This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
(Maslow 1970) Abraham A. Maslow discuses in chapter 2 of his book "Motivation and personality" a theory of human motivation. He starts by using the biological terms of homeostasis and the appetite for a certain kind of food to supply a lack inside the body, to describe the connection between body and needs as a source for motivation. The biological needs, like sex, hunger and thirst are relatively isolated from each other, which still does not mean that it is easy to identify the actual motivation, which stands behind the need. Often the source for a certain need is not the one it seems to be. It is impossible to create a completed list of biological caused needs, but we can say the physiological needs are the strongest of all. If there is a lack within the physiological needs the motivation to fulfill this need is overlapping all the other needs. That means, all the capacities are focused on the one goal: complying the need. Under these extreme situations, which cause an emergency the motivations are relatively clearly to identify - the more interesting but also more difficult to answer questions are about the source of desires and needs when the essential needs can be relived easily.
We can observe a kind of hierarchy of needs. That means when a certain level of needs and desires is achieved, new needs and desires appear out of nowhere. Maslow says, "That the basic human needs are organized in a hierarchy of relative prepotency" (Maslow, 1970). That does not mean the essential needs a dominated by more differentiated needs. They are still the strongest source of motivation, when a deficiency exists. But all needs and wants disappear, when they are satisfied and leave space for new (higher) needs and wants.
In this hierarchy the physiological needs are followed by the next level the so called safety needs, like "security; stability; dependency; protection; freedom from fear, anxiety, and chaos; need for structure, order and law and limits; strength in the protector; and so on" (Maslow, 1970, p. 18). The whole organism might be dominated by these desires, even when they are in their intensity less strong than physiological needs. Safety needs are in a modern society mostly pleased, different from physiological needs which occur continuously, safety needs are only dominant when they security, stability of dependency of a person is affected by war, disease, natural catastrophes or crime waves (Maslow, 1970, p. 19).
On the next level of the hierarchy the belongingness and love needs occur, when the physiological and safety needs are fulfilled. This love-need is all about affection from friends, partner or family. It is really difficult or nearly impossible to describe these needs exactly, even though most of novels, songs and poems are dealing with this question. Maslow estimates that the rising number of self-help groups and also youth rebellion is motivated by those needs or a lack of those needs.
The esteem needs can be classified into to subsidiary sets. The first one is the need for "strength, achievement, adequacy, mastery and competence" and second the desire for reputation or prestige (Maslow, 1970, p. 21). Alfred Adler has paid special attention to these needs, while Freud has rejected their existence.
Kurt Goldstein added the level of self-actualization needs to the hierarchy. Self-actualization needs are needs witch are brought up by the individual, "to become actualized in what they are" (Maslow, 1970, p. 22).
The knowledge of cognitive needs is fare behind the knowledge about the hierarchy of needs, because the cognitive processes are not as important for the therapy in clinic. Nevertheless it is possible to identify a desire to know and to understand. A tendency to curiosity can be found in behavior of animals (like chimpanzees). In the human nature this tendency even brought many person in the past and nowadays into life-threatening.
To understand the motivation witch is caused by needs, it is helpful to understand what it means to satisfy a need. Satisfaction in this context does not mean, that the need is fulfilled completely. Most needs are not fulfilled approximately. This fact is no contradiction to the hierarchy of needs.
"If a prepotent need A is satisfied only 10 percent, then need B may not be visible at all. However, as this need A becomes satisfied 25 percent need B may emerge 5 percent, as need A becomes satisfied 75 percent need B may emerge 50 percent, and so on." (Maslow, 1970, p. 28)
(Graham &Wiener 1996) The article starts with a definition of motivation Graham & Wiener (1996, p. 63) define motivation as "the study of why people think and behave as they do". Motivational psychologist should in the opinion of Graham & Wiener (1996, p. 64) ask question about:
1. The choice of behavior: how does an individual decide what he is doing
2. The latency of behavior: how long does it take to initiate an activity
3. The intensity of behavior: how much effort does a person take on an activity
4. The persistence of behavior: how much time does the individual stay with the activity
5. Cognitions and emotional reactions: what is the person thinking and feeling within the activity
To design a theory it can be helpful to look back in time, to see what amount of explanatorily power earlier ideas and theories could provide. A number of demands should be made on a consistent theory like the usage of an operational language. What that means can be explained by citing Carl Hull's drive theory of motivation, as a concept witch does not have a great impact today but was very important for the development of motivational theory in 1940 to 1960. Hulk theory said, it is possible to identify the drives of an action if you multiply the factor drive and habit in a mathematical formula. Whereat "drive is determined by factors like hours of deprivation of a commodity necessary for survival, and habit by the number of times a respond has been reward in particular situation". The linkage of those two terms in mathematical formula is an operationalization of the terms, which was demanded before. Another requirement for a theory is the explanatory power. The explanatory power of a theory should be consistent no matter how the situation changes. Otherwise it is not comprehensible for other scientists and cannot be falsified.
