Managing to support workplace diversity and reduce discrimination

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Introduction

Every individual is a unique. Even though people have things in common but they are also different in certain ways. Differences include visible and non-visible factors, for example, personal characteristics such as background, culture, personality, and work-style, size, accent, language and so on. A number of personal characteristics are covered by discrimination law to give people protection against being treated unfairly. The 'protected characteristics' are race, disability, gender reassignment, sex, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, religion and belief, sexual orientation and age.

According to social justice everyone should have a right to equal access to employment and when employed should have equal pay and equal access to training and development, as well as being free of any direct or indirect discrimination and harassment or bullying. This can be described as the right to be treated fairly, and the law sets minimum standards.

Diversity issues related to race, gender, age, disabilities, religion, job title, physical appearance, sexual orientation, nationality, multi-culture, competency, training, experience, and personal habits are explored in these links. The bias is toward valuing diversity. As we enter the new century of knowledge and technology where business have to be well equipped with diversified workforce. Companies are investing more on human resource not only for the sack of their development but in the selection process. The companies are in the war of catching knowledge or talent as different study shows the different employees (on the basis of gender, ethics and origins etc) are more fruitful than the homogenous group of people.

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Generally speaking, the term "Workforce Diversity" refers to policies and practices that seek to include people within a workforce who are considered to be, in some way, different from those in the prevailing constituency. In this context, here is a quick overview of seven predominant factors that motivate companies, large and small, to diversify their workforces:

Organizations can expect challenges from those who don't see themselves as part of "diversity." This will happen if one casts diversity primarily in terms of race, gender, ethnicity and sexual orientation. Besides the four previously mentioned primary equity-based groupings, an organization can prove that it is serious about workplace diversity, and not simply political correctness, by placing equal emphasis on a realistic variety of diversity dimensions, such as age, marital and parental status, education, personality type, communication style, etc. The emphasis needs to be communicated that everyone is part of the diverse workforce.

There will be resistance if the amount of time devoted to training, education and other diversity Interventions is seen as taking away from what some would refer to as "real work," especially if allowances aren't made for time spent away from the job. Telling someone that he or she has to take a day to attend diversity training, but that there won't be any slack on work deadlines, is a good way to breed resentment toward the entire effort.

The best defense against resistance to an examination of diversity is education, but not limited to the classroom variety. Leaders throughout the organization, not just those in Human Relations, must help everyone in the workforce grasp this concept. If Company A has developed systems, procedures, policies and a culture that allows employees from a variety of backgrounds to contribute productively, and Company B's systems, etc., seem to work only for certain types of people, Company A's is most likely going to perform better. An increasing number of organizations use a very broad definition of diversity and use the word "inclusion" to place the emphasis on commonality rather than difference. However, changing an organization to adapt to a more diverse workforce requires changing culture, systems, behaviors and more. This takes time. And it takes realistic expectations and broad inclusion.

Nothing converts skeptics like success. Demonstrating strong performance while building an organization that manages a diverse workforce helps convince the doubters and cynics that managing diversity, which we could simply call "managing reality," is a smart business strategy.

Social Aspect

The main advantage of work force diversity is for all those people who are not having good HR practices in their own country. So altimetry it becomes the social responsibility of the firm to provide benefit for all those people who are deprived at their own place. With the help of diversification we are able to give the best of living and earning to the master minds that are fruitful for the business.

Economic Aspect

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There is another advantage of using diversified work force in the economy, all the people who are not employed in work place become dependent of tax. But by using the diversification we are able to make the tax users the tax payers.

Importance as a Resource

Just two decade ago it was too hard to engage the diversified human resource in the organization. But not we are having people hailing from different ethnic background and form different religion having different living condition and experience working at a single place, such a power mix work force can be very handy resource for any organization. All the leading companies of the world do not rely on the work discrimination in the law making on the bases of the demographic difference of workforce the main idea is to encourage the talent irrespect of its origin..

Legal Aspect

Another aspect of workforce diversification is the legal requirement to run the business. Many countries have adopted the laws which are to implement the non discriminatory HR policies. For example equal opportunities for male and female Asians and European nationals.

Marketing Aspect

Now as days the business are more market oriented and this orientation is based on global aspect. As most of MNC are making product for different type of buyers like ethnicities, races, ages, abilities, genders, sexual orientations, etc. in order to catch this competitive edge companies are considering the diversified work force as they will be having a detailed insight in to their origin for grapping their regions market.

Business Communications Strategy

Multinational companies have to communicate worldwide so diversified workforce is handy for communication with external parties. They may be vender or distributor supplier or transporter for the companies. So heterogeneous workforce is more liked then the homogeneous workforce for effective and efficient communication.

Holistic Approach

As a holistic approach the business world has been changed tremendously in this century. So all the companies who want to be in business for being effective to solving problems and effective production, screening the market, adopting the changes of the external work, the business needs the dynamic, talented, educated, sharp, innovative, entrepreneurial workforce. Change is the norm in the business climate of the 21stcentury. Companies that prosper have the capacity to effectively solve problems, rapidly adapt to new situations, readily identify new opportunities and quickly capitalize on them. This capacity can be measured by the range of talent, experience, knowledge, insight, and imagination available in their workforces. In the selection of the employees the best companies also keep changing their job requirements in terms of abilities experiences and education as status quo will leads to the static performance. Whatever the reason is it the company adopts the diversified workforce it will become it competitive edge otherwise it has to suffer a lot.

