Motivation is an important factor for any business organization either it is private or public sector. How the employees feel, normally and exclusively, about their jobs directly affect the company's ultimate profit. Motivation is the drive force that moves employees to do at their best. Just as an engine pulls a train, so a company's workforce will pull a company towards the profit or destroy. Motivating employees can be a complex task based on full compensation for the work performed for an organization. Reimbursement, as it is used in this context, is not strictly for explanation of the total financial package to compensate an employee. The purpose of this research will be to discuss some of the possibilities in motivating employees to be productive in the organization. In this research the areas to be discussed are Financial Motivation techniques and Non-Financial Motivational techniques. Both the motivational techniques are powerful forces in determining the drive, productivity, and efficiency of each and every company employee. The regular use of positive motivation techniques is very crucial for the managers in today's regularly changing and evolving world of human needs and wants. How well managers employ these techniques to motivate employees directly affects the use of human resources toward accomplishing organizational goals. This research will also review managerial motivation techniques and methods of optimistic reinforcement.
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The researcher will try to correlate different techniques of effective motivation with the organizational growth. These factors include financial benefits, Hygiene factors, employee development and training, affiliation need of the employee, power needs of the employee and achievement needs. It is obvious that these factors will positively boost the employee morale and he will be more satisfied, hence employee satisfaction moves him to perform at 100% efficiency and give optimum performance for the growth of the organization.
Introduction and Problem Background
In any public sector organization, to meet its responsibilities towards shareholders, employees and civilization, its top management must build up a relationship between the organization and employees that will fulfill the frequently changing needs of both parties. At least the organization expects employees to carry out consistently the tasks assigned to them and at the standards set for them, and to pursue the rules that have been established to govern the organization. Management often expects more: that employees take initiative, manage themselves, continue to discover new skills, and be open to business needs. At a minimum, employees look forward to their organization to provide fair salary, secure working conditions, and fair treatment.
The fields of worker motivation and employee performance towards organizational growth are very much explicitly explained in the researcher of Maslow, Taylor, and Hertzberg. The concepts of motivational techniques and performance are constructs within the bigger organizational behavior model. While each of these constructs can be reviewed on their own, employee motivational techniques and motivation itself is linked closely to employee performance and organizational growth.
The research will elaborate different methods of motivating employees to perform at their highest level. The scope of the research also covers financial and non- financial motivating techniques used by companies to help their employees develop, execute, and do extremely well. Productivity is a focal point of today's more competitive companies, and the majority of companies are exploring the role that employee satisfaction plays in profitability and competitiveness.
Financial rewards are regular in the business organizations today. Most of the experts agree that money is not the best motivator only. The motivational outcome of most financial rewards does not last for the longer period. However, the absence of financial motivators is a powerful demotivator, which cannot be overlooked. Therefore, financial rewards are totally essential in order to successfully motivate employees. The most general types of financial rewards that will be discussed are salary increases, profit sharing, incentive travel, and paid time-off.
This research will speak of affecting forces as internal emotional drives for performing a job. Effective motivation of employees goes beyond the financial return for work. Some of the most well-known companies in the world have felt the benefits of appealing to their workers drives to work intelligently and to be recognized. Most motivators lead directly to the empowerment and enabling of employees to do well. Employee motivation can be enhanced when a company focuses on the following: goal setting, communication, self-rule, responsibility, and elasticity.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
In order for managers and business executives to succeed in today's business world, they must become effective motivators by implementing effective motivational techniques. Effective motivation is only achieved by using financial and non- financial motivational techniques.
1.2 Problem Statement
It has become very difficult for the public sector organizations to achieve their maximum output or productivity without the 100% output of their employee which can only be achieve by properly motivating the employee.
1.1.1 Organizational Background
Mosques and Shrines have been not simply source of stimulation and religious guidance but also the platform of religious knowledge and spread of Islam through Liberal humanitarian and common brotherhood education of the saints. Certainly, these humble seats of mosques and shrines of saints have a key role in spreading the message of Islam.
