

An ideal quality of employee which every organisation desires its employees must have it is to work without directions on every step or phase and needs ordinary instructions to give his best performance. This is a tendency to be well organized helps employees to work without major distractions or "roadblocks." This quality or skill reduces the burden on higher management and increase the capability on new projects for higher authorities.

Safe work behaviours:

Employers want people who avoid work-related accidents and unnecessary risk-taking in a work environment. Such types of activities reduce efficiency of labour because it causes delays and suspension of work. Sometimes these activities result a fatal injury for employees and workers which is very dangerous for the goodwill of organisation.

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This is another important skill which a smart person must have because it makes a person redeeming among others. This is not just about job knowledge, but knowledge of co-workers and the working environment. It includes a tendency to read other people's motives from observed behaviour and use this information to guide one's thinking and action. This quality or skill also helps to determine new goals and objectives for a person that based on up to date knowledge, solid information about environment and new trends in job conditions.

Sociability:

Sociability means how much you enjoy interacting with co-workers affects how well you work with them. Those people who modify themselves according to behaviour and conduct of people around them are more successful and prominent in work place. This ability shows that they can interact with all employees and build friendly relation with them and help them or encourage them to work together or vice versa.

Stability:

A company always prefers those workers who have a tendency to maintain composure and rationality in stressful work situations. If an employee stabilizes activities of organisation in critical situation then organisation passes all situations easily and without any damage done.

Optimism:

Optimism is a positive attitude goes a long way toward productivity. In worst business conditions or crunch time, optimism is key driver to motivate workers and management to struggle hard and overcome such situation.

Professional Skills:

We have discussed personal skills and qualities above which help to achieve career plans, personal objectives and targets. Now we will discuss the skills which requires in profession a person involves. Professional skills are also equivalent to personal skills and with the combination of both skills a person become suitable for every organisation and employer wants to have such type of employees. Here we are going to elaborate some important professional skills, basically this model of professional skills presented by Mintzberg in 1973.

Leading:

A person must have quality to lead workers in organisation. Especially a manager is responsible for making his organisational subunit function as an integrated whole in the pursuit of its basic purpose. The manager must provide guidance to subordinates and ensure that they are motivated and create favourable condition for doing work. A number of a activities are concerned with leading quality such as hiring, training, directing, praising, criticizing, promoting, and dismissing of employees.

Liaison:

This is very productive skill for organisation itself in which a manager establish a role in organisation to maintain relation with outside world like relation with individuals, suppliers, buyers, local community representatives and concerned government departments. He also establishes relation with peer managers of same organisation to share experience and advising. This relations are very important and vital for organisation to keep information, building new contacts, receiving feedbacks about organisation and keeping in touch with them to stick with organisation.

Figurehead:

A person should be able to work as figurehead when it is appointed as manager in organisation or promoted as manager. Managers are obliged to perform some symbolic duties of legal or social nature. Such duties are included signing documents, presiding at certain meetings and ceremonial events such as retirement dinner of subordinates, taking part in other rituals and receiving official visitors. A person must be capable to handle all above activities in well manners although there are less relevant to his nature of job.

Monitor:

A person who is acting as manager in an organisation should monitor all ongoing activities related to his department. He always seeks information from reports, memos, attending meetings and briefing, conducting observational tours and surprise visits in different areas. After achieving such information, he should analyse assess to discover problems and find new methods, solutions and opportunities to thrive the organisation.

Disseminator:

It means a person who spread information so a person acting as manager has special permission to access the information which is restricted to subordinates. There information is source to establish new techniques and changes in organisation. some information is kept hide from subordinates but managers knows it but some information is given for subordinates and its duty of the manager to pass on this information to lower level either by original form or by interpreting it.

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A person when appointed is expected to act as spokesperson for his group or department specially when works as manager. He is obliged to pass information about the company and speaks for the right of his organisation. He should keep up to minute knowledge of all activities of which he is responsible for. Any change or instruction which is against the benefits of employees, he should speak for employee's right.

