The present market scenario suggests the urgency of developing highly refined and well defined strategies for the improved business performance in its all operating domains. Here, the whole report enlightens the importance and need for quality HRM strategies and further its implications in the business world. The soul of any business lies in its loyal employees and customers. So, it is highly essential to focus on managing, motivating and empowering the employees for yielding desired outputs. The new formulated HRM strategies will help the business to earn profit promising a sustainable future.
Here in this report, the Aretalgni Inc. organization has been thoroughly studied and future strategies were created. The economic factors were analyzed and key international drivers were identified in order to understand the impact and influence of these factors on HRM strategy. Finally, certain frameworks were followed for setting up goals for improved employee commitment, flexibility and strategic integration. Various cultural issues are also taken into consideration while developing the new HRM strategies for Aretalgni Inc.
KEY ECONOMICAL DRIVERS
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Emiratisation Policy: The quota system sets a mandatory rule that a certain percentage of emirates to be recruited. Despite this system a 10% of Emiratis resign jobs from private sector annually due to low wages, lack of training, lack of development opportunities, negative stereotyping and lack of trust between employees and employers. This makes finding of suitable candidate in private sector difficult.
An estimated 2, 50,000 Emiratis are reported to enter the labour market by 2020. The government encourages the private sector to employ them (www.uaeinteract.com).
Since UAE being a Muslim country, it addresses to strict Muslim values (e.g. dress code, body language etc.). Dubai government promote equal opportunity for everyone and make sure it is practised. English is commonly used in the business. However, Arabic is dominant in all government offices and official paperworks(visa, certificates).
Dubai is a highly developed city with a lot of technical advancement. Broadband penetration is relatively high. State of the art technology is used in terms of business and government functions (www.uaeinteract.com)
Dubai Purpose Built Zones: Since the establishment of purpose built zones, a number of educational institutions have opened institutions in Dubai. The number of students arriving Dubai for educational purposes are increasing dramatically (www.uaeinteract.com).
IMPACT OF KEY ECONOMICAL VARIABLES ON NEW HRM STRATEGY
The effect of these above mentioned economical key drivers can be quite tricky while the company is planning to expand its business into new territories. Many of the regional reforms and other criteria's have to be taken into consideration and perfect risk management analysis has to be carried out for ensuring high functionality of the designed strategies.
From the economic analysis carried out, one could clearly understand that all these countries are very fragile in its tradition and Aretalgni Inc. should take into consideration of their lifestyle and social routines. Highly critical areas like,
(a)Language (b) Dress code (c) Academic year timings (d) culture/ tradition etc are having a huge impact in the business particularly in these countries.
Human resource management deals with the people dimension in an organisation. Human resource makes sure that they select the right people, develop their skills, motivate and monitor their performance so as to achieve the goals of an organisation (Decenzo.A.D and Robbins.P.S : 1999). The activities of human resource management include:
Recruitment and Selection
Learning and development
Performance management (Beardwell and Claydon: 2010)
Recruitment and selection will be mainly focused on the host country nationals. As the government encourages the private sector to meet up with the growing job demands, it is quite an encouraging factor for the companies which are planning to expand their business into countries like Brazil, Taiwan, Dubai, India etc. However talented individuals will be recruited based on their experience internationally. Expatriates will be brought from the parent country to initiate activities based on vision and mission. These experienced expatriates will bring adequate knowledge and personal experience into the new work environment. Also, it will be a great platform that these expatriates could learn new things from the alien country in which the business is planning to operate. Another major benefit in bringing these experienced personnel can be seen as the efficiency in with which the new employees will get trained. Partnering with recruitment agency and advertising will attract suitable individuals. Geocentric staffing will be adopted to develop an international executive team. It is found that the IHRM literature uses different approaches to manage their staffs and subsidiaries. The most prominent attitudes among the international executives are seen to be (a) ethnocentric (b) polycentric (c) geocentric (Dowling J.P et al: 2008).
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Geocentric approach can be termed as the method by which a company give a global approach to its operations and recognises the importance of each subsidiary unit's unique contributions. Here in this geocentric concept nationality is highly ignored and the businesses mainly trust on individual performances and ability. The major advantages of using this model are,
Brings people close to one another.
