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Motivation is a process that represents the intensity of an individual, management and persistence of efforts to achieve a goal. While generally motivation is concerned with the efforts towards any goal. The company has to motivate the employees so that they are encouraged to work for the organisation. The employees should feel they are been listened by the company. They should feel important in the company. Motivation in an individual is an important factor which helps the individual to stand long for the organisation. The high performing employees should be rewarded by the company so that they are motivated.
Every individual wants achievement, power, and affiliation. These are the three needs that the individuals look for from the company. There are other basic needs like physiological, safety, social, esteem, self actualisation which every individual want in life.
Each and every individual has their own needs and wants. To fulfil all their needs and wants they set certain goals which take the form of drive. Thus, drive is considered to be one of the most important factors which lead to achieve the goals. The needs can be both personal and professional. There are both internal and external sources which can take form of drive.
There are certain times when individuals face hindrances to achieve their goals. In those times they are de-motivated and everything seems to be depressing to them. At that time they should try to seek something which provides them motivation so that they can take their position and move forward to achieve their goals.
Every individual has their own driving forces which keep them set apart from others. There may be different factors which lead individuals to achieve their goals.
With all this work is a common problem, which is stuck in a time and the routine. This leads to boredom, and is known to be a de-motivator for the experts. For this reason, human resource managers are asked to ensure that there are activities and a variety of ways and means of motivating employees from time to time.
Today is the big multinational corporations of the state of the problem and are doing everything they can to ensure that employees are happy and excited about their work. This is crucial to get the most of them and retain employees burn the bay. And ensuring this lies in the hands of leaders.
Basically, in order to keep motivating employees there are 7 strategies that can be adopted, which are as follows:
Providing positive reinforcement for work tasks and higher goals.
To establish rules and regulations to follow in the office.
To see that fair rules laid down in the office.
Looking at the needs of employees and see what feels comfortable in your workplace.
There must be work related to the objectives set from time to time.
There should be periodic and platforms where employees can share their work experiences.
Must be coherent and consistent about rewarding work and incentives
Motivation at work place
Many people do not understand themselves, but the fact is that many people spend the maximum amount of their waking hours at work. This is a place that gives the possibility to survive in the form of monetary returns. And despite this, there are different situations and circumstances that exist in the workplace that lead down - the path of de-motivation.
While there are managers to ensure staff motivation is also essential to ensure that the experience of work motivation.
There are several methods that can ensure that employees receive the proper motivation in the workplace. Some are
Sometimes ambition can lead to frustrations and ambitions must be kept in check and within real achievable goals.
Pay attention to the road to their destination. Do not be afraid to admit that guidance is needed in some areas.
Gain knowledge and experience, and skills development to achieve higher goals.
Maintain close relations in the office, avoid mixing personal and professional.
Go beyond borders. Challenge you can do wonders in strengthening the morality of a person.
Take a short break every 45 minutes - walking, playing with a stress ball, a glass or two of water. They are even recommended to maintain good health and avoid exhaustion every day.
Pursuing a hobby. This gives something to look forward to working more routine
Theories of Motivation
Positive thinking is one of the most important aspects of life. With positive thinking and motivation a person can attain any goal in his life, both personal and professional.
Positive thinking plays a very important role in attaining success in life. There are different real life examples based on positive thinking. Positive thinking makes a person think positive in his life. Positive thinking provides an opportunity to look forward in an optimistic way.
Always there should be a positive thinking that after thick darkness comes the day light which brings everything clear and more visible. If positive thinking is there, then the thinks are likely to happen positively. If anything bad happens and still we have the positive thinking, it is likely that we can gain the guts to face the bad situation with proper effort. Choose to be positive and let positive things follow you or happen in your environment.
Motivation is required both in personal and professional life. In personal life most of the people are motivated by their close relatives, friends or the elder one who have experienced the same situation in their life.
In professional life, there are various
"Need Hierarchy Theory" by Abraham Maslow :
Need Hierarchy Theory is one of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation propounded by Abraham Maslow. Maslow formed a hierarchy which described the human needs into different hierarchy in ascending order or from the lowest to the highest. He made conclusion that when one set of needs are satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator.
According to Maslow's the need are classified into:
Security or Safety needs
Need for self-actualization
(i) Physiological needs:
Physiological needs are one of the important needs for the sustainment of human life which includes food, water, shelter, sleep, medicine and education. These are considered to be the basic physiological needs. These are the primary needs of the human beings which needs be satisfied at first.
(ii) Security or Safety needs:
These needs come after the physiological needs. It includes the needs to be free from physical danger and of losing the job, property, food or shelter. It also includes protection against emotional harm.
(iii) Social needs:
People are social beings, they need to belong and expect the same belongings from others too. People try their maximum to satisfy their needs for affection, acceptance and friendship.
(iv) Esteem needs:
As per Maslow, Once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, learn to be held in high esteem both by themselves and by others. These kinds of satisfaction of needs are estimates, such as the status of prestige, confidence and power. Need self-esteem includes both internal factors such as autonomy, achievement and self-respect and esteem on external factors such as attention, recognition and states.