Entrepreneur:

A person should be act as initiator or designer of new technique or development. a persona acting as manager should be designer of controlled change to exploit opportunities to improving the existing situation. Planned changes are taken place in the form of improvement projects, development of new project, purchase of new equipment and reorganisation of formal structure.

Disturbance Handler:

A strong hold on information and matters plays very important role to handle quarrels and disturbances. A person should always be ready for such miserable conditions which may push company into terrible phase. A person should handle such events very tactfully and professionally such as crises occur by unforeseen events, conflict among subordinates, the loss of key worker, a fire or accident or a strike by the workers. This ability have a priority over all other professional skills.

Resource Allocator:

A person when work as a manager should allocate resources carefully and according to needs of work. A manager has authority to allocate resources such as money, material, equipment, facilities and services by his own discretion. Resource allocation involves in managerial decision about what is to be done, decisions about preparation of budget, and in the schedule of manager's own working time. By exercising and retaining this power, manager takes control over resources and employees to achieve strategic objectives of organisation.

Negotiator:

This is another vital skill for a person on job when any commitment required from buyers, sellers or other related persons or organisation. Managers have to take part in different types of cases like negotiations with labour union involving labour management contract or grievances, contract negotiations with important customer, suppliers or consultants, employment negotiation with key personal and other routine negotiations as acquisition of another firm, application for a large loan etc.

Time Management:

This is another most desired and essential quality which every firm or company wants in their managers. In time management, managers Identify the different demands on their limited time, setting priorities, and scheduling time according to company and their own goals, responsibilities and needs that also include the need for relaxation, reflection and a social life. Better time management increases the performance of employees which directly reflects to company's outputs and also maximises effectiveness and minimise stress.

Training and Development methods:

There are many ways which are used to train and develop people for enhancement and improvement of their skills. Every organisation establishes employees' development methods according to its culture, size, and nature of business and needs of required skills. With the passage of time, researchers and analysers have developed number of techniques and methods to train people and also enhance their working ability and capacity. Here are some methods which used to improve employees skills.

Behaviour Role Modelling:

Behaviour Role Modelling is used with a combination of two older methods, demonstration and role playing, to enhance interpersonal skills. In this training method, small group of trainees observe someone demonstrate how to handle a particular type of interpersonal problem like providing corrective feedback and timely coaching etc, then they practice it in role play and get non threatening feedback. The effective behaviour is shown them through a short video tape. The alternative approach is for trainer who conducts a model role play in front of trainees. Trainees are said to participate in this activity and focused on positive and negative aspects of situation.

Case Discussion:

Cases are descriptive of events in organisation. There are many different types of cases which contains detail description of events that occurred over a period of many years. These cases with brief description of incidents last for few minutes. These cases are used to in many ways to develop managerial skills among employees. long cases are used to develop analytical and decision making skills in which organisation's strategy against competitors and financial performance is discussed. Trainees use management principles and some quantitative decision technique to determine how to handle this situation.

Business Games & Simulations:

Business games and Simulations are used from several years for management training. In this training technique, simulations are used to analyze complex situation and practice to make decision. But after making decisions, trainee must deal with consequences of his decision. Most business games emphasis on qualitative financial information and are used to practice analytical and decision skills through formal training programmes.

Learning from Experience:

This is one of oldest technique to develop skills of employees in organisation. Special assignments are provided to employees during regular working hours in which senior person shares his experience through a brief description which is provided after completion of assignment. Employees results and previous experience description is compared and analyse the difference and learn from experience. The extent to which skills and value are developed during operational assignment depends on the types of experience offered by these assignments.

Verity of Tasks & Assignments:

This is one of the useful training technique in which different tasks and assignment are given to employees to solve them according to their knowledge and ability. At this point growth and learning become high when different experiences are occurred in a same place. Diverse job experience requires managers to adapt new situations and deal with new types of problems. Continuous success in handling one type of problem enforces a person to interpret and handle new situation in same way, even when a different approach may be more effective.

