Motivation's Impact on Job

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THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON JOB SATISFACTION AMONGST EMPLOYEES OF A NATIONAL BROADCASTER

Summary

In this project I am going to investigate the impact of motivation on job satisfaction (dissatisfaction) of 200 journalistic employees employed by the national public broadcaster. The idea was to profile factors causing high motivation and job satisfaction and also to profile those factors that contribute low motivation and dissatisfaction at work.

The rationale for the study will be simply an observation that some employees seem better adjusted and happy at work and are able to cope well with the demands of the working environment while others are not. Another observation will be that management seem not to be aware of what motivates their subordinates and to strategically utilize those motivational tools to maintain high levels of job satisfaction (or at least low levels of job dissatisfaction), high productivity and morale.

The target sample will be all journalistic staff working in the television and news rooms of the national public broadcaster in Lahore, Pakistan. The profile of the respondents will cover included a variety of ages, gender, races, educational backgrounds, different work locations, different marital statuses and managers and non-managers.

The study will illustrates that when employees are happy and satisfied in their jobs, their level of motivation is high and they perform at peak all the time. On the other hand, when employees are unhappy and dissatisfied at work, their level of motivation is low and they don't perform at peak level.

The study will recommends strategies of how management can utilize achievement, recognition and work itself as a tool to keep employees motivated and satisfied in their jobs. It will also recommends ways by which management can eliminate low motivation and job dissatisfaction amongst employees by improving management skills, knowledge and competencies of managers, building relations between managers and subordinates and also improving the quality of internal communication with employees especially on policy and administrative matters.

Introduction

The study will be looking into the impact of motivation on job satisfaction. The management dilemma in many organizations in today's fast paced technological environment is how managers can improve the motivation of employees, so that companies employ and retain a fulfilled workforce that contributes optimally to organizational stakeholders.

Essentially, the questions that must be answered by this study are:

• What makes some employees perform better than others?

• What makes some employees seem better satisfied in their jobs than others?

And

• In what ways can management improve the motivation of its employees? The benefits of this research for managers as well as organizations include:

• It will broaden management's insights that motivation plays a key role in the overall job satisfaction of employees.

• It will enable managers to understand the factors and processes that are internal and external to the individual employee in an organization that have an effect in his/her behaviour and performance.

• By understanding motivational issues behind employees, managers can systematically develop strategies to deal with motivational problems.

• The results of this investigation can help companies' lower turnover costs by addressing motivational concerns of employees. The consequence is that employees will stay and not resign the company. Replacing an experienced and trained worker can be very costly for organization.

Problem statement

There are varied reasons why managers are continually under distress in organization. Resources, human and material, technology are but a few issues confronting managers daily. More importantly the human aspect has questions that have perplexed and fascinated managers for a long time. These questions will include:

• What makes some employees perform better than others?

• What makes some employees seem better satisfied in their jobs than others?

• How can we improve the motivation and overall job satisfaction of our employees?

There are no easy answers to these questions, yet they plague managers in their day-to-day running of organizations. The reality is that the level of employee motivation affects their morale, performance and overall job satisfaction.

Purpose and importance of the study

The fundamental purpose of this study will be is to determine the main causes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction amongst a group of employees within the framework of the Herzberg study.

This study is important or beneficial because:

• It will broaden management's insights that motivation plays a key role in the overall job satisfaction of employees.

• It will enable managers to understand the factors and processes that are internal and external to the individual employee in an organization that have an effect in his/her behaviour and performance.

• It will sensitize managers that when employee behaviour is initiated and mobilized, it is for specific reasons. It is not just purposeless and aimless acting in a particular manner.

• This study will also assist managers to devise strategies that sustain a highly motivated workforce so that the end result is that all stakeholders are content with the performance of the enterprise.

• By understanding motivational issues behind employees, managers can systematically develop strategies to deal with motivational problems.

Literature review

In this chapter I will explore the theories of motivation and job satisfaction (or dissatisfaction. These theories will attempt to explain motivation and job satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) in the workplace. The basic question is what makes people tick in the work place and engage themselves in the activities that ultimately bring a sense of fulfilment and sometimes disappointment in their working lives. This will be in two parts, part one will investigate the theories of motivation; and the second part will delve into theories that enlighten us about job satisfaction (dissatisfaction) and the relevant literature thereof.

Part one - Theories of motivation

Introduction

Process theories of motivation

* Social learning theory

* Operant conditioning

* Expectancy theory

* Equity theory

* Goal setting theory

* Job design theory

Content theories of motivation

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Alderfer's ERG theory

McClelland's learned theory of needs

McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y

Ouchi's Theory Z

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory

Other literature of work motivation

Part two - Job satisfaction (dissatisfaction)

Introduction

Theories of job satisfaction (dissatisfaction)

VIE Theory

Comparison Theory

Opponent Process Theory

High Performance Cycle Theory

Other literature on job satisfaction (dissatisfaction)

Research objectives

Cooper and Schindler (2001:95) say research objectives should address the purpose of the investigation. The objectives can be stated as research questions.

