Motivation is to provide a suitable environment for employee to work in

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The key role of motivation is to provide a suitable environment for employee to work in, that will inevitably make employees feel as part of the team/workforce, rather than just cogs in the machine. By adopting such an environment where all the needs are taken care of it would, create more productivity from the workforce as there would be more willingness to complete the task at hand. This is described by Abraham Maslow hierarchy of needs; Maslow says that employees are motivated once all five needs are met. The first two are done by the employer and the next three needs can only be completed by an individual themselves. The first need to be met is Physiological Needs these are basic needs such as toilet facilities and a canteen area. After the physiological needs have been fulfilled the next need on the hierarchy is safety needs this would dominate an individual's behaviour because if an individual does not feel secure in the work place this will have a great effect on the maximum output towards their job role. The next needs to be met are Love and Belongingness; this is emotionally based for example friendship with colleagues provides a more open environment. This leads to the next need that needs to be fulfilled which is to have Self-Esteem and respect, this would help an employee feel valued as part of the team but, this would only occur if employees engage themselves to gain recognition and take part in their individual task to feel a sense of contribution. The final need that has to be fulfilled is Self-Actualization this is where the individual realises their full potential to reach their maximum output. But, Douglas McGregor would argue that Self-Actualization would be determined by the managerial trust of subordinates.

Maslow's hierarchy is unnecessarily placed into a hierarchy, ranking each need is pointless. Geert Hostede sees the top need in the hierarchy as ethnocentric as it doesn't illustrate and develop on the differences of social and intellectual needs of those raised in individualistic and in collective societies. [1] Also the hierarchy may be seen as individualistic for the reason that some people may class different aspects under different needs. On the other hand, Maslow's hierarchy simplifies the stages and only allows an organisation to move to the next step after the current need is fulfilled.

Fredrick Herzberg's Two-factor theory provides two theories one which ensures an employee is not dissatisfied known as Hygiene factors these are factors such as job security (this is where you are stable in your job and not likely to lose it), salary with benefits (this would involve benefits such as 10% Staff Discount etc. Hackman J.R& Oldham, describe hygiene factors as being extrinsic to work itself, and includes aspects such as company policies, wages/salary or supervisory practices. [2] The second theory which gives positive satisfaction that is created through the job itself, this is issues such as achievement, recognition and work that is challenging. So basically the name of both theories provides us with a suggestion of what the theorist is saying. As Motivators factors would motivate an employee to work at their best performance, Herzberg provided us with the example that 'if you perform a work related action because you HAVE to then that would be classes as movement, but if that work related action was performed because you WANT to then that is what would be classed as a company which holds a good motivation technique.

The problem with the Two Factory theory is an out of date theory when it comes to satisfaction and dissatisfaction the reason for this is because both are now in present times are seen at the same level, this can be seen on Herzberg's theory doesn't allow individuals to have they own individuality that would affect the response made to both the motivating and hygiene factors this can mean things such as personal traits are not taken into consideration.

A great modern day example of the need theory in practice is to look at the John Lewis Department Store. The company has learnt throughout the years that to motivate an employee you need to fulfil their needs. John Lewis can be assessed through many theorists methods such as McGregor's X&Y theory which would show John Lewis have implemented the Theory Y, also it meets Herzberg's Dual Factor theory as it takes care of all the sub factors involved. After assessing Maslow's hierarchy, with what John Lewis offers it employees each need on the hierarchy has been fulfilled, employees are not referred to as workers they are referred to as Partners in the company whom have a say on where the company heads through democratic voting. [3] This creates much more motivation for long - term success also it has allowed John Lewis to hold the leading position in the competitive market.

Another theory that can help motivate an employee is Goal Setting Theory, which has shown that employees want a challenge in their tasks. Such as when an employee is set with a difficult goal once they have accepted the result would show greater output than of an easy goal target. Employers would also notice an increase in performance when employees are tasked with specific goals to reach, other influences in performance would include the task role also how committed are the employees, national culture would have a great effect performance as it is part of everyone that employers should not risk causing controversy over. The goal must not be too hard as the employee would be de-motivated.