A closer look on the history of motivational research show us, that there have been five general theories, witch should be mentioned in this context: "Hull's drive theory, Lewin's field theory, Atkinsons's theory of achievement strivings, Rotter's social learning theory, and attribution theory as espoused by Heider, Kelley and Weiner" (Graham & Wiener, 1996, p. 67)
Charateristics of the Theories of Motivation (Graham & Wiener, 1996, p- 68)
1. Hull's Drive Theory: Clark Hull was the first who set up a general theory of motivation, witch was linked with experimental theory. Hull believed in truth by repetition. He had the opinion that a result witch can be reached by doing an experiment again and again increases its validity. Conferred to a behavioral human action, he called this repetition of behavior habit.
He replaced the terms of instinct and instinctive behavior by the term of drive. Following Hull a source of a motivation could not be found in primary instincts but in the absence of a certain need. The roll of the habit is to generate the direction of a behavior. The origin of the energy of a behavior can be found in the lack of a need, that causes a drive to fulfill the need. As mentioned before he conferred this conclusion into a mathematical formula: Behavior = Drive * Habit. (Graham & Wiener, 1996, p. 68)
Researches following Hull's theory could work out, that "drive energizes behavior", "drive and habit relate multiplicatively" and "drive is a pooled energy source". These results have been refused, but the achievement of an first scientific and experimental study of motivation remains (Graham & Wiener, 1996, p. 68)
2. Lewin's Field Theory: According to Lewin behavior is defined by the person (P) and the environment (E). The interaction of those two factors determines the behavior. Behavior = f(P,E). Whereat, the force to reach an environmental goal is defined by the tension (t), the valence of a need (G) and the psychological distance from the goal (e). Force = f(t,G)/e. In Lewins theory the main instigation is caused by the tension of a certain need, witch is similar to the drive in Hull's theory. Also the valence of a need or incentives and Hull's habit are similar. One huge difference between the two theories is the distinction of humans and non-humans. In Lewin's point of view human motivation is obverse to non-human motivation for a certain behavior. Hull in contrast advances the view that the source of human and non-human behavior is the drive, cause by a lack of needs. The field theory has delivered a theory with a wide explanatory power for many behavioral phenomena (Graham & Wiener, 1996, p. 69). 3. Atkinson's Theory of Achievement Motivation: As Hull and Lewin, Atkinson uses a mathematical relation to describe the determinates of behavior. He identifies the tendency (Ts) to gain a certain goal, as a product of the need for success (Ms) multiplied with presumption for success (Ps) and with the "incentive value of success (Is). Ts=Ms*Ps*Is . In Atkinson's theory Ms is a relatively stable factor, witch has been developed in the childhood and can be described as the achievement motive. Ps is estimated feasibility for success. A higher level of Ps intensifies the motivation. Atkinson's achievement was a general theory of motivation (Graham & Wiener, 1996, p. 70).
4. Rotter's Social Learning Theory: Julian Rotter's theory can explain the final decision, when an person has different possibilities to behave. "According to Rotter, motivation is a function of expectancy (E) and reinforcement value (RV): Behavior = f(E,RV)" (Graham & Wiener, 1996, p. 70). The RV can be described as the preference of one reinforcement, when their incidence seems to be equal. These preferences are bases on experience of similar situations, and depend on the interaction of individual skills and chance. Potters contributions on motivation theory where manifold.