According to UK law related to diversify work force the firms should considerations following justice with employees.

Organizational Justice

Organizational justice refers to employee perceptions of fairness and historically begins with the work of Adams on equity theory. Equity theory is the historical root of organizational justice. According to Adams a man suffers from cognitive dissonance when things do not go in the manner as he expected. It predicts that individuals are motivated by the perception of in equity. The theory states that men and women are in a continual and never ending state of social comparison with a referent group of individuals. The Adams traditional theory assumes that responses to injustices are more dynamics in form and entail a need to reduce that level of distress or dissonance created by the inequitable state.

Individuals constantly measure their perceived inputs and their outcomes as a ratio in comparison to a referent individual. Adams defines the inputs in social exchange as qualities and characteristics that a person possesses such as age, seniority, social status education, effort, ability or skills etc. The outcomes are defined as items or privileges received in social exchange such as rewards money, increased status, authority or enjoyable work/assignments/duties. Any inequity produces two different social behaviors such as if an individual perceives inequity because his inputs far exceed his outcomes or vice versa one may expect that anger or guilt will follow identified three dimensions of organizational justice. These are distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice. The marketing and management disciplines have traditionally distinguished among three types of justice: distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. Recently, argued that this traditional three factor model of justice is better conceptualized as four different types of justices. He suggested that in addition to distributive and procedural justice, interactional justice be split into two distinct types of justice: interpersonal justice, defined as the fairness of interpersonal treatment provided during the enactment of procedures and distributions of outcomes, and informational justice, defined as the fairness of explanations and information.

Distributive justice

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Individual's cognitive evaluation regarding whether or not the amounts and allocation of rewards in a social setting are fair. In simple terms, distributive justice is one's belief that every one should get what they deserve. Thus it is the fairness of distributions or allocations of rewards. Employee's perceptions of distributive justice are related to desirable outcomes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, turnover, and performance.

Distributive justice is the perceived fairness of outcome allocations, and is typically evaluated with respect to the equity of those outcome distributions. This research demonstrates that the perceived distributive justice of complaint handling positively affects customers' reactions, including satisfaction with the encounter, outcome satisfaction, satisfaction with complaint handling, repatronage intentions, overall satisfaction/return intentions, and perceptions of fairness, and decreases negative word-of-mouth

Procedural justice

Procedural justice is concerned with the fairness of the procedure used to make a decision. For example, a pay raise may be based on a sales representative selling more units of a product. Some co-workers may consider this procedure to be unfair, believing management should instead base pay raised on dollar volume. This conclusion may be reached because selling 10 products for a low amount of money each contributes very little to company profits and they are at the same time, easier to sell, selling high priced products may take much longer to finalize, but the profits garnered for the company are also higher. In this case, it is not the outcome in dispute which is the amount of the pay received, instead, it is the perceived justice (fairness) of the procedure used to reach the outcome. It is the exchange between the employee and the employing organization used a Meta analysis approach for data analysis and found that the employee perceptions of procedural justice can be related to all the desirable organizational outcomes argued that procedural justice could be a better predictor of job performance as compared to distributive justice. Furthermore, procedural justice is considered important particularly to successfully implementing organizational changes.

UK legislation related to diversity management

Before 1970 there were no statutory regulations of the employment relationships in UK .Then health and safety, equal pay, sex and race discrimination, and unfair dismissal legislations were introduced some of them have been introduced recently.

disability discrimination law(1997)

work time regulations (1998)

the national minimum wage (1999)

new maternity regulations (1999)

parental leave and family emergencies (1999)

trade unions representation at disciplinary and grievance hearings(2000)

new trade union recognition procedures (2000)

Conclusion

The management of diversity can be adapted to much various types of environments of work and to be integrated in much various types of styles of management. To promote the recognition and the acceptance of diversity between the employees can transform a hostile workplace atmosphere or an atmosphere which welcomes people who can communicate and support freely each other with any task associated with work. The practical application of the diversity management increase productivity dramatically.

One of the principal advantages of a strong program of the management of diversity is that it tends to encourage the development of abilities and individual talents between employees. Individuals who feel that they cannot move ahead in the company being given the factors like race, type or sexual discrimination. When this arrives, the employees start with the evaluated feeling and are more been willing to walk out of their zones of comfort and to raise their ability and benefit the department, the company as a whole and the individual also.

To put a program of management pursuant to diversity it is not successfully a task of night. Although the UK government has introduced various legislation to control the discrimination of the place of work in the bases of the type, the age and the incompetence in the last decade but it is difficult to change the public opinion. The owner can still explode with the employees at the time of recruitment and the drive. Often, the process to support an atmosphere of the work which accepts more catches time and the care. But with patience, the hour, and the efforts structured to inform of the employees, a policy of management of diversity and a program will make possible an enormous difference in the communication between employees and the general productivity of the department.