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Motivation can be described as a set of energetic forces that originate both within and beyond individual's being,to initiate work related behavior and to determine its form,direction,intensity and duration.In short motivation can be said to be forces that influence performance.Work motivation back in history was developed by Douglas McGregor(1906-1964) who came up with a theory called 'Theory X and 'Theory Y.He suggested that 'Theory X is for those individuals who lack motivation in work,they tend to avoid responsibilities given,they never want to achieve more coz they are satisfied,they are never creative or innovative and they only act in the presence of managers or supervisors.They also believe that people work for money and they lack growth and development.The outcome is poor task performance and they are never rewarded for their work
As opposed to 'Theory Y',these are the motivated individuals who believe in achieving more,always participate in organization mainly in innovations and creative thinking,they want to develop more and more and don't believe that money is the only reason for working.The out come is always efficiency and effectiveness in task performance.They are rewarded,recognized for work done and are allowed to participate in high matters like decision making.
Work motivation can be categorized into three divisions, they are: rewards,drives and needs and finally goals,expectancy and feedback.
For drives and need was developed by Abraham Maslow(1908-1970)who argued that for one to be motivated one must a driving force and their personal needs and other needs need to be met.Drive can be defined as internal conditions that activate behavior and gives its direction.It is the inner force that pushes one to achieving their desires.Maslow revealed that,in his theory of content theories of motivation,human being have nine innate needs or motives that influence motivation in organization and they include: basic needs,security needs,affiliation needs,selt-esteem needs,knowing and understanding needs,aesthetic needs,transcendence need,freedom of enquiry and expression and self-actualization needs.In his hierarchy of needs he emphasized mostly on self-actualization.Maslow defined it as "the desire for personal fulfillment".This means that it is the realization of one's potentials and theie capabilities.Traits of self actualized people can be sammurised as,they are spontaneous in their works,they embrace reality goals and work with facts,they accept themselves and are confident and have self-esteem.
Looking now at goals,expectancy and feedback theories.For ages goals setting has been promoted as a factor that improves employees motivation.This theory was developed by Locke and Latham who tried to show different kind of goals like easy goals,specific goals,vague goals how they boost performance.He argued that setting vague goals leads to confusion and conflicts but when goals are specific there is maximum achievement.Employees should be assigned with challenging goals because they lead to high level of performance in that they create 'stretch 'thus encouraging us to try harder as opposed to simple and unchallenging goals.Apart from being challenging goals should also be specific in that they should not be vague ending up in confusion,as specific goals leads to high performance.Goals should be specific,mearsurable,attainable and timely (SMART).With that employees became committed to their task and effectiveness and efficiency in task performance is achieved because the feedback given motivates them more into achieving the objectives.In short the goal-setting theory suggest that motivation is influenced by challenging goals,specific goals and knowledge of feedback.
Looking at the expectancy theory or sometimes called valence or instrumentality theory,(Harold Vroom 1932) suggest that the behavioral results are from decisions one makes based on expectations to doing profitable tasks,it helps in evaluation of one's motivation strength to influence certain behaviours.In summary it argues that when one puts effort to performe a task the expected results would be profitable to the organization.
Lastly we have rewards.Rewards can be said to be something given or done to someone for good performance.Here rewards are divided into two that's is intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards.Intrinsic rewards come along when one is intrinsically motivated.Intrinsic motivation is the inner drive or the interest or enjoyment one has to a particular job.It is not influenced by external force,it is from within a person.Their rewards comes from within,that is they get satisfaction,are happy with the tasks and also they get the sense of accomplishment.Thus the managers broadens their work experience to enhance employee satisfaction and improve work motivation and work performance rather called job enrichment.For total motivation to occur intrinsic motivation must go hand in hand with extrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic rewards comes from extrinsic motivation that is the motivation influenced by others such as promotion, money rawards,recognition fringe benefits,company cars.They can be either incentives or rewards schemes.Extrinsic rewards are divided into two that is they can either be financial benefits or non-financial.Finance include increased salaries,bonus pays and for non-financial includes promotion,recognition,company cars and work related gifts.All this is done to employees so as to boost their motivation and increase efficiency and effectiveness in job performance. They can either be incentives or reward schemes.These are additional benefits employee receive from managers inform of finances or non-financial in order to appreciate them for the work well done thus motivating them to work even more harder.Extrinsic can either lead to job satisfaction and motivation increase or it can only remove dissatisfaction and not bring motivation at all.This is a concept that was developed by Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000)and called them motivator factors and hygiene factors.Motivator factors is an aspect of work that increases the level of job satisfaction,increases motivation of employees and also raises task performance for example recognition,responsibilities and achievement.On the other hand hygiene factors are those that only remove dissatisfaction and do not affect motivation example we have salaries,company policies,status and working conditions.