It supports cooperation and resource sharing across individual units.
The human resource will be using the contingency model to effectively adopt a strategy that will help in the growth of the organisation.
(Dowling J.P et al: 2008).
Recruiting the right individual who meets the business needs
Performance is directed towards organisational objectives
Continuous monitoring of performance and provide feedback and appraisal will improve the productivity of the individual.
This approach will also help in developing the knowledge skill and attitudes of the employees
AMO framework is adopted to ensure the policies and procedures are adopted in such a way that the individual has the ability and the opportunity to perform. It is crucial that the adopted policies should be empowering for the employees. This will help the management to continuously review the organisational culture and structure, the policies and practices (CIPD: 2011). This framework will also help the management to make sure that the policies and procedures adhere to the host country rules and regulation.
The main aspects of the HRM strategy are people, programs, culture, structure and development (Armstrong, 2008). All these above mentioned variables have to be spot on for yielding the desired outcome. The associated and non-associated people with the organisation will be selected only on the basis of talent and personal competencies. Certain team will be setup for analysing the perfect candidates for the job. The program conducted will be strictly based on the schedules and effective and intensive training will be given to all staffs in order to meet the daily routines of the organisation efficiently. A general training for the overall working of the organisation is given to all employees prior to the normal start up. Cconfined and professional training will be given to each employee in context to the department in which they are assigned to work. It is highly necessary to maintain the relationship between each variable inside an organisation. Various cultures gel together under one roof and it is quite vital these cultures go hand in hand without any disagreements. So, special care has to be taken into consideration for enabling the practices of respecting each other's culture and practices. As the organisation is following multicultural team and geocentric staffing approach, each team member is benefitted and much importance is acquired on an individual basis. The structure for the university and the international commerce organisation will be designed same as the Aretalgni Inc. The top down structure will be followed and each individual will be assigned / designated with certain roles. Also, a head will be nominated for each department for the smooth working of the organization.
ISSUES THAT WILL INFLUENCE THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HRM STRATEGIES
When transferring expatriates for the smooth functioning of the business, there are certain factors that should be considered by the human resource:
Selection: The top management will select the expatriates based on the skill sets and performance.
International taxation policy: tax liberalisation will be done in order to make sure that the expatriate is not subject to taxation in both parent country and host country.
International relocation and orientation: All the arrangements required for pre-departure, providing immigration and travel details, providing accommodation, medical care and transportation facilities will be done in advance. Cultural training is also very important so as to ensure that the expatriate does not face any cultural shock.
Salary and allowances: There will be a remuneration package, which will be higher than the normal salary.
These procedures will be done in advance, as these are time-consuming steps. Additionally, language training will be given and also a translator will accompany the expatriate once when he reaches the organisation, for efficient communication. If the expatriate is married, the human resource has to take care of the family and provide schooling facilities for their children in the host country (Dowling.J.P: 2008).
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As the organisations mature, the number of expatriates and other employees from parent country also declines. This money, then can be utilised for recruitment and training of local staff. At this time, the human resource has to adopt measures for the host country employees to get promoted, as they are experienced. This will also create a sense of career development in employees (Dowling.J.P: 2008).
The new strategy also highlights the importance of aspects like working pattern, quality of working, performance appraisals etc.
Flexible working pattern is developed by the HRM team (Rugman, 2009) in this organisation and the variables like working style, pattern, time and place are strictly plotted (Shredwick and Ellis, 2005). The quality assurance team of the organisation will keep an eye on the normal working of the organisation and will evaluate the performance gradient. This will be reviewed on a regular basis and changes are made for yielding more satisfying results for the future. One thing which the strategies always demand is in regard to the employee recognition or the performance appraisal. The reward system will definitely bring in a feeling of self-belongingness within the organisation and push the employees to work more loyally and produce more results.
The importance of cultural awareness is quite phenomenal in the current vibrant business environment. Any business can be guided to failure due to the culturally insensitive attitudes and behaviours. These are mainly caused due to ignorance and misguided beliefs (Dowling J.P et al: 2008). So, it is quite vital to understand about various cultural aspects of employees working in an organisation and create room for comfort for each employee.