(v) Need for self-actualization:
This is the highest of all the other needs. This is the drive to become somebody who is capable of everything in terms of growth achievement and also self-fulfillment. Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. Self-actualization need helps in maximizing one's potential and to accomplish something very big in life.
As and when a person satisfies all these needs, the next level becomes the need for dominance.
As far as an organization is concerned the Human Resources manager has to first identify in which level an employee comes under and after analyzing that proper steps should be taken to satisfy his need.
Manager in organization highly recognize Maslow's need theory and almost all the firms are exercising this theory in their motivational programmes.
"Theory X and Theory Y" - Douglas McGregor :
In the book "The Human side of Enterprise" wrote by McGregor, he states that there are two ways to manage people inside the organization:
The first category comes for the people who are highly negative under the category X
The second category comes for the people who are highly positive under the category Y
After the manager view the employee, he can categorize the employees into these categories to identify their attitude towards the work and the organization as a whole. There are various assumptions for category X and category Y people.
Under the assumptions of theory X:
Employees do not like the nature of work and whenever possible, try to avoid it.
Since the work do not like employees, should be forced, under duress or threat of penalty to attain goals.
Staffs stay away from tasks and job does not meet the official guidelines are published.
Most workers place greater emphasis on safety in all other factors and show little objective.
In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y:
The physical and psychological stress at employment is as usual as relax or participate.
People who exercise self-control and self-direction and we are committed to these goals.
The normal individuals are ready to take task and put into effect of thoughts, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems.
This is the way things are organized, with an average of human intelligence is only partially used.
In cases of analysis, it can detect that the theory assumes that X-command, you must master to individuals and theory Y assumes that most of the order should dominate individuals. An organization that runs on the lines of Theory X tends to be demanding in personality, the statement recommends thoughts as authoritarian power to compel obedience and the right to command. However, organizational theory and can be described as participatory, as the objectives of the business and the individuals in it are integrated, people can attain their own goals most excellent by directing their hard work towards the achievement of the business.
Motivation-hygiene theory by Frederick Herzberg :
This theory is otherwise known as two-factor theory or Hygiene theory. Frederick has tried to modify Maslow's need Hierarchy theory. In this theory there are two sets of employees in an organization called:
Dis - satisfiers
There are certain factors associated to both groups of individuals. Intrinsic factors are associated with job satisfaction whereas extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. He devised his theory based on the question "What do people want from their jobs?" he did various experiments to see what people like the most in the organization and what they don't like. What makes them satisfied and what not? After his experiments in the organization he could find out that removal of dissatisfaction does not necessarily make the job satisfying. There are some factors present in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not result in motivation. But their lack of presence of these factors leads to de motivation.
Examples of Hygiene factors are:
Safety, position, association with colleagues, private life, remuneration, job environment, correlation with superior and business rules and management.
Examples of Motivational factors are:
Growth prospectus job development, duty, challenges, appreciation and gains.
The Porter and Lawler Model :
Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler made a new absolute description of motivation based on expectancy theory.
The real capability of an employee can be determined by the effort he spent in the organization. The performance of an individual in an organization is also affected by the person's aptitude to do the work and also by the personal awareness of what is essential assignment.
Clayton Alderfer's ERG Theory :
Alderfer was the person behind ERG Theory. ERG stands for Existence, Relatedness and Growth. He tried to rebuild the hierarchy of needs of Maslow into another model named ERG i.e. Existence - Relatedness - Growth. According to Alderfer there are 3 groups of core needs.
The first one being the existence group which are mainly considered with basic material need.
The second group is the relatedness group where the individuals want to maintain the interpersonal relationship with the other persons in that group.
The last group is the growth oriented group where the individuals intrinsic desire to grow and develop personally comes.
McClelland's Theory of Needs :
David McClelland developed a theory on three types of motivating needs:
Need for authority
Need for association
Need for attainment
Basically, people in need for power tend to influence and control. They like being the center and are good speakers. They claim the nature, strong in morals and ambitious in life. They may be motivated to do if they are given positions or positions of power.
In the second category are those who are social, they try to join individuals and groups. They are motivated by love and faith. They like to create a pleasant environment around them. Social recognition and affiliation with others gives them motivation.
People in the third region determined by the dare of achievement and fear of failure. Their need for attainment is reasonable and they have set themselves a task of modest difficulty. They are analytical in nature and take risks. These people are motivated to do when they see at least some chance of success.
Equity Theory :Â
J Stacey Adams propounded motivated by their faith in the reward structure of the organization, to be fair or unfair, in relation to income. People use the subjective opinion of a balance of results and comparisons between different individuals report input. Thus:
If people feel they getting the same reward that is reduce the amount or quality of work or migrate to another organization. However, if people perceive they are rewarded more, can be encouraged to work harder.
