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Endowment of MIS training program to all employees of the AG Office with vision that it can be rightly the most modern, computerized, technically sound among the government organizations. MIS training program can improve the performance of employees, but the senior staff of AG office who have been working manually, using traditional big ledgers to maintain the employees' record for more than 40 years. The majority of senior staff does not have knowledge of computer and prepared all relevant record of employees including pay-slips, GP fund balance sheet, history of service statements, and Last payment certificate manually or by hand without using technology, though the newly introduced program SAP assists them but due to the lack of computer knowledge they are reluctant to use SAP. Since SAP has introduced in AG office in 2003, pilot study in this organization has given positive response, and it is able to connect all governments department with centralized record of all functional areas, though proper training program has also in schedule but senior staff don't take interest and as result employees performance is still stilt, MIS proper program to newly recruited employees can enhance the their performance.
Information technology can enhance the employee performance, previously discussed by William Lehr, Frank R Lichtenberg, (1996). In his paper "Computer Use and Productivity Growth in Federal Government Agencies, 1987 to 1992, NBER", He examined the usage of computer (I.T) and their effect on productivity growth (which can be considered as employee performance) for a sample of federal government agencies over the period from 1987 to 1992. The same study is the best alternative to AG office study; both are government department with generalization of problem. Willian Lehr and Frank used 44 federal agencies on the growth in per capita computer assets and colleted data from marketing research, and shown the effect of computer intelligence on growth.
William Lehr, Frank R Lichtenberg, (1996) the selected agencies have become more powerful in production, have reduced cost, effectively grown in the distribution system by using computer. They estimated the government services and the output elasticity as 0.06 in term of performance after using computers; they manipulated and interpreted the result that computers significantly contributed in output growth of these government agencies.
The AG office senior staffs' members are reluctant to use computer and SAP, the same was discussed by Thomas Zwick, (2000), Empirical determinants of employee resistance against innovations. Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW), in his study he expressed that employees' resistance tends negatively to innovation & technology, and declared it a dangerous phenomenon; in addition he presented a broad theoretical literature on its determinants. Thomas used a German firm with employees resistant against innovations, He also correlated the option of employees with employees resistance in innovation including technology and computer, employees at large firm usually gaining and taking competitive advantages by its core competence, to reduce cost and price. But employees with smaller firm or operating on small level with using computer software and technology are consulting with lower employee resistance. Thomas focused in his study on change management of the firm or union activities to estimate employee's resistance against innovation and computer technology.
The similar study was conducted by Hasan Fauszi, Azhar Abdul Rahman, (2008)., The role of control system in increasing corporate social performance: the use of levers of control, college of business university Utara Malaysia, used Controlling system by involvement of technology, in theoretical frame, they build relation between organization performance with control system that is the important instrument for strategic behaviour or organizational performance. Paper discusses how control system, using Simons' levers of control can play important role in increasing the corporate social performance. He also related other variables with control system, that includes belief system, and interactive control system, as well as the corporate financial performance (CFP) can affect the corporate social performance (CSP), belief system, boundary system, diagnostic control system with technology or computer. As it is shown in figure 1.
Hasan Fauszi, Azhar Abdul Rahman, (2008) further depend the above diagram with great detail.
William Lehr, Frank R Lichtenberg, (1996) used the study of Robert Solow's who suggested that the economic impact of computers on employee performance, which has focused on the work and "information productivity paradox". William referred (Griliches, 1994) that good and valid information are scare in organization without used of computer and information technology.
Hasan Fauszi, Azhar Abdul Rahman, (2008), theoretical tested that corporate social performance can be enhanced by the lever of control system. He explain the concept of corporate performance with three dimensions i.e. three Bottom Line including Environment, social and finance by controlling system. And the use of such system using technology can guide organizational people,
Hasan Fauszi, Azhar Abdul Rahman, (2008) recommended in his study that organization new process, methods and alternative should be based on sustainable performance that can be measured by controlling system. The search word he used for new ways or method and alternatives. The people or organizational employees who's performance is supposed to be measure taking into account with the three factors, than can be used as instrument to cope with in interactive system by finding new strategies and methods to be realized. Theoretically, as variables are taken as the use of the levers of control, that increases corporate social performance by controlling the corporate socially responsible strategy and the people's strategic behaviour in a organization. And last Hasan Fauszi, Azhar Abdul Rahman, (2008) concluded his study that using the levers of control system for measurement will prevent from inconsistent and paradoxical situation and it also lead to the balanced and managed corporate performance of the organization in terms of financial (monitory) and non monitory or non financial and in terms of different people related to organization which clearly exhibit that not only the shareholders.