The culture of meeting, greeting, gift giving, appreciation all can create a great vibe inside the employee and all these factors can be seen crucial.
Taiwanese value a well-crafted message. When doing business in Brazil, business is seen as any other sort of social interaction. UAE's intercultural adaptability and readiness for change is minimal (Kwintessential, 2012). So, all these fragile factors need to be taken into consideration by the HRM team so as to bring in efficiency and sustainability to the organisation over the long run.
The key to success for any organisation or business lies in its well defined strategy. By setting up more tactically approached HRM strategy many of the flaws that could occur in its implementation are being eliminated. The real success of these strategies can be seen from the economic analysis. Effective and intensive training and other related activities had certainly helped the organisation to deliver more potential output. Here, in this whole report Aretalgni Inc. was thoroughly studied and stringent evaluation of all favorable and non-favorable factors was taken into consideration. Certain cultural issues and host country variables were also taken into account while setting up new HRM strategy for the organization. Further, a new HRM strategy was developed as a result for the effective and efficient working of Aretalgni Inc. which offers a sustainable future for the organization over the long run.
UNIT 2 - Human Resource Development
Training is a recurrent problem that society has, and it is trying to bridge. Organisations today are facing continuous change which can be of both internal and external environment. Thus, the learning principle has become a vital part of the strategy of an organisation in order to cope up with changing and challenging turbulence within the market (Millward, 2005). Every individual in an organisation is affected by training. It is within the responsibility of managers/ supervisors alongside with human resource department to make sure that the individuals has the right skills and competencies required to perform within their job description. It is also important to consider that, in an organisational environment training is the primary opportunity for learning. Evidence show that a company that invests and relies on training has heavily improved not only financially but also on people dimension. However, what is learned depends on many factors like, (a) design and Implementation of training (b) motivation and learning styles of the trainees (c) organisational learning climate (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010).
In order to implement a successful training program, a training process model proposed by Blanchard and Thacker (2010) has been used.
Training Need Analysis
Training need analysis helps in understanding the gap of organisation's expected performance and actual performance. It is also necessary to perform a need analysis before designing any training programme in order
To assure the time and money spend on training is precise.
to help in aligning the training strategy along with the organisational strategy to achieve certain set goals.
to understand an individual's learning style and motivation.
to develop an evaluation strategy to ensure the implemented training methods and programs are effective and efficient.
(Blanchard & Thacker, 2010)
The need analysis revealed that the technology implemented in the university is out-dated and uses a lot of information in printed format.
The International commerce business which the company acquired uses an out-dated Microsoft application for data mining.
Training and Development Strategy
Technological advancement over the years has changed the way in which the business operates dramatically. It has been proven that organisations that lack advanced technologies fall behind their competitors (Brown, 2011). It requires a committed and motivated work force to adapt to the fast changing and vibrant environment. So, being a learning organisation would be the effective strategy that addresses both need analysis and the expected performance of the organisation.
Features of Learning Organisation:
Continuous readiness and personal learning:
With respect to the changing external and internal environment, the individuals are ready to exploit the advantages and opportunities. He /she is also ready to acquire knowledge in various ways that helps in professional development and creation of innovative ideas.
Building a shared Vision:
It is within the utmost responsibility of both managers and human resource department that every employee works towards a common goal. They have to make sure that the vision of the organisation is distributed equally.
Team learning and learning from others:
Teams always tend to learn from external changes to accomplish their goals. Managers also have to make sure that a learning culture is nurtured, because learning through observing from the fellow colleagues is an important factor. It also helps in ensuring the relationship between each employee within the organisations learning environment.
Learning from experience and problem solving:
Managers should make sure that they push their employees consistently to new problems in order to develop their skills and innovative / creative thinking. The idea is relied by '' the more the experience the individual has the more the problem solving skill he/she possess'' (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010) (Brown, 2011)
ADDRESSING THE TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS:
While addressing the training need analysis, the university will be equipped with virtual educational techniques and procedures. It can be made possible through arranging training sessions for virtual media handling and other related whereabouts by calling experts from the virtual system and equipment providers. Theoretical and practical workshops will be enabled during the sessions to increase the competency level of employees throughout the training period.