Most of these Shrines and Mosques were waqf, the management of which was with charitable local Organization. With the passage of time decay and wear and tear set in running affairs of these sacred shrines and key mosques. Hence the requirement to restore their holiness. As legitimate obligation of Islamic state to bring about improvement in the administration and management of Waqf, Auqaf Organization was constituted as legal entity through the Punjab Waqf Properties Ordinance, 1979.
Auqaf & Religious Department is headed by Secretary Auqaf & Religious Affairs who is assisted by Additional Secretary and Deputy Secretary with their subsidiaryÂ staff. Secretary Auqaf & Religious Affairs also acts as Chief Administrator Auqaf.Â TheÂ Auqaf Organization is a self fund generating body. TheÂ fundamental funding is received from shrine-donations, leases of agricultural lands and rents from commercial and residential properties.Â The funds generated are utilized for Education, medical facilities, social welfare, academic scholarships and maintenance ofÂ important religious monuments and sacred places. The Auqaf Organization comprise theÂ following Â six Directorates:-
1.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Directorate of Administration
2.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Directorate of Estate
3.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Directorate of Finance
4.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Directorate of Religious Affairs
5.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Directorate of Projects
6.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Directorate of Health Services
To take over the administration, management and control of the waqf property.
To proceed as trustee of all waqf properties.
To make sure improved management and maintenance of waqf properties dedicated for religious, pious and charitable purposes.
To get better the standard of religious services and rites at the shrines and mosques.
To make the holy places centers of social, cultural and spiritual inspiration in accordance with the dictates of Islam.
To make sure better environment and conditions at these sacred places.
To implement financial discipline and rationalize procedures.
To publish books pertaining to faith and Islamic mysticism.
To coordinate with the Federal Government on Hajj and Religious Affairs.
To manage the affairs of the minorities in the Province including licenses under the Christian Marriage Act, 1872.
1.1.2 Problem Background
In the current circumstances of the Department of Auqaf , it is strongly felt that employee are not performing their obligations to their maximum. This may be an effect of demotivating factors which make them lazy and not hard workers. So the researcher will here look forward for the various tools and methods which can effectively improve the situation in this public sector organization.
1.4 Research Questions & Research Objective
1.4.1 Research Questions:
Q1: What are different methods, techniques are used to motivate employee to perform at maximum level?
Q2: How does the motivational techniques impact the over all productivity of the public sector organization?
Q3 : Which techniques are more effective in this regards?
Understand the importance of a motivated workforce
Obtain motivational techniques
To learn how effective motivational techniques can impact the organizational performance.
H1: Motivation has no significant relationship with the organizational growth.
H0: Motivation significantly results into the better organizational performance and growth.
1.6Scope and Limitations of Study
1.6.1Scope of the research:
The scope of the research will be limited to the public sector organization that is Department of Auqaf Punjab, and the researcher herself is an employee of the same institution. A total number of 1000 employee as well as customers will be based as population of the research. And out of this population 300 will be taken as sample.
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There will be some limitation of the study which are as follows:
All motivational theories will be partially discussed in the research due to shortage of time space and scope.
Researcher will be unable to approach respondents due to time and gender constraint.
Being a female and social constraint, it will be difficult to app roach physically each and every respondent of the research.
The scale of the research is limited to 1000 populations only.
Inadequate time may be a constraint to complete the research within a specific time interval and researcher in this state may pass over some useful information.
Data will be collected by the researcher herself by means of questionnaire.
Other methods of data collection are excluded due to time constraint.
Researcher may be biased to some extent on giving the final recommendations.
1.7 Significance of Research
Recently organizations have started realizing that employee are not the employee but actually the capital assets of their business. This research is significant because it will be elaborating the relationship between the organizational performance / growth and the motivational techniques being employed by different organizations. Workers are an asset to the business and it is up to the management to value them. It can not be a solution to hire and fire continuously as has been the common practice, recruiting goes with resources and money; and it is through the management that the companies grows, thus contributing to the economy of the country by developing the workers; thus reducing unemployment.
Test of Hypothesis:
Both hypothesis will be tested after using some statistical analysis of correlation..