Reinforcement Theory :
B.F. Skinner propounded the reinforcement theory. It is believed that individuals may be responsible for organizing, designing the environment correctly. Instead, the internal factors, such as impressions, emotions, attitudes and other cognitive behaviors, individuals control the external environment, what happens to them. Skinner notes that the working environment should be suitable for individuals so they can function properly. The penalty actually leads to frustration and de motivation. So, the only way to motivate the employees is to keep on making positive changes in the external environment of the organization.
In order to make the employees work better in the organisation, the officials should take necessary step to ensure that the employees are given proper motivation in the organisation. There are various techniques for motivation.
In real life, it is very difficult sometimes to face a situation. There may be lot of hindrances in front of accomplishment of a task.
If you are looking for a good motivated team that has not given up their work, looking for greener pastures, but contribute significantly to your company, the following tips to each member of your team.
CREATE QUALITY TIME BASED ON PURPOSE TO ACCOMPLISH
There are certain thinks which must be accomplished in the first step like:
A clear distinction should be made between the quality time and quantity time.
The quality time should be set in short intervals of time rather than yearly review. It means that the time assigned for a particular work should be review in short intervals rather than on a yearly basis, so that the deviations can be corrected in the earlier stage itself.
All the team members in the group should know each other and one to one relationships.
The supervisor should have the access to the job being carried out properly and in the same way as insisted. The understanding of job results should be the same.
In addition, portrays relating to people and their willingness to help formal and informal. Quality time spent will also provide suggestions and ideas of the team, so it will be better able to explain the vision and mission of the organization. Put it all together is a good motivator.
PROVIDE FEEDBACK AND COACH
The supervisor of the team should give proper feedback of the work done by the employees in the organisation. It is the duty of the supervision to tell every individual when the employees perform well and also the supervisor should be bold enough to say when the performance is below expectation. It is highly essential that the team members are being paid for their extremely good services. This will always be a stimulated happiness among the team member for a long time as a motivation. The manager should have the quality to criticize the team members in a constructive manner with love.
In this step, the consideration is given to empowerment section. Empowerment is concerned about the application of knowledge, experience and additional encouraging power is more news in your town. The manger should bring a feel of optimism in the minds of the team members. So that the team members can rethink in the times when they have not achieved their cause either with their fault or some other reason.
Leadership is the management function which deals with the process of providing directions to the subordinate to achieve the organizational goals. There are different types of leader with different styles and approaches. Leadership style differs from each leader to leader. Kurt Lewin was the man behind to identify and put forth different styles of leadership. Leadership style is the way of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people in the organization.
There are three major styles of leadership:
Authoritarian or autocratic
Participative or democratic
Delegative or Free Reign
While excellent leaders make use of all 3 styles, with one of them usually leading, the bad leaders be likely to attach with individual style.
Autocrats are the leaders who are authoritarian in their nature. They want the thinks to be done as per their wish and will. This style is suitable when:
Proper information is there to solve the problem
When there is limitation of time.
The employees are well motivated.
These are the conditions where autocratic style of leadership is mostly suitable.
Authoritarian style is usually used only rarely. If you have time and want to get more commitment and motivation of employees, you should use the participative style.
Participative style as the name insists is the leadership style where the leader including one or more employees is included in the decision making process. They collectively determine what to do and how to do it. But leader maintains the final decision making authority. In this style the employees get respect and are motivated.
This is usually used when it is part of the information, and employees are elsewhere. Please note that the director is not expected to know everything - this is the reason for hiring a competent and qualified worker. The use of this style is of mutual benefit - it helps them to become part of the team and can make better decisions.
Delegative (free reign)
In this leadership style, decision making is made by the employees. The leader is responsible for the decision so made by the employees. This style is used when the employee are able to analyze the situation and identify the needs and wants of the project. The employees are well experienced to face any situation which comes in their way.
Based upon the information's regarding the leadership styles following interpretations can be formed:
Authoritarian style is mostly suitable for a new employee who has just started his career and is learning the job. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. In this situation a well experienced manager is suitable to guide the new employee where he can exercise his authoritarian style of leadership.
Participative style suite where a team of employees know their work. The leader knows the problem and the employees know their job and they want to be the part of the team.
Free reign leadership style is suitable where the employees know more about the job and the leader cannot has less information about the work to be done. The employees have to take the ownership of the work. This styles allows the leader to do other important works.
Organizations can adopt different theories in the organizations depending upon the nature of employees and the work culture prevailing in the organization. Apart from the motivational theories, leadership styles are also important for the successful completion of the work. Thus, in order to motivate the employees the managers can use different styles or the combination of leadership styles.
Organizations should adopt different motivation theories to ensure that all the employees at work place are free to do the work. The work culture prevailing in the organisation should be well adopted by the employees. Apart from motivating the employees the leaders of the work team should ensure that the work has been clearly assigned clearly to the employees. The employees must understand their responsibilities towards the work. For this leaders can adopt different leadership styles based upon the type of employees in the organization. To accomplish a work in the organisation the employees should know clearly what is worth and what not. There responsibility must be clear. The leaders should adopt different strategies as mentioned above to retain a good climate in the organisation.