The International commerce business lacked its efficiency in operation due to its out-dated software and the employees have to be trained and equipped to use Oracle to administrate and to do data mining in large databases. This can be done by arranging training sessions on oracle software by experts from the corporation's head office. This will in turn help to gel the international commerce with the organisation and further helps to stay in alignment with the whole databases.
Understanding Employee Motivation and Attitude towards Learning
In general, any job performance and behaviour of an individual is a function of what they know what they are able to do, and what they believe, i.e., knowledge, skills and attitude (KSA). However, additional factors are required to access the performance of an individual which comes directly as a result of training. The following performance model describes how an individual's learning is linked to his performance and how it is facilitated.
Human Performance Model
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P = M * KSA * E
Approaches towards Learning
With the aid of the above performance model, motivation comes from peer support. Therefore, a cognitive approach will be suitable because the learner itself is directed and is being self-evaluated. The individual learns through task oriented activities. According to social learning theory developed by Albert Bandura, '' a learner learns by observing'' i.e., the individual cognitively processes the information by observing and leads to changes in behaviour. This change has a higher likelihood of sustaining in the future (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010).
Talent management is the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement/retention and deployment of those individuals with high potential who are particular value to an organisation either in view of their high potential for the future or because they are fulfilling business roles (CIPD, 2007). Talent management is an idealistic strategy to address the training need analysis. Talent management process involve,
Identifying Talent: Finding the right individual with the right attitude and skill who can be developed by providing successful training.
Attracting Talent: This is achieved in the long run by creating a learning culture where an employ can develop his knowledge, skill and attitude within the organisation.
Developing Talent: Making sure that the right training is provided to the employees combined with leadership development and succession planning.
Managing or Engaging Talent: It is crucial that these developed talents are engaged properly within the goals and team work of the organisation. This can be carried out through engagement surveys, rewards and performance appraisals. All these activities will feed in motivating these employees to perform. It also ensures that the employees are retained to the organisation by creating a sense of organisational citizenship.
Evaluating Talent: It is highly recommended that these developed employees are evaluated on a constant basis in order to match along with the expected performance of the organisation.
Evaluation strategy is necessary after any training program because
It proves that it has improved the knowledge of the trainees.
It helps in analysing the cost involved with the training.
In improving further training activities in the future.
Reinforcing the knowledge gained.
In order to measure the training program delivered, Kirk Patrick model of evaluation is taken into consideration.
Reaction: It is mainly based on the learners experience in relevance of the effectiveness and materials used in training
Learning: In this stage, a learner's knowledge skill and attitude is analysed based on,
Procedural knowledge: how and why the individual used the learned knowledge.
Strategic Thinking: The ability to use the newly acquired knowledge to accomplish task.
Compilation & automaticity: The ability and speed to use the new acquired knowledge at the right time and at the right moment
Attitude: The changes in individual before and after training
Behaviour: Observing the individuals behaviour at work, team participation towards colleagues.
Results: It is analysed by retention rate, job satisfaction etc
(Blanchard and Thacker, 2010).
Through the effective implementation of all these above mentioned evaluation methods and techniques, the training practises which are being carried out can be efficiently monitored and controlled.
NEW TRENDS IN EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENTS
360 Degree Feedback: The 360 degree feedback is simply a performance appraisal technique which gathers performance feedback of a particular individual from various sources like, customers, co-workers and self-assessment (CIPD, 2010). Thus, by receiving performance feedback from different units within the organisation, it helps to build relationships inside the organisation and also plays a vital role in the analysis of one's own performance. So, it can be seen as a best method for showing performance indication of a particular employee.
Career Development: '' Careers are normative that they are constraining and limit choices of action. But, careers are also cognitive in that they are understood, experienced and used (Evetts, 1996). Career has always been seen as an upward progression in a job publically. It is normally expressed with words like career ladder, promotion, demotion etc. (Millward, 2005).
The case study analysis has helped us to understand that, in the organisation it has got only little room for personal career development. It was widely seen as the local employees have no career progression within the organisation. These approaches can definitely de-motivate employees and restrict the organisation from employees being retained. Thus, the organisation has to take into consideration regarding the locally hired employees and create room for their career progression and development.