(Sagie & Elizur 1996) In this article the authors centre a intercultural research about acievwement motivation concerning different backrounds and societies. By investigate five countries - United states, Japan, Hungary, Israel and the Netherlands - it emphasis the influence of various motivation strengths of two opposite kind of society culture ideologies, namely collectivistic and individualistic orientation and the intra-ideology differences. By using translated version of a â€ž18-item Achievement Motive Questionnaire (AMQ)" (Sagie & Elizur, 1996, p. 436) as an instrument to create a certain data the authors test their hypotheses concerning whether â€žthe empirical data for each samples will reflect the same underlying facets of the definition proposed for the achievement motivation domain". (Sagie & Elizur, 1996, p. 435). The result of the data matching the three defined basic aspects of achievement motivation by Elizur et al. The three factors with their samples are â€žbehavior modality" (instrumental, affective, or cognitive), type of confontation"(confrontation or matching solution) and â€žtime perspective"(proir-, during- or after- performance) (Sagie & Elizur, 1996, p. 432-433). By ordering those samples to the characteristics of the various respondent of the different backrounds and comparing with the characteristics of the two opposite models of society the authors give suggestions about what kind of a tendency a person shows and what their behavioral patterns might be like. According to the article there is a explicit distinction â€žbetween the two types of achievement striving: personal and collective." (Sagie & Elizur, 1996, p. 442). Thus the individualistic cultures consider achievment motivations like personal success while the collectivistic cultures follow the team success. Moreover the collectivistic models account for membership of a certain group and their goals and judge community welfare more than the individual one. The members of an individual model stress the other way round namely the individual site of the mentioned factors. For example the Japanese â€žprobably prefer collective tasks, collective responsibilities, and group problem solving"(Sagie & Elizur, 1996, p. 442) In addition for those â€ževerything important in life happens as a result of teamwork or collective effort." (Sagie & Elizur, 1996, p. 442). In the end a general conclusion can be drawn. The more collevtivistic the culture the lower the level of achievement motivation components tend to be (Sagie & Elizur, 1996, p. 442)
(Hofsteede, 1980) According to Hofsteede (1980) national cultures differ in their cultural criteria. By researching over a period of six years and in 40 different countries she tried to determine such national characteristics and developed a model which distinguish those with the help of 4 developed dimension. The following dimensions has to be seen as â€žcommon elements within each nation"(Hofsteede, 1980, p. 45) and not as a description of every persons`characteristic in the particular nation. There has been set up Power distance with the specification of small and large, Uncertainty Avoidance with weak and strong, Individualism - collectivism, Masculinity - femininity. The first dimension emphasis the â€ždistribution of power"(Hofsteede, 1980, p. 45) in certain institutions and organizations. With the help of this dimension Hofsteede (1980) try to categorise the small power distance countries as one in which inequality should be minimized, the degree of individual Independence is relatively high and the Legitimation of the leading authorities is existent (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 46). In contrast to the former in the large power distance countries hierarchy means existential inequality, authorities are inaccessible and people in charge are entitled to privileges (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 46). The second dimension is concentrates on the degree of a societies` threat â€žby uncertain and ambiguous situation and tries to avoid these situations by providing greater career stability"(Hofsteede, 1980, p. 45) and suchlike. In detail a society which has a strong uncertainty avoidance tends to a higher level of anxiety and aggressiveness which leads to a inner urge to work hard, a need for written rules and regulations and competition and conflicts should be avoided (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 47). In the opposite a weak uncertainty avoidance means that in such society ease and lower stress are experienced, that hard work is not a virtue and conflict and competition can be contained (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 47). in the third dimension the author contrast two different models of society namely collectivism and individualism. In the collective society the identity of a individual is based on the social system and in the individualistic society its based in the individual. Moreover the belief is placed in group decision in the collectivism and in individual decision in individualism and so on (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 48). The last dimension is about the contradiction of masculinity and femininity. Those dimension consider the degree to â€žwhich the dominant values of society are..." (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 46). in a masculinity society the men are the dominate gender, performance is what counts and Independence is the ideal (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 49). In contrast in a femininity society there should be equality between the sexes, quality of life is important and people and environment are important (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 49). Concerning the relation between these four dimensions Hofsteede (1980) gives different suggestions and explanations. According to his research he sets up some pattern and graphs which are consider the connection of each dimension to one another. By doing that he excludes â€žthe combination of Small Power Distance and Collectivism" (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 48) and highlights the occurrence of â€žLarge Power Distance to be associated with Collectivism" (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 48) for example. Moreover he stresses wider associations and includes an other factor named â€žWealth" of a nation which he combined with the Individualism the most. (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 49). After he mention some approaches about the behavior of a human he draws a connection to different mentalities and cultures of certain nations. Moreover Hofsteede (1980) emphasis the condition of the combination of those dimension concerning Organization. So the â€žPower Distance X Uncertainty Avoidance is of vital importance for structuring organizations that will work best..." (Hofsteede, 1980, p. 59). Furthermore in the end there are some practical advises made in order to show the investigations` evidence for the reality. For example he explains the importance for the knowledge of managers working abroad in considering these resul
(Kark & Dijk, 2007) The authors discuss the theoretical development regarding to the ability of leaders to motivate employees toward goals and business missions. This should help to understand that leaders can operate and motivate their employees by using different self regulatory foci of employees. This article tries to analyze and develop how different leadership theories like transformational and charismatic leadership theory and identity and self-concept-based theories as well as from the theory of regulatory focus, could be a framework for advancing further studies by focusing on leaders and employees motivations.