Relevant Feedback:

More learning occurs when feedback of operational assignment is given to employees to analyse and assess their behaviour during a particular situation and consequences of it.

Developmental Assessment Centre:

Traditional assessment centres are used to measure the capability and competence of manager's skills and potential for improvement. Different methods are used in assessment centres i.e. interviews, aptitude tests, personality tests, situational tests, a short auto-biographical essay, a speaking exercise and writing exercise. In recent years, the assessment centres' have been used increasingly for development of the mangers and staff. Development assessment centres use more intensive measurement procedures and comprehensive set of measures to increase self understanding, identify strengths and weaknesses and assess the development needs.

Job Rotation:

This approach or method also uses in many organisation. The managers are assigned to work in different units of an organisation and are given different tasks to perform. The purpose of these tasks is development of the mangers not promotions. In most job rotations the work pattern is similar for each participant and is not based of any analysis of each individual's skills and abilities. They get a chance to learn and experience new problems and processes in different areas or departments of an organisation.

Personal Growth Programs

Personal growth programs are designed to build self awareness and personal growth. By adopting this program, a person overcomes the barriers to psychological growth and development of managerial competence. Personal growth programme is commenced in workshops based on series of interrelated assumptions about staff or employees and managers. One key assumption is many people have lost touch with their inner feelings and values.

Counselling

Counselling is a process in which a counsellor sits down with an employee and do open discussion with employee to solve his problems with human approach or sharing and guidance. Counselling is sitting down in private setting for an open discussion with an employee. Sometimes it is to pay a sincere compliment, sometimes it is to solve a problem that is hurting productivity/effectiveness, sometimes it is because an employee violated your discipline line and you need to talk about improvement in his behaviour It is encouraging the other person to to talk about himself so that the problem and it's reasons emerge clearly and solutions can be worked out. One of the most important counselling skills is being a good listener. In an organization, counselling can be done by the team leader, supervisor or manager or one can seek the expertise and assistance of an in-house or external professional counsellor.

Mentoring & coaching:

Mentoring or mentorship is used for development of people. It is used to expedite people's development. It is the developmental relationship between two people or two professionals where one person (generally a more experienced person) helps the other person (generally a less experienced person) in his development in some specifically chosen areas or in a general sense. Person who assists or guides the other person is called a mentor and the person being guided is called a protégé or a mentee. The relationship between mentor and protégé can be created formally or informally but it is mostly carried out or executed in an informal manner. That's why in some organizations, this relationship is called a "buddy" program and both the mentor and his protégé behave like buddies to each other. In recent years, individual coaching has come very famous as another type of development intervention for mangers in business organisation. Coaching is to provide guidance and advice about the ongoing situation, any critical business condition, self correctness and mistakes identification and its solution. A coach can be successful former executive, manger or any outsider and special consultant. Use of an external coach provides some advantages as wide experience, greater objectivity and more confidentiality. Main purpose of coaching is to facilitate relevant skills and it also provides advice about how to handle specific challenges, such as implementation of special changes, dealing with difficult boss or working people with different culture. coaching services can be obtained in following areas: clarifying your expectations of job performance or behaviours, building/developing the skills, correction of performance problems, follow up to training, changes to work practices, enhancing their confidence, encouraging flexibility in them, resolving the conflicts, and developing motivation

Chapter 2 Personal Skills Audit:

A skills audit is a re-examine of your current skills against the skills you need to achieve the targets and objectives of yourself and organisation at present and in the future. Skills audit can identify what is the level of your existing skills and what level is required to complete your targets more effectively and efficiently and also what steps you have to take to develop those skills up to optimum level which is also adequate to fulfil future skills needs. Skills audit can be carried out in five steps which are as follows:

Identification of existing skills:

In this step, you have to identify what is your existing and current skills level that comes through feedback of your performance. You have to write down each and everything about skills and the areas where you think that you are expert in it. And make a plan to learn those skills

Future skills need identify:

After first step, you have to analyse about future skills level. Think from all aspects and decide what skills are much beneficial for you right now and in future. And also highlight the level you have to achieve in this area.

