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In any organisation employees motivation is very important because is the key way of getting individual's effort and commitment at work which will lead to achieve certain goals and success for organisation, by Skabelund, Journal article, December 2009.
In motivation there are forces that which induce individual to perform, the force which is influencing human behaviour to act which called motivators. These can be values, beliefs, attitudes, needs and goals. Also is the management role to ensure job design and reward systems are well designed so that can able to reach employees motivation
Values influence people's motivation toward certain outcomes like prestige, money and power. Example, people who are getting motivated by power they will find themselves in situation where effective training and development and performance leads them to greater position in which they will be motivated or sense of belongs for recognisition of what they done.
Beliefs where people believe in that organisation in achieving what required and also they will benefit from doing good work and will give motivation to each individual.
Attitude of employee to wards organisation to be ready to work in his/her willingness and be loyal to organisation.
Needs differ from each other, need make a person to change the behaviour to fulfilment.
Goals helps individual in the organisation to get motivated to reach what required.
Employees can be motivated at work place in different ways this can be by designing the job or rewarding system to employees, all these depend on how management structure the overall work systems in the organisation.
Job design is part of motivation where by management designs different work patterns to suit each individual best performance and commitment in the organisation, job design is relating to Herzberg, Hygiene factor theory. Job design can be, job rotation, job enlargement, Job enrichment, Flexitime.
Job Rotation, this type of job design allow an employee to alternate in to different range of tasks over a fixed time of that work scheduled this may be hourly, weekly, or sometimes may be even longer periods. Example a worker in supermarket store can work in the shelf to fill in goods and all after certain hours can move to go to work in customer service office. The purpose of this is to reduce the boredom to employee and improve the quality of the work. Herzberg suggested that Job rotation is to achieve variety by giving employee one job after another and result in offering a person a variety of work, but only at same level of responsibility.
Job enlargement is about increasing the tasks of an employee. By adding different number of activities to an employee help to get motivated than giving an employee a task which is meaningless to its capacity.
Job enrichment, this is about giving employees wide spread empowerment movement where by an employee get a greater autonomy and freedom to respond, gives opportunity to employees who likes to be much involve, also helps to increase productivity in the organisation. Job enrichment is a may involve job depth like skill variety, task variety, task significance, autonomy and feedback.
Flexitime, this type of job design permits an employee to design their work hours so they can able to suit their life requirement.
Empowerment is about delegation of accountability from the manager to employee as subordinate. Manager gives power to his/her subordinate to act and accomplish his or her goal on the behalf of that manager. Must be trust in both part before delegation, both part are responsible in any sort of action. Example Delegation can be from the line manager to floor supervisor.
Autonomous working groups this is part of working group designed to workers social needs, the group is always responsible for controlling their own task and sharing that task to each individual.
Quality circle, management can select a group of workers who are best suited in particular work place, by looking how best they interacting and solve problems at work place to achieve the same goal. Selected group can participate in quality circle by through identifying the problem, collecting data and recommendations. This type of group need to be trusted by the management.
Total Reward systems as method of motivation so organisation can gain standard performances, e.g in production, services. Any organisation needs to understand their employees and job relating and looking deeply how organisation can reward an employee for the success of both part between employee and organisation, Journal article, by Hiles. There is two ways of rewarding employee, One by Non financial reward and second is monetary reward.
Monetary reward, organisation reward an employee through money as motivator. E.g by higher pay in overtime or during weekends, paying high salary, big bonuses and shares like Mark and Spencer the coming New C.E.O. or former C.E.O in Royal Bank of Scotland, Barclays bank.
This type of motivation Maslow classified as Hierarchy of needs that means employees get motivated through achieving his/her needs.
Non monetary reward can be,
Training and development, where organisation give chance employees to go for training to increase their skills at a particular time when required by the organisation or involving in long term development through learning process.
Participation of employees in the organisation by involving them in actions, planning schedules, design, recognition all these will bring sense of being needed and will increase motivation to achieve organisation goals.
Work condition this is about the condition of the working environment in the organisation e.g health and safety at work, overall management attitudes, work plan, job design. Kaufman pg 56, he tried to explain that, non monetary rewards can be career growth opportunities, employee growth and recognition programs, all rewards should linked to metrics of improvement of the corporate culture, management can award employees non monetary reward through tangible awards like iPods, cameras which are more effective than cash.