(Nohria, Groysberg & Lee, 2008) The authors try to explain how an organization can motivate their employees. Therefore they create a model which is founded on the thoughts of Paul R. Lawrence and Nitin Nohria (Driven: How Human Nature shapes our Choices, 2002). It explains that you have to look at the following four drivers to make employees satisfied with their work: first acquire, second bond, third comprehend and forth defend. Each of the divers is independent and they don't have a hierarchical order. For their overall definition of motivation they focused on four workplace indicators: engagement, satisfaction, commitment and intention to quit. They found out that some drives have a bigger influence on motivation than the other one. But they also say that you have to satisfy all four drives of your employees to get the best result of motivation. So, not only the organizational policies influence the motivation. They don't have a monopoly on their subordinates' motivation. Individual managers effect the motivation of their subordinates as well and the subordinates expect that the managers try their best to meet all their needs. The subordinates also know what supervisors cannot do. As a conclusion the authors say that motivation of employees is effected by complex system which consists of managerial and organizational factors.
(Herzberg, 1987) First, Herzberg describes how to motivate employees with various forms of KITA ("Kick in the Ass") and he explains that this way isn't motivation. In his definition it is no motivation when someone hasn't got an own generator because this person need outside stimulation. He divided in three types of KITA: first the negative physical KITA which stimulates the nervous system directly, second the negative psychological KITA which has advantages in comparison to the first KITA. Just to list one of them, the heartlessness isn't visible because it is internal. And the third type is positive KITA. According to the explanation about the generator above, Herzberg explains in his motivation-hygiene theory how to install a generator in a subordinate. His theory is based on studies of job attitudes. The studies suggest that the factors which are responsible for job satisfaction are different and separate from the reasons for job dissatisfaction. This means that these two feelings aren't the opposite of each other. Rather the differences in needs of the humans are important. Herzberg uses two needs, the first one are the needs of humankind's animal nature which leads to avoid pain and all the drives of biological needs. The second set of needs is related to unique human characteristic, the ability to achieve and the possibility to grow. The motivate factors are: achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility and the chance for growth. The dissatisfaction avoidance factors are: company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, status and security (Herzberg, 1987). In addition Herzberg talks about the three general philosophies of personnel management. First the organizational theory, second the theory of industrial engineers and third the theory of behavioral scientists. The three approaches can be displayed as a triangle with each persuasion claiming the apex angle. The motivational-hygiene Theory is using the same angle as industrial engineering and it says that work be enriched to provide an effective use of labor force. He is talking about job enrichment which means to manipulate the motivator factors to motivate the subordinates and his is also explaining the steps for job enrichment. In his eyes this should be an essential management function although not every job can be or need to be enriched. But without any doubt, investment in job enrichment will lead to the growth of job satisfaction and economic gain.