Employee incentives and rewards increase motivation.For example looking at fringe benefits.Fringe benefits are those non-wage benefits received by employees in addition to their salary or wages.It may be housing,insurance of any kind or also retirement benefits.The organization gives these to those hardworking employees in order to boost their motivation and also bring job satisfaction thus enhancing organization commitment.This helps employees to grow and develop in the organization because the managers enriches their jobs, enlarges their scope of jobs thus job enlargement and gives them job empowerment.Empowerment means that organization arrangement that gives employees more responsibilities to handle,they get more autonomy or self managing responsibilities and given decision making responsibilities leading to a high performance work system.As their work scope enlarges and enriches,team work develops.With team work new innovation and creativity is brought about and effectiveness and efficiency intensifies leading the organization into a high performance work system. This means that the organization works to its level of excellence as compared to others.This concept was developed by Peter Vaill (1982),he said that organization arrive at this level when:they perform excellent and beyond assumed,seen as to be exemplars and people outside pass good judgment as compared to other organizations
Job status.This is the position one is in the organization.It is mostly influenced by job experience and qualifications.The managers of the organization will also raise employee's status regarding their performance.Those who perform extremely well and their output always impresses the managers may be promoted.This means that once one is promoted,motivation intensifies,job performance increases and also job satisfaction because the assumption is once one increases efficiency and effectiveness and is recognized all the time the high you will climb the ladder.High job status also makes one feel a sense of achievement brought about by self-actualization and with that you get to achieve more.Once status rises,job responsibilities increases leading to job enrichment ,enthusiasm increases,committement to work also increases.In this case this might be a motivator factor because it enhances both motivation and satisfaction to employees.
Over time pay:This is where employees are paid when the work past their normal working hour.For example if one works overtime and gets paid s/he will definitely inform others about.In the end more and more workers would want extra pay so they will be encouraged to work overtime thus increasing motivation.The employees would want to work for more hours to get more pay thus output increases.
Recognition:This is where employee who perform well are recognized.Everyone would want to be recognized in order to feel some kind of achievement and self satisfaction.Managers of the organization do this to encourage workers to work more thus boosting their motivation.Recognition may lead to promotion,getting gifts,increased pay and bonuses.Recognition leads to job satisfaction since there is that feeling of belonging and appreciation thus it is a motivator factor,bringing motivation and satisfaction.This also leads to intrinsic rewards in that one feels competent,boost self esteem accomplishment and happiness.The managers motivates them even more through job enlargement by widening their scope and job enrichment.
There are other examples of rewards and schemes,like pension pay,company cars,insurance,etc.All these increase motivation like for example company car,when you are given a company car and you used bus before you will even get to work more earlier.Insurance also,when company pays you a housing insurance or has a health insurance cover on its employees,they will be motivated thus increase output.
All these leads to increased motivation and satisfaction.In this way I would say that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is necessary for organization performance and when employees are motivated and satisfied they make the organization a high performance work system.Also for employees should be intrinsically motivated in order for them to realize their potentials and capabilities in order to succeed.
In conclusion I think motivation should start from the top.When managers are motivated together with C.E.O the rest of the employees will copy from them and with that together with other motivator factors will and intrinsic motivation will lead to performance.Also manager should try to evaluate each en every employee performance and try to correct them on mistakes and with this motivation builds due to encouragement and they also get to discover their capabilities thus improving work performance.Rewards schemes and incentives improves motivation.