William Lehr, Frank R Lichtenberg, (1996) in his study accurately measuring quality adjusted output level of employee services is extremely hard and difficult. This problem is faced by staff and especially acute for computers because of the rapid and fast pace of innovation in information technology and the fact that computer and the services they support often contribute only indirectly to final level of output in production that facilitate to measure the performance. Moreover, William observed that computers has been used everywhere, but they still represent only a tiny fraction of capital stock. Thomas Zwick, (2000), in theoretical determinants (in his study) of employees resistance against innovation, the employees behaviour has been proven by literature work, they reveals resistance when technological changes and worker relations are redesign, this was proven in his study by identification and review of previously developed hypothesis, that postulate that technological change always requires two main negative economic effects on employees and organizational performance. Firstly innovation change requires financial efforts in training and adoption cost from the employees.
William Lehr, Frank R Lichtenberg, (1996) as mentioned early the best alternative for the AG office study because of presenting and has shared a public sector in his study, initial evidence that private where employee performance does matter, in private sector experiences with computers is essential in nature. He mentioned the growth in real output and compensation and reward per employee (to individual) and data from a private market research firm (regarding government sector) on the growth in computer assets for the period 1987-1992. The collected information by William reveals that computer use increased dramatically over the study period. The median value statistics regarding the market research, is of computer assets per employee increased 5% per annum, and there was a strong trend towards increased reliance on distributed systems based on PCs and terminals per employee grew at 53%, 40% and 23% per annually, respectively for the mentioned period , William had found that increased computerization contributed and involvement positively to productivity growth i.e. the employee performance, even though growth in output per worker or employee was disappointingly low, averaging 0.2 % per annum.
Thomas Zwick, (2000) estimation based on "Mannhiem innovation panel in the sector, who collected data from 2500 managers in German service firm. The innovation goals purpose is increasing the efficiency an output level or employee performance. Though this study doesn't directly apply on computer usage but the goals were associated with innovation that certainly affects the employee's performance because innovation includes information technology.
William Lehr, Frank R Lichtenberg, (1996) information on the growth in productivity and computer assets for a subset of U.S, federal agencies over the period 1987-1992, The productivity data or the relevant information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' (B.L.S) Federal Productivity Measurement Program. Since 1967, the BLS is responsible for compilation of output and employees reward and compensation indices for share or undertaken activities taken by federal government, this program is monitor and control with the help of computer since 1992, and the William study covered 276 government organizations (non governments institution) and out of which are part of 60 Federal or government agencies representing almost 65% of executive branch employment.
William Lehr, Frank R Lichtenberg, (1996) he mentioned The BLS analysts, who usually took great care defining and clarifying the real output of employees for the government organizations which are included in their study or survey. Output measures were derived in close consultation with personnel in the target organizations and vary depending on the function of the organization, For example, output for the postal service is measured in term of performance as the growth rate in the volume, with different indices or price number for each type of mail and indices for the number "of money orders sold. For the government forest service department, output is measured for 28 (twenty eight) different activities including the acres managed for wilderness management with employees or the publications issued for forest research study all these activities and procedures are undertaken with help of technology and use of computer.
William correlated employee performance variables and the growth in compensation or reward per employee for firms was positively with the growth in employees performance by Computer usage and terminals per employee, and William interpreted his result and presented two sub groups included the description and summary of information ie employee performance by using computer and per capital requirement of computer and employee. He shown from 1987 to 1992 in his study period, the output per employee year grew at only 0.2 % per year while compensation per employee year grew 5,9 % for the agencies included in the survey.
Hasan Fauszi, Azhar Abdul Rahman, (2008), theoretical tested that corporate social performance can be enhanced by the lever of control system. He calculated and explain the concept of corporate performance with three dimensions i.e. three Bottom Line including Environment, social and finance by controlling system. And the use of such system using technology can guide organizational people.
In the study of Thomas, he included seven factors, mentioned electronic data processing firm face significantly less employees resistance than other organization. Therefore, if using computer, more formal communication channels should be adopt accordingly. The study factors explain employee opposition in the information set can be handled or divided into four categories.
The collected information by William reveals that computer use increased dramatically over the study period. The median value statistics regarding the market research, is of computer assets per employee increased 5% per annum, and there was a strong trend towards increased reliance on distributed systems based on PCs and terminals per employee grew at 53%, 40% and 23% per annually, respectively for the mentioned period , William had found that increased computerization contributed and involvement positively to productivity growth i.e. the employee performance, even though growth in output per worker or employee was disappointingly low, averaging 0.2 % per annum.
The above literature review shows that employees performance can be enhanced in any organization, using evidence this literature review the AG office staff or employees' performance can be enhanced.