(Dysvik & Kuvaas, 2009) The authors examine the relationship between intrinsic motivation and perceived training opportunities and between intrinsic motivation and employee outcome. They suggest that Training and Development (TAD) influence the performance of employees and organizations because TAD effects skills and behavioral scripts as well as the motivation to use these at work. The authors claimed different Hypothesis and examined them. They got their data from sending a questionnaire randomly to 965 participants of training activities provided by a Norwegian training institution. They use a web based tool and they got 343 responses from employees. First they hypothesize that there is a positive relationship between perceived training opportunities and (a) task performance, (b) organizational citizenship and a negative relationship between perceived training opportunities and (c) turnover intention (Dysvik & Kuvaas, 2009). After the hypotheses test they find out that there is no relationship. Furthermore they expected a positive relationship between perceived training opportunities and intrinsic motivation. Because many reviews see that motivation affects the intention of employees to learn. But they also suggest that motivation is a very important factor for work performance and turnover intention. That's why the claimed a second Hypothesis: The relationship between perceived training opportunities and (a) task performance and (b) organizational citizenship behavior are fully mediated by intrinsic motivation, (c) while the relationship between perceived training opportunities and turnover intention will be partly mediated by intrinsic motivation ((Dysvik & Kuvaas, 2009). As a result of the hypotheses test their suggestion was confirmed and the hypotheses were supported. According to some reviews of TAD which propose that the relationship between TAD and employee outcomes is caused through individual characteristics and individual awareness of work environment. The authors come to the conclusion that employees who are intrinsically motivated will profit more from Training and Development. Regarding to this they formulate a third hypothesis: The relationship between perceived training opportunities and (a) task performance, (b) organizational citizenship behaviors, and (c) turnover intention will be moderated by intrinsic motivation (Dysvik & Kuvaas, 2009)The hypotheses test shows that Hypotheses 3a and 3c were not supported. Against that Hypothesis 3b was supported and there is a relationship between perceived training opportunities and organizational citizenship behaviors, and predicting that they are moderated by intrinsic motivation.
(Carr & Tang, 2005) Because more and more companies use sabbaticals as a way to motivate their employees the authors have a look on different types of sabbatical and they figure out the benefits and risks for both, employees and companies. Because the economy will not grow all the time and the situation could be become instable, many companies want to sink costs and earn more benefit. But in the same time they have to look after their employees attitudes. Sabbaticals seem to be a way to combine the goals. Because most employees who are back from the sabbatical report about a deeper commitment to their jobs and a feeling of purpose than before (Carr & Tang, 2005). The authors figure out the need for sabbaticals referring to a global competitive labor market. The need is caused by through work related stress which is responsible for illness, high costs, low morale and many other consequences. That's the reason why people often need a break and time for themselves. Employee's burnout can cause low productivity, depressed morale and high turnover of valuable employees (Carr & Tang, 2005). Sabbaticals are a good possibility to invest in human capital and to reduce costs regarding to the fact that the costs for a medical treatment can be much higher than a paid sabbatical. And sabbaticals are a method of keeping faith between company and an employee (Carr & Tang, 2005). Sabbaticals are also used to recruit top performers. Of course there are benefits for employees as well. Reports show that they feel refreshed and rejuvenated and have a newfound passion for and commitment tom their work (Carr & Tang, 2005). Due to this fact sabbaticals can be very different, some companies offer community service programs during other do nothing and anew others travel around. But all of them have one common aspect, everybody learn something about oneself (Carr & Tang, 2005).
Ramlall (2004) provides a synthesis of employee motivation theories and offers an explanation of how employee motivation affects employee retention and other behaviors within organizations. He also focuses in his article on how effective employee retention practices can be determined through motivation theories and how these strategies serve as a strategy to increasing organizational performance. While the labor markets are getting global it is more important for the companies to invest in human capital and advanced factors to be competitive and reach an competitive advantage. There is significant economic impact with an organization losing any of its critical employees, especially given the knowledge that is lost with the employee's departure Ramlall (2004) The concept of human capital theory postulates that investments in human capital like training and developing skills, knowledge and experiences increase the employeeÂ´s productivity and therefore have economic value to organizations. It will become significantly more important in the years ahead to recognize the commitment of individuals to an organization, as well as the organization's need to create an environment in which one would be willing to stay (Harris, 2000). Therefore it is necessary to understand how motivation may impact employee commitment in an organization. Motivation as defined by Robbins (1993) is the "willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need." Ramlall (2004) focuses on 5 motivation theories (1) needs theory, (2) equity theory, (3) expectancy theory, and (4) job design model given their emphasis and reported significance on employee retention. He illustrates the outcomes of the respective employee retention efforts and includes the theory through which the practice achieves the intended outcome. For example one cause of employees fluctuation, related to need, equity and expectancy theory, is that promotions are not based on performances or that career planning and development efforts are not connected with organization's business objectives. According to Ramlall (2004) nowadays developing and implementing employee retention practices based on established motivation theories are necessary in the global economy in which companies have to compete.