The implementation of new training and its variables can normally be associated with numerous risk factors. In order to manage these risks, proper assessment has to be carried out and plans have to be plotted in order to overcome these issues.
The Glass Ceiling: It can be normally seen as an image for an invisible barrier which prevents women and minority categories from moving up the corporate ladder (Blanchard and Thacker, 2010:413). It shows the intervention of training and development which further cause in limiting personal advancement within the organisation
Training workforce from different Cultures: Globalisation and technological advancements had resulted in bringing the world much more closely to each other. The involvement and participation of different cultured people inside an organisation only can result in great results. So, it is highly essential to conduct training for different culture to gel with each other and work smoothly.
Resistance towards Training: This can be seen as a major issue for many organisations as employees show resistance to learning and training. The fear of unknown and the dis-agreement to change from a usual and normal working procedure prevents the employees from taking part in training conducted by the organisation. The procedure and the way in which the organisation implants training are hugely essential. The training environment provided by the organisation thus holds the key. So, a positive learning climate has to be ensured by the organisation.
The whole brief explains the importance of training and learning within the organisation. The present issues faced by the organisation are being assessed through training need analysis and further it addresses the issues through the perfect implementation of training and learning procedures. The interventions recommended for supporting the growth strategy and future developments are quite phenomenal. All the associated employee development techniques and procedures are discussed for enabling the workforce to work with more harmony and co-operation. Further, it portraits the effectiveness of employee appraisals and career progression themes which helps in employee retention and loyalty. Finally, the risks and major issues which can act as a barrier for learning and development are identified and suitable measures are taken in order to resolve those issues. The incorporation of all these above mentioned factors is feasible and can provide the organisation with a sustainable and profitable future.
UNIT 3 - Managing Change in International Organizations
An organizational structure consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims (Pugh, D. S., 1990). Organisational structure is particularly important in developing policies and procedures and also decision making. Most companies either have tall or flat organisational structure depending on their size. The four main components that can be controlled effectively by having an efficient organisation structure are,
Communication (Vertical & Horizontal Integration)
Evaluating employee performance: An effective organisational structure allow managers / supervisors to better evaluate the work of their subordinates. i.e. evaluation is based on skills, knowledge, attitude, time management. Therefore, managers can also prepare semi-annual or annual performance appraisal.
Achieving Goals: A proper organisational structure ensures every individual is well aware of their immediate supervisor or whom they have to report to. For example, in the case of team work or when working towards a time frame.
Prevention / Solution: Having a better a structure helps in managing predictable/unpredictable changes happening within the internal and external environment of an organisation. For example, department heads and managers can work along with their subordinates and teams to come up with strategic solutions to meet up with the continuous changing trend.
(smallbusiness.chron, 2010) (npd-solutions, 2011) (the-business-plan, 2012)
Analysing organisational structure of Aretalgni Inc
The current organisational structure of Aretalgni Inc. is a strong top-down chain of command. With the current structure, the organisation has relatively high working stability for managers. However, there is little opportunity/room for employees to perform and progress. One of the reasons behind this rigid structure was that the top executive and the middle management consisted only of UK citizens, whereas operating staff are from the local countries where they hold their operations. This situation has further led to a belief in local employees that they have got no real career growth or progression. Thus the retention rate of employees in the organisation is very pathetic and thus the relative high rotation resulted in huge learning expenses.
New Organisational structure (Proposal)
For both the new businesses (University & International Commerce) that the organisation has acquired, the top-down management structure is followed. But the new proposed structure is lenient in its format and the employees get more importance and mobility on an individual basis. This particular structure will help in improving the productivity of the employees in the long run. During the analysis undertaken, it has been found that the top executive and middle management comprises of only UK citizens in all the countries in which the organisation held their operations. This is a major issue which will create dis-satisfaction among the local employees, simply because there is no career development and growth progression within the organisation.
The international commerce business which the organisation has undertaken lacked a formal organisation structure which then led to open power dispute and conflicts within the major decision makers. This in-turn has led the organisation to a chaotic environment where the employees developed independent procedures without any centralised co-ordination. By following a formal organisational structure similar to that of the parent company, this conflict can be resolved and a proper flow of working structure can be ensured (Brown, 2011).