There is a variety of literature available on the subject of effective motivational techniques in the public sector organization. Many of the studies focus on the impacts of rewards on work interest and performance and are found in the literature concerned with motivation: both internal and external motivation. In internally motivated behavior there is no reward except with the task itself. Reward and recognition programs come within the discussion on externally motivated behavior that occurs when a function or performance is rewarded by incentives not inherent in the task (Deci, 1971).
Many modern authors have also defined the concept of motivation. Motivation has been defined as: the psychological procedure that gives performance purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); a trend to behave in a purposive way to achieve explicit, unaccomplished desires (Buford, Bedeian, & Lindner, 1995); an inner force to please an unsatisfied need (Higgins, 1994); and the will to accomplish (Bedeian, 1993). For this research, motivation is functionally defined as the inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals and objectives. Understanding what motivates employees is one of the main challenges for managers. Although it is not always possible straight to motivate others, it is nevertheless significant to know how to influence what others are motivated to perform, with the overall aim of having employees make out their own welfare with that of the organization (Bruce and Pepitone, 1999). In common terms rewards techniques come within the overall concept of compensation strategies which are defined as the "purposeful utilization of the salary system as an essential integrating method through which the efforts of various sub-units or individuals are directed towards the attainment of an organization's strategic objectives (Gomez-Mejia and Balkin, 1992). They are management techniques that optimistically contribute to a firm's efficiency by influencing individual or group behavior (Lawler and Cohen, 1992). All businesses use salary, promotion, bonuses or other types of rewarding techniques to encourage high levels of performance (Cameron and Pierce, 1977).
The case studies in this review develop upon the work of Maslow, Taylor, and Herzberg. Sharbrough's research looks at the correlations between leader's exercise of Motivating Language (ML) and employee job satisfaction and the awareness of a supervisor's efficiency.
In these cases, there was a statistically significant correlation in this study between a leader's use of motivating language and employee job satisfaction and the awareness of a supervisor's efficiency. This correlation can be utilized by organizations to calculate a leader's use of motivating language and determine levels of employee satisfaction as well as resolve the perceived effectiveness of a supervisor (Scarborough, 2006).
In Beyond the Fringe, Simms discusses how different organizations use tailored versions of "non-cash rewards" as employee incentive. Simms suggests that Hertzberg's vision of salary as not being a motivator holds. The capability to hold up an incentive that doesn't get engrossed by the employee's monthly bills has a superior effect on employee motivation. He also suggests is may be more satisfactory to boast about a special award or party rather than an employee's salary raise. Simms then goes on to expanding the discussion of non- cash rewards such as flexible time, employee of the month rewards, and tailored goal incentives provisions. Simms argues it is very important for the employers to communicate these benefits to employees because many employees don't understand their total compensation package. By communicating the total package, the employers reinforce their obligation to the employees and help to motivate the employee. This motivation leads to greater employee satisfaction and performance (Simms, 2007).
If motivation is a individual trait, it is doubtful whether one can modify a trait. Motivation has been defined as the "willingness to put forth effort to attain the organization's goals, conditioned by this effort's ability to satisfy individual wantss" (Robbins & Coulter, 1996). This leads to the start of motivation. Motivation varies between and within individuals at diverse times. The art of motivation is a process of changing one's readiness to apply effort. Many early on theories of motivation were formed in the 1950s. Three of these theories are the hierarchy of needs theory, theory X and Y, and the motivation-hygiene theory. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory illustrates five human wants that motivate the people. These needs can be ranked in order of their importance starting with physiological needs that are the basic needs for the food, cloths, and the shelter. Next of some are safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs of the people. Theory X and Y are very simple than Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. "Theory X assumes that employees don't like work, are very lazy, seek to avoid their responsibility, and must be coerced to perform well. On the other part, theory Y assumes that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and exercise self- direction" (Robbins, 1996).
"According to the motivation-hygiene theory, various techniques can root employee's satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their job. Some of the factors such as recognition, accomplishment, progression, and growth can activate motivation. They call these factors motivators. Motivators, like salary, working environment, status, and safety are called hygiene factors, which tend to eliminate dissatisfaction" (Robbins, 1996).