(Drake et al., 2007) Employee empowerment has been advocated by management and accounting researchers as a way to increase employee motivation. For example, the balanced scorecard concept stresses the importance of empowering employees to increase their motivation, learning, and growth (Kaplan and Norton 1992, 1996). Drake et al.(2007) defines empowerment as a multidimensional, psychological concept that is affected by both personality and environmental variables. There are three dimensions of empowerment (1) impact, (2) competence and (3) self-determination. Drake et al. (2007) analyze, relating to the model of Spreitzer (1995), how specific types of performance feedback and performance-based rewards affect these three psychological dimensions of empowerment. These research also investigates the relationship between the dimensions of empowerment, motivation and individual performances. Feedback and reward are hypothesized to affect the dimensions impact on firm profit, task competence and self-determination (Drake, Wong, & Salter, 2007). They found out that feedback and rewards each affected separate dimensions of empowerment and that the manipulated variables had different impact on the empowerment of employees and managers. Realizing the important impact of low level works for a company`s success, Drake et al. (2007) focused in their research on low-level workers and not on managerial employees in order to investigate how to increase the psychological feelings of empowerment for these workers. The study shows that performance feedback was positively associated with only one dimension and performance-based rewards had negative effects on two out of the three dimensions. Drake et al. (2007) identify that there is no significant link between overall motivation and two of the three empowerment dimensions.
(Benkhoff, 1996) Nowadays for a company it is more import than ever to use its resources effectively to reach an competitive advantage. Benkhoff (1996) analyzes the impact of human resources on the companyÂ´s success and explained why some organizations are more competitive than others in terms of their human resources. Five motivational mechanisms were tested, based on need theory, positive work disposition, intrinsic motivation, behavioral commitment as implied by organizational roles and social exchange theory. The author investigates, regarding to these theories, why some employees are more motivated and exert more extra work than others. Under the influence of economic research, work effort has traditionally been seen as the result of the incentive structure facing employees (Brockner, et al., 1992; Mitchell and Nebeker, 1973). The variables used in this research were taken from an employee survey held by a large chemical company in Germany. It was accomplished by questionnaire-based interviews in order to examine what employees were thinking about their company and their working condition (Benkhoff, 1996). Measures which adjusted the relevant motivational mechanisms were among the questionnaire items. To distinguish between the motivational mechanism, Benkhoff (1996) makes a 5 factor analyze in order to identify the hypothesized theories as an explicit latent variables. Most of the factors represent the theories. In the other part of the analyze Benkhoff (1996) investigates whether the theories, or the variables representing them, contribute to extra effort when other effects are held constant. Extra work, lack of motivation and voluntary task are used as the dependent variables. "To reflect the hypothesized motivational mechanisms, seven independent variables were entered into the logit analysis, four weighted summary scores based on the four factors and two single items measuring positive disposition towards work and intrinsic motivation" (Benkhoff, 1996). The regression analyzes shows, that all of the motivational measures, except the need of achievement, are significant and pos. correlated with the measure of extra work. Disposition and intrinsic motivation have the most influence of a employees work effort. According to Benkhoff (1996) a employee`s behavior and its effort to work hard is partly determined by a disposition to regard work as a very important aspect of their lives, i.e. a characteristic employees bring into the organization, and partly by the particular working conditions created by management. Relating to this research manager can increase employees motivation by concentrating on selection a certain type of employees and adjusting working conditions. Investment in human capital through trainings, feedback and acknowledgement can also help to increase motivation. Benkhoff (1996) describes effort as a matter of motivational mechanism and due to this effect organizations can reach by using the advanced factor of human resources an competitive advantage in the global economy.
Mitchell (1973) focuses on two approaches to employee motivation: (1) the task-motivated, rational, or scientific management approach, which describes a man "out of himself" based on a rational man model. And (2) the participative, human relations, or more emotional approach, which implies a "caring of others" philosophy. Related to the expectancy theory Mitchell (1973) deals with a model for job satisfaction and a model for job effort. The expectancy theory is seen as an rational approach. The author analyzes an integration of the rational and participative approaches. According to Mitchell (1973) participation is defined as shared decision making, in which people are included in the decision making process. Employees chip in by their skills and not by their position. Four statements according to participation are discussed basing on expectancy theory. In common, participation may increase employeeÂ´s motivation and productivity; participation may influence the components of expectancy theory through the values that workers have for organizational outcomes; participation may also increase social influence on behavior and as well as the amount of employee`s self control. Mitchell (1973) suggests, that the expectancy theory involves the participation approach. Job satisfaction and job effort could predicted from expectancy models. In the result participation could increase job satisfaction and effort. But according to Mitchell (1973) "It might also be argued that it is not really "participation" per se that increases motivation but rather the social processes such as clear expectations, control, social influence, and the choice of rewards" (Mitchell, 1973) Though this research shows in some ways the integration of rational motivation theory and participation approach, further studies are needed to look into these integration.