Change and Resistance to Change:
''Change is an inevitable and constant feature. It is an inescapable part of both social and organisational life and we are all subject to continual change of one form or another'' (Mullins, 2010). This is because organisations are never static and also they don't exist in isolation. i.e., organisations are in continuous interaction with the external forces including governments, customers, competitors, suppliers, society and unions. Therefore ''call it whatever you like- re-engineering, re-structuring, transformation, flattening, down-sizing, right-sizing, a quest for global competitiveness- its real , its radical and its arriving every day at a company near you'' (Brown, 2011). Technology has made the world global and is also the basic tool to make every day work easier.
Resistance to change can occur from both Individual and organisational, despite its potential positive outcomes. It is often difficult to pin point the exact reason for resistance to change.
Some of the important factors that can lead to resistance from individuals are,
Inconvenience or loss of freedom.
Security in the past.
Fear of the unknown.
Organisational resistance occurs from
Investment in resources.
Past contracts or agreements.
Threats to power or influence.
The major resistance to change in this expansion programme will be from technology because the university primarily uses printed materials which are far beyond virtual media education. At the same time international commerce uses an out-dated Microsoft application for data processing. The suggested planned change is to introduce virtual learning software in the university and oracle for data mining in international commerce. The major factors that the top management need to consider while implementing a change is,
Create a sense of urgency: Make the university and international commerce employees understand the need for urgent change to cope with the external environment.
Build a guiding team: Select a group of people based on their skills and competencies to support the top management in initiating change.
Create vision: Create a vision which is clear, encouraging and one which fits to the organisations strategy. The orientation and focus of the company is more centred to customer.
Communicate: Explain the vision and strategy to every employee so as to create encouragement and a common goal.
Empower action: Remove any obstacles that will prevent any individual working towards the vision.
Produce short term wins: It is highly necessary for an organisation to set up short term, medium term and long term vision and strategies. It will help to break down the strategies into simple bits and piece and it can be also monitored through the short term achievements of these set goals.
Don't let up: It is very important to maintain high momentum and to create early changes to keep up with the motivational level.
Make changes stick: it is essential to create an enthusiasm within the employees and has to encourage to follow-up the new and improved organisational routines.
In order to minimise the resistance to change and successfully implement it, Technology acceptance model (TAM) is used
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, Bagozzi, Warshaw, 1989)
The adoption of new technology is determined by both external and internal variables. It is within the top management to ensure to facilitate proper training activities in order to make the employees understand the ease of use and usefulness of new technology. Once the individual perceives the ease of use and usefulness of the technology it will then act as a cognitive process which determines the actual attitude of using that particular technology. Finally, if a positive attitude is achieved it triggers the behavioural intention and actual use of the new technology. The model helps the top management to analyse the behavioural and attitude changes of an individual towards the acceptance of the technology.
Impact of changes
Policies, procedures and Management Investments will bring radical changes to any organisation. It is within the responsibility of the top management to implement these control measures keeping in mind that the employee productivity can be achieved at a higher rate. i.e., it is simply a cognitive process that can make an impact in an individual's behaviour and attitude, which determines his/her commitment. In order to make sure that all these policies are implemented and practised, whereby creating an encouraging environment for the employees, ability, motivation & opportunity (AMO) framework is taken into consideration.
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The AMO framework states that any related management investment and human resource management work policies and procedures have a crucial impact on the individual's ability, motivation and opportunity to perform. This framework can be used by top management to implement work policies, procedures and investment in the right way thereby creating space for individuals to perform based on their AMO which will then result in individual performance outcome.
Improving Organisational Performance:
All these above mentioned frameworks can be used for improving organisational performance to a greater extent. All these technological advancements may cause little resistance from both the individual and organisational context but the outcome of these changes can bring in tremendous result in terms of success to a particular business. Thus the value for employee appraisal and motivation is phenomenal. The factors that has a positive influence on an organisations performance has to be identified and plans has to be plot for further nourishing those variables. The performance variable for any organisation can be predicted by accessing certain variable such like,
By measuring the current performance factor of the organisation.
By the critical analysis of external environmental factors like (a) competitors (b) customers (c) technology etc.
By analysing the organisational AMO factor. (motivational factor)
By evaluating the overall capacity of the organisation in terms of its (a) Finance (b) HRM (c) Marketing etc.