Every organization will have some sort of culture within it. Culture is norms and values that are upheld within a society. Relating culture to an organization, culture would be the way in which the organization operates. Charles Handy describes culture simply as 'the way we do things around here'. Handy describes two types which are Corporate Culture this is an Official way to do things and an Organizational Culture the way in which things are actually done. When talking about organizational culture there are seven key characteristics that are involved these are innovation and risk taking, the attention to detail, people orientation, outcome orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness involved and stability of the organisation. These characteristics of an organization's culture are apprehensive with how employees would perceive them not whether they like them or not. A culture is formed in the organization when, the founder of the business has implemented his views into the business. To retain them values within the organization he would need to reduce the risk of it being destroyed by employees, so only employees on the same wavelength as the founder they would be retained. These employees would be socialized and trained to the founder's way of thinking/feeling. After the training it would be a knock on effect for new employees, as when they socialize with the old employees their behaviour would act as role model encouraging the new employees to adapt.

There are two types of organizational culture, the strong culture would show that a company's core values are widely shared by many and intensely held within the company so, strong culture would lead to low employee turnover. Whereas, a weak culture would involve extensive bureaucracy and procedures to retain control of the organization, as they values would not have enough direction. But, with strong culture an organization should deter any stereotyping with employees and step away from viewing employees as showing disloyalty if they feel change in the way the company operates can be more successful. If the organization does not successfully address these problems it would lead to Groupthink, this is described by Irving L. Janis as where 'members strive for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternatives of action.' A weak culture would lead to the need of cultural change where some aspects necessarily need to be altered or change as it has previously lead to other factors being affected to result in the businesses failure. But, cultural change can also arise from a dramatic crisis existing or being created or a turnover in leadership. The government in relation to organizations the recent cold temperatures and snow, as there was public anger because the areas affected were left alone without much government help. This has lead to the transport minister resigning as he failed his job.

The Organizational structure can be linked to the organizational culture as Charles Handy like other scholars have explained. Handy [4] outlines four types of culture the first is Power culture this culture has few rules and little bureaucracy, the control spread from the top to all departments. Another type is the Role culture which will likely establish formation of hierarchical bureaucracy with a clear delegation of authority to individuals/teams. The power in this culture would come from the job title not expert knowledge of an individual. The next type of culture Handy describes is the Task culture, where powers comes from the expertise and are usually formed into teams to solve the same task collectively. The team would involve highly skilled specialist in the specific market. The final type is the Person culture this exists where individuals see themselves more powerful than the organization (Police brutality in the recent protest), so this type of culture would make it difficult for an organization to exist as the organization goals may be ignored. But, if each individual brings a specific expertise to the firm then it can work such as in a professional partnership. The problem with particular cultures is it can be too demanding for the owners of the organization which would have an impact on the motivation of the owners which would not have a good effect on the organization.

On the other hand, Deal and Kennedy [5] preferred to measure an organization in relation to its feedback this would mean a quick response and also they would look at the risk involved this would show the amount of uncertainty in the organizations activities. From this they created four groups of organizational culture. The Tough-guy culture was feedback was fast; the stress involved in this culture is very high but, comes with high rewards. Another culture type is Work hard/play hard involves quick feedback with little risk taking. This culture would be large organizations targeting their customer services. The Bet your company culture would involve high stake decisions this would be a culture for exploration projects and development. So this may take years to see the results. The final culture is the process culture which would happen when little or no feedback is provided. This would affect motivation, employees would become bogged down with red tape (bureaucracies/rules) but, this culture would produce consistent results this can be associated with our public services such as the organization of the fire brigade red tape stopped them entering the underground tunnel (7/7 bombings), when it's supposed o e heir job saving lives.

Organizations are cultural phenomena that stress the ways which cultural assumptions can dissent and reproduce management propaganda and ideology. It would be naive to believe that a single culture exists in all organizations, or that cultural engineering will reflect the interests of all stakeholders within an organization. It seems culture has a greater power over an organization and it is the organizations which develop around the culture not vice-versa. The problem with the Deal and Kennedy cultural model is that it only takes two factors into account it does not include other influencing factors such as the expertise involved.