According to Kyriacou (2010) selective incentives could be in form of legal penalties, social sanctions, social rewards or economic prizes. The author analyzes the relationship between intrinsic motivation and selective incentives by considering collective actions and goods. Intrinsic motivation is described as egoistic as well as selfless preferences of the consumption of public goods. Additionally intrinsic motivation can be explained as an activity that has a motivation of its own. Point of origin is, that a individual have to consider about to contribute or not to the public good. According to the probabilistic approach to the free rider's choice, the individual would contribute to the collective good if the expected value from doing so is larger than that from free riding. Kyriacou (2010) suggests, that the value of the individual`s output of collective good can satisfy the egoistic and selfless preferences. In this model another variable illustrates the selective incentives in a form of sanctions for free riders. Kryriacou (2010) argues that selective incentives may generate an important crowding-out effect in a situation of small groups with personal relationships and where intrinsic motivation may be enhanced by the perception that one's contribution may be socially useful. In this case sanctions may decrease enjoyment and effort of work or sense of autonomy. Due to this effect the author shows how intrinsic motivation can be crowded out by the application of selective incentives and that these can result in less behavioral intension to perform. This is could happen if people feel that they are being controlled, and that their voluntary efforts are going unrecognized (Reeson A., 2006). Kyriacou (2010) also mentions that crowding-out effect increases the cost to society of organizing the provision of collective goods and gave the advice that care must be taken by designing selective incentives (Kyriacou, 2010).
How to motivate employees
Over the last decades companies are confronted with increasing complexity and dynamic of the environment: new information technologies and the increasing integration of the world economy leaded to essential changes. To cope with these requirements the companies were forced to accomplish innovations concerning the internal organization and managing their employees. The working processes are getting more complex and the employees essentially will become an important factor for the company's success. In future they have to handle with more responsibility and they have to show an adequate way of entrepreneurial thinking and action. There is also a competition to find the right way of personnel management. Employees are not only production factors anymore. You have to motivate them in a way, each in an individual one, so that they develop work habits which come up to the company's goals. Nowadays for a company it is more import than ever to use its human resources effectively to reach an competitive advantage. According to Benkhoff (1996) the human resources have an huge impact on the companyÂ´s success. But there is still the question why some organizations are more competitive than others in terms of their human resources? Benkhoff (1996) suggests a employee`s behavior and its effort to work hard is partly determined by a disposition to regard work as a very important aspect of their lives, i.e. a characteristic employees bring into the organization, and partly by the particular working conditions created by management. Relating to this research manager can increase employees motivation by concentrating on selection a certain type of employees and adjusting working conditions. Investment in human capital through trainings, feedback and acknowledgement can also help to increase motivation.