Analyse your existing skills:

In this step, you divide different skills in different levels and then rate your level of skills very fairly and honestly. You can either divide your skills into three levels or five levels.

Review whole process and your analyse:

In fourth step, you must review this process and re-rate your score by analysing again then check your score and level of ability. You may take help of your manager to rate your abilities and levels you set as slandered.

Develop a final plan of improvement:

Then finally draw a plan to develop your skills and also determine a time line by which your must achieve your targets and the level you have set to attain.

Personal Swot Analysis:

This is another form to develop your skills from present level to required level of skills and also progress towards future. This type of analysis also helps you to identify current and future chances to prosperity and growth and also highlights the hurdles which may stop your progress.

Strengths

What advantages do you have that others don't have (for example, skills, certifications, education, or connections)?

What do you do better than anyone else?

What personal resources can you access?

What do other people (and your boss, in particular) see as your strengths?

Which of your achievements are you most proud of?

What values do you believe in that others fail to exhibit?

Are you part of a network that no one else is involved in? If so, what connections do you have with influential people?

Consider this from your own perspective, and from the point of view of the people around you. And don't be modest or shy - be as objective as you can.

Weaknesses

What tasks do you usually avoid because you don't feel confident doing them?

What will the people around you see as your weaknesses?

Are you completely confident in your education and skills training? If not, where are you weakest?

What are your negative work habits (for example, are you often late, are you disorganized, do you have a short temper, or are you poor at handling stress?

Do you have personality traits that hold you back in your field? For instance, if you have to conduct meetings on a regular basis, a fear of public speaking would be a major weakness.

Again, consider this from a personal/internal perspective and an external perspective. Do other people see weaknesses that you don't see? Do co-workers consistently outperform you in key areas? Be realistic - it's best to face any unpleasant truths as soon as possible.

Opportunities

What new technology can help you? Or can you get help from others or from people via the Internet?

Is your industry growing? If so, how can you take advantage of the current market?

Do you have a network of strategic contacts to help you, or offer good advice?

What trends (management or otherwise) do you see in your company, and how can you take advantage of them?

Are any of your competitors failing to do something important? If so, can you take advantage of their mistakes?

Is there a need in your company or industry that no one is filling?

Do your customers or vendors complain about something in your company? If so, could you create an opportunity by offering a solution?

You might find useful opportunities in the following:

Networking events, educational classes, or conferences.

A colleague going on an extended leave. Could you take on some of this person's projects to gain experience?

A new role or project that forces you to learn new skills, like public speaking or international relations.

A company expansion or acquisition. Do you have specific skills (like a second language) that could help with the process?

Also, importantly, look at your strengths, and ask yourself whether these open up any opportunities - and look at your weaknesses, and ask yourself whether you could open up opportunities by eliminating those weaknesses.

Threats

What obstacles do you currently face at work?

Are any of your colleagues competing with you for projects or roles?

Is your job (or the demand for the things you do) changing?

Does changing technology threaten your position?

Could any of your weaknesses lead to threats?

Performing this analysis will often provide key information - it can point out what needs to be done and put problems into perspective.

Chapter 3 Personal Development Plan:

Personal development plan is used to develop, increase and endure current skills for fulfilment of current requirements and also in consideration with future prospective. Personal development plan can be draw in three stages which are as follows:

Indentify your needs:

You have to get feedback from your manger or higher authority and also evaluate and assess your existing skills then indentify what skills you wish to have in present and also in future. Critically evaluate every aspect of your needs and select them.

How to meet those needs:

After identify those needs you have sketch on a plan on paper about the way you have to obtain those needs and what requirements are essential to meet those needs. Again you need to analyse what training programme or source is effective to meet your required needs.

Time line for those needs:

Finally you have to define a time line which is your key factor to assets your speed of improvement.