Communication is vital in present day organizations it can be used for advertising to gain new target markets, provide information of the organization to employees and also to keep control. Through communication motivation can also be strengthened. One type of communication is Interpersonal Communication this can be categorized into 3 types. Oral communication is one type this is communicating verbally and written communication, the problem with written communication is that it is more time consuming than oral, also oral communication allows space more feedback to be received. A written letter can be miss-interpreted from how it was supposed to be read but, written communication will not be distorted as an oral message can when it is passed through people and there would be some kind of credible record available if required for further reference, an example would be a contract is more verifiable in a tangible format rather than relying on something said which cannot be proved. So, a written form of communication would be more logical, thought out and clear compared to verbal communication. The final category for interpersonal communication is through non-verbal. This is communication shown through body language saw would be available through face to face meetings. Body language would show the extent to which a receiver is interested in the views/message being presented this will allow the sender to see if it is a credible transaction. Also the facial expression would be a reliable indicator.

Modern ways of communication seem more efficient compared to traditional formats of communication. Modern methods area classed as computer-aided communication (CAC) which consists of emails and instant messaging, although both may seem the same there are fundamental differences. Although both share the same characteristic of being fast and inexpensive as it is free through the internet, emails can easily distributed to many whereas instant messaging is preferred to just one or two correspondence in the chat/meeting at once. Emails an e read at the receivers own convenience but, instant messaging would need the receiver to be online which may be seen as distracting and intrusive. As instant messaging is a real-time method, emails may be seen as impersonal and there would not be any emotion visible which is important to form a good relationship in business. To improve communication with a large organization the best way would be through an intranet which would only be accessed by employees to pass on messages or arrange a meeting. An Extranet is also part of CAC as it would facilitate communication with selected suppliers and customers. In my opinion the best method of CAC is video conferencing as it allows a real time live feed through from a sender to the receiver to conduct a meeting without being in the same room or even the same country. This is a growing method of communication for large organizations with key management through the country for updates etc. this would allow the receiver feel as part of the team as they are visible to the sender (senior management).

There are many barriers to communication which can distort a message being sent from the sender to receiver. Barriers can be in any form such as a problem with language; it must be in a form that both the sender and receiver understand otherwise the message will be misread. Even emotion can affect a message as there can be hostility or anger because sender/receiver is immersed in their emotions. The biggest barrier is physical barriers; this is because if it is a big organization then the employees are divided physically by dividers or the environment. Another barrier may be filtering, this is where the message can be misinterpreted or lost through secretaries, answer machines or receptionist. Barriers for Organization can be illustrated by the Shannon and Weaver [6] model of communication. The model starts with the Information Source, and then the message is sent to the Transmitter, the message turns into a signal which is affected with a noise source, then the signal is received to the receiver, which is reverted into the message and reaches its destination. Another type of communication barrier can be between men and women this is because, men are seen to hear and speak a language of power, independence and with status. Unlike, women who are shown to speak also hear a language of intimacy and connection. So women would see conversations, as negotiations for closeness in which people try to seek and give confirmation and support but, on the other hand men would see conversations as a means to preserve independence and maintain status. In the present days a new type of barrier would be political correctness needs to be used. This is where words said in the workforce may offend employees so, this is a problem for the organization as it would reduce the options for sending out messages accurately. A cultural barrier is another major problem as words can have different meanings to others, also there may be different perceptions in different areas of the world. So this would apply to an organization such as a supermarket such as Tesco's which would need to adapt the way in which they operate depending o which region or country the store is in. As this would help keep an effective way of communicating this would boost productivity and strengthen the motivation.

After reviewing my three topics, I can conclude that they share the same purpose which is to improve the organization. Although their do offer a slight different aspects to take into consideration for any success. As with motivation the key purpose is to ensure the employees feel happy about their role in the organization, this is shown through different perspectives such as through the theorist which I have investigated. As in the goal setting theory there would be an effect depending on what the national culture is, which interlinks with the organizational culture as the individual's identity would need some consideration. As with communication it also plays part of the culture because, cultural factors ay affect the communication methods used. This is due to some cultures not accepting the use of the Internet within they country, so the organization would be limited to the traditional methods of communication.

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