Dysvik & Kuvaas (2009) also suggest that Training and Development (TAD) influence the performance of employees and organizations because TAD effects skills and behavioral scripts as well as the motivation to use these at work. As a result of their survey they didn't find a positive relationship between perceived training opportunities and task performance and they didn't find a negative relationship between perceived training opportunities and turnover intention. According to many reviews which show that motivation affects the intention of employees to learn, they investigated the relationship between perceived training opportunities and task performance as well as organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention. While the first two are fully mediated by intrinsic motivation, the relationship between perceived training opportunities and turnover intention will be partly mediated by intrinsic motivation. As a result, Motivation is responsible for the success of TAD and TAD is necessary for the success of a company. Intrinsic motivation can be explained as an activity that has a motivation of its own. Aditionally intrinsic motivation can be influenced by selective incentives like in form of legal penalties, social sanctions, social rewards or economic prizes which can increase behavioral intension to perform. This in turn Kryriacou (2010) argues that, intrinsic motivation can be crowded out by the application of selective incentives and that these can result in less behavioral intension to perform. In this case sanctions may decrease enjoyment and effort of work or sense of autonomy. This is could happen if people feel that they are being controlled, and that their voluntary efforts are going unrecognized. Kyriacou (2010) advices that care must be taken by designing selective incentives
Besides disposition, training and development, employees could also be motivated by including them in the decision making process. These participation may increase employeeÂ´s motivation and productivity as well as the values that workers have for organizational outcomes. Participation may also increase social influence on behavior and the amount of employee`s self control. (Mitchell, 1973). Other imprtant motivate factors for employess are: achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility and the chance for growth. In addition the dissatisfaction avoidance factors for employees are: company policy and administration, technical supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, status, job security, work condition, salary and personal life (Herzberg, 1987). In common Herzberg`s (1987) theory is based on need satisfaction like safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. Manageres can help employees to satisfy their needs through paying fair salaries, pertmitting social interaction, giving responisbility and significatn job activities or encouraging high achievment as well as providing advancement opprtunities. In his eyes job enrichment should be an essential management function. According to Herzberg (1987) managers should also give their employees the opportunity to identify with their job through using their variety of abilities. It appears that many workers are becoming increasingly dissatisfied and frustrated by routine, poor-quality work, absenteeism and high turnover. Job enrichement seek to improve task efficiency and human satisfaction by building into jobd greater scope for persoanl achievement and recognition, more challenging and responsible work and more opportunity for individual advancement and growth.
Regarding to our question above, how to motivate employees, we analyzed the researches of several scientist related to different motivation theories. Every theory put their emphasis on motivated employees as an important factor for the succes of a company. Even they take up different positions and figuring out different ways to motivate employees, they all underline how effectiv motivated employees are and recognize the commitment of employees to an organization as well as the organization`s need to create an enviroment in which the emloyees are willing to stay, are satisfied and most productive. These advanced factor of human resources will increase the organizational performance. While the labor markets are getting global, motivated and loyal employees provides the company the ability to achieve an competitive advantage which can help to gain a profitable global market position.
Benkhoff, B. (1996). Catching up on competitors: how organization can motivate employees to work harder. The International Journal of Human Resource Management .
Carr, A., & Tang, T. (2005, Janaury/February). Sabbaticals and Employee Motivation: Benefit, Concerns and Implications. Journal of Education for Business , pp. 160-164.
Drake, R. A., Wong, J., & Salter, B. S. (2007). Empowerment, Motivation and Performance: Examining the impact of feedback and incentives on nonmanagement employees. Behavirol research in accounting , pp. 71-89.
Dysvik, A., & Kuvaas, B. (2009). The relationship between perceived training oppotunities, work motivation and employee outcome. Norwegian School of Management BI .
Graham, S., & Weiner, B. (1996). Theories and Principles of Motivation. In Handbook of Educational Psychology .
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976, August). Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance , pp. 250-279.
Herzberg, F. (1987, September/October). One more time: How do you motivate Employees? Havard Business Review , pp. 87-99.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Motivation, Leadership, and Organization: Do American Theories Apply Abroad? Organizational Dynamics, Summer .
Karkk, R., & van Dijik, D. (2007). Motivationto lead, Motivation to follow: The Role of the self regulatory focus in leadership Process. Academy of Management Review , pp. 500-528.
Kyriacou, P. A. (2010, April 2). Intrinsic Motivation and the logic of collective action. American Journal of Economic and Sociology .
Maslow, H. A. (1970). Motivation and Personality. NY: Harper .
Mitchell, T. R. (1973). Motivation and Participation: An Integration. Academy of Management Journal .
Nohria, N., Groysberg, B., & Lee, L.-E. (2008, July/August). Employee Motivation: A powerful new Model. Harvard Business Reviw , pp. 78-84.
Ramlall, S. (2004). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications of employee retention within organizations. The Journal of American Academy of Business .
Sagie, A., Elizur, D., & Yamauchi, H. (1996, September). The structure and strength of achievement.The structure and strength of achievement motivation: A cross-cultural comparison. . Journal of Organizational Behavior. , pp. 431-444.
Shamir, B. (1991, July). Meaning, Self and Motivation in Organizations. Organization Studies , pp. 405-424 .
Sievers, B. (1986). Beyond the Surrogate of Motivation. Organization Studies, pp. 335-351.