In this study, there is a primary and secondary objective.

Primary objective

The primary objective of this investigation is to determine causes of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

Secondary objectives

To make recommendations that will lead to increased satisfaction and decreased dissatisfaction.

Research design

A research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information. It is a framework or blueprint that plans the action for the research project. The objectives of the study determined during the early stages of the research are included in the design to ensure that the information collected is appropriate for solving the problem. The researcher must also specify the sources of information, the research method or technique (e.g. survey or experiment), the sampling methodology and the schedule and the cost of the research (Zikmund, 2003:65)

Data collection

Since this is descriptive study, the survey and secondary data methods will be used to collect the needed information.

Survey technique

A survey is a research technique in which information is gathered from a sample of people using a questionnaire (Zikmund, 2003: 66). In this study a questionnaire will be used to solicit responses from subjects. All questionnaires will have close-ended questions.

Secondary data technique

Secondary data sources will be utilized to find theoretical information, for example, books, published journals and articles, the internet as revealed in the literature review.

Sampling

A sample is a subset, or some part, of a larger population. The purpose of sampling is to enable researchers to estimate some unknown characteristic of the population (Zikmund, 2003: 369)

Target population

The target population is the complete group of specific population elements relevant to the research project (Zikmund, 2003: 373). For this study the target population will be PTV full time journalistic staff.

Sampling frame

A sampling frame is the list of elements from which the sample may be drawn (Zikmund, 2003:373). For this study, the sampling frame would be the 200 full time staff.

Probability sampling

Probability sampling will be used. In this method every element in the population as a known non zero probability of selection (Zikmund, 2003: 379). Simply random sampling will be utilized, in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.

Sample size

There are three factors required to calculate sample size, namely:

• Standard deviation of the population (S), which can be derived by conducting a pilot study or rule of thumb.

• Magnitude of acceptable error (E), which can be obtained by using managerial judgment or using the formula E = Z *S/n1/2

• Confidence level Z, which can be obtained using managerial judgment. In this case, a confidence level will be set at 95%.

For this study we will be looking at a sample size of about 200 employees, from non-managers to top managers.

Data analysis

Analysis is the application of reasoning to understand and interpret the data that have been collected (Zikmund, 2003:73). For this study, the incidents will be analyzed according to the M-H Theory of Herzberg.

Findings

Introduction

This chapter will focus on research results of profiling factors that contribute to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction amongst the journalistic employees in the News Division of the national public broadcaster in Lahore, Pakistan using Herzberg Motivation- Hygiene Theory (M-H Theory).

Overview of the PTV

The PTV is the oldest broadcaster in Pakistan with regional offices in all provinces of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and indeed a World Class performer in the broadcasting industry. The PTV is controlled by a Board of Directors whose members are selected through public hearings and appointed by the President on recommendations of the parliamentary Portfolio Committee on Communications. The Board is responsible and accountable for matters of policy. The Board in turn appoints a Group Executive Committee whose core task is to apply policy, formulate strategies and set broad corporate objectives for the PTV. The PTV has about nine Divisions, Television, News, Sales and Marketing, Operations, Corporate Affairs, Audience Services, Business Enterprises, Finance and Human Capital. It has about 3500 full-time staff in its employ

Methodology

Data collection

A survey questionnaire with two sections A and B will be constructed and randomly will be distributed to all staff in both regions and national office of the News Division of the PTV. The Human Resource practitioner at Head Office will be responsible for distribution and collection of questionnaires with support from regional editors. Section A gathered biographic information. In section B respondents will be required to state one or more critical incident/s which caused them great happiness or unhappiness in the work situation and to describe their reactions to those incidents.

Interpretation, conclusions and recommendations

Introduction

Interpretation

Conclusions

Recommendations

Achievement

Recognition

Work itself

Supervision-technical

Company policy and administration

Interpersonal relation

Appendices

A- References

Herzberg Frederick, (1976). Work and the Nature of Man. The Word Publishing Company, Cleveland, New York.

Herzberg Frederick, (1971). The Managerial Choice. To be effective and to be human. Dow Jones-Irwin, Homewood, Illinois

Adair, John 1996 (Effective Motivation). How to get extraordinary results from everyone. Pan Books.UK.

Note:

The Final dissertation will have all the references.

B- Tables and figures

C- Research letter

D- Research approval letter

E- Research questionnaire

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