McNerny (1996) states: "Motivating employees is a very demanding job because of the unreliable needs and desires that drive employees' behavior. No solitary theory can guide efforts to boost employee motivation since they are not simply economic, social, political, or psychological beings." DeCenzo (1996) defines motivation as "the readiness to do something, conditioned by the action's capability to satisfy some need." A want or desire is an individual need. Non-profit and for-profit companies still face the same fundamental challenges of motivation. An intrinsic key to being a good manager is spending time with employees, paying attention to their concerns, and trying to realize what they want and need in order to do a better job. After knowing what employees' needs are, human resource managers work to get those needs while considering the goals of the organization.
Now valuing the differences and needs of employees in the organizational environment is important. When employees do not feel valued, their performance suffers. Diverse cultures place value on widely unusual things. There are a lot of issues that managers face with a diverse work group. In spite of the type and scope of some programs, work-life benefits are designed to support the needs of a varied labor market and are good strategies for increasing company output and profits. Nelson (1996) notes ten things that managers need to do to motivate employees.
Managers discover many ways to motivate their employees and workers, so they desire to perform to the most excellent of their abilities. Financial rewards and incentives are very common in the business world of today; although, most experts agree that money is not the best motivator because the motivational impact of most financial rewards does not last ever. According to Donna Deeprose (1994), "For one thing, while the presence of money may not be a very good motivator, the absence of it is comparatively strong demotivator" (p. 29). Therefore, financial rewards are an absolutely necessary for base to successfully motivate a company's employee. The most general types of financial rewards that will be discussed in this research are salary increases, profit sharing, incentive travel, and paid time-off.
This research speaks of emotive techniques as internal emotional drives for performing a work or task. Effective motivation of employees goes beyond the financial rewards for work, and some of the most well-known companies globally have realized the benefits of appealing to their valuable employees' drive to work intelligently and to be recognized. Most motivators lead straight to the empowerment and enabling of people to carry out well. Productivity can also be improved when a company focuses on the following techniques: goal setting, communication, autonomy, responsibility, and flexibility.
Effective Motivational t& Factors
(Financial & Non-Financial)
Optimum Organizational Performance
Motivational techniques ( Independent )
Employee satisfaction ( Dependent)
Organizational growth ( Dependent)
Development & Training
From the review of the above literature , the researcher will try to correlate different techniques of effective motivation with the organizational growth. These factors include financial benefits, Hygiene factors, employee development and training, affiliation need of the employee, power needs of the employee and achievement needs.
It is obvious that these factors will positively boost the employee morale and he will be more satisfied , hence employee satisfaction moves him to perform at 100% efficiency and give optimum performance for the growth of the organization.
Methods and Procedures
Methodology of Study
In this research the researcher will be using the variability and reliability of the biographical data of the respondents. The procedure used to gather data is the hypotheses and the statistical techniques used to analyze the data.
The goal of thesis is exploratory as to find out the impacts of effective motivational techniques on public sector organization of Pakistan. A quantitative (based on survey) analysis will be conducted by using questionnaire method.
Then by applying different statistical tools the data will be analyzed, and the link in between the variables of the research that is motivational techniques and impact on public sector will be tested.
3.1.1Survey Instrument used
For the purpose of this study a quantitative methodology was followed and a
questionnaire was used as the measuring instrument.
The sample size out of the 1000 population is 300 employees taken as sample respondents. Convenient sampling method will be used in this regards because of limited approach and scope of the research.
As mentioned above the data will be collected by using the survey instrument (questionnaire) and from the existing researches available in published form by the previous researchers. This primary data will be analysed to explain the researcher point of view on the subject of the research.
The tools that will be used in the research for the data analysis is SPSS software to calculate Mean, Standard deviation, correlation.
Data Analysis and Representation
In his chapter information related to data analysis with proper explanation of processed data in the SPSS, containing data tables and graphical representation.
Conclusion, Findings & Recommendations
In this section final conclusions of the study , researcher's own findings out of the research and closing recommendations will be mentioned.
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