Work Attitude and Individual Performance
Work Design: The experiments for implementing the perfect work design for a business being ongoing since ages. The inclusion of structural approach to a business can bring in credibility to the organisation and it enables to create so called work attitude. The autonomous and semi-autonomous structural designs will definitely increase the employee perception towards a particular job. Here, in this case of the organisation, a top-down organisational structure is followed and a centralised system is brought to the business for a transparent working practise.
Individual Performance: There are numerous factors which accounts towards an individual's performance. The factors like performance appraisal and motivation play a vital role and act as a catalyst to the performance. Normally, the payment increment, bonuses, perks etc. can boost individual to produce more outcome and perform more efficiently.
Even though we talked a lot many of the encouraging factors which favour the adoption of new technology and techniques, there are quite a number of risks associated with this change. The whole flow of the business can be disturbed and the momentum can be affected due to the impact of change occurring to the organisation. The effectiveness of the whole training is uncertain due to the uncertainty in the employee participation. The other area of resistance can be seen from the top managerial executives as bringing in change to organisation is such a mammoth task. Thus the lack of enthusiasm and initiatives can make the whole project a failure. The new proposal comprises of making the local employees getting promoted to the middle management. This can bring in a small crash within the internal executives and thus the new change can thoroughly go haywire. Thus, these factors also have to be taken into consideration before the organisation is set to kick-start a change.
The prime consideration was related to understanding the organisational structure. Then the major issues with the organisation were analysed. The factors like change and resistance to change were discussed and the common issues and ways through which these factors can be tackled were predicted. The major variable was seen as the inclusion of technology aided features to the organisational structure. Thus, the importance of technology acceptance model were discussed and further the basic AMO model for improving employee performance were keenly analysed and studied for producing better outputs. Further, the steps through which both the individual performance and organisational performance can be improved were discussed. The key success factor for effectively implementing the change and also the associated risk which can hamper the effectiveness of the training were also discussed.
Unit 4 - Managing the implementation of new technologies and working practices.
The International business environment is experiencing a fast paced change and the vibrancy has brought a great deal of innovative and refined outlook to its operations. A flexible pattern of thinking and behavior has to be adopted by the HRM department in order to sustain in the market with high profile competencies. "In our haste to encourage developing countries to make their HRM systems like ours, we have forgotten that there are some factors that differ and influence HRM in those countries" (Klinger & Campos, 2002). Thus, from the above mentioned quote, Klinger and Campos argue the importance of setting up different strategies and operational tactics for different countries and cultures. There arises the issue of conflicts within the organisation and in the business. There are many influential factors like organizational, national and cultural issues that influence HRM strategy. Thus it is quite vital for business to address these issues prior to its implementation. The ways through which these issues are been monitored and controlled for bringing in more productivity are discussed further below in the brief.
Roles and Responsibility (HRM Director)
He should act as the prime thread for all human resource operations.
He must co-ordinate all the management activities and has to be responsible for all senior level operations and decision making.
He must be responsible for all the daily HR activities and should have to track the strategic direction of the organization.
Develop and implement an annual agenda for HR strategy in line with the business plan.
He must be responsible for providing information regarding (a) staff turnover (b) price per hire (c) training hours per employee etc.
He must ensure that all training needs analysis and designs are implemented and an efficient training pattern is arranged.
He needs to maintain high quality relationship between all (a) staffs (b) recruiters (c) associates etc.
Ensure all policies and practices are properly followed.
He also has to ensure that each and every employee is recognized and employee appraisals are done at regular intervals.
Ensure payroll is completed accurately and to deadline.
He must provide room for individual performance, safety and health for the entire organization.
Roles and Responsibility (Staff)
Performance management and its further analysis through proper tracking.
Recruitment and logistical excellence.
Has to lay foundation for enabling employee orientation and its development.
Proper assistance to employee and maintain the relationship.
The whole functioning of the business in terms of communication.
Making sure that employee safety, welfare, wellness, and health of each member of the organization is handled with special care.
Co-ordination of HR affairs with the HR officials all along the branch of the organization.
Organizational, National and Cultural issues that influence HRM Strategy
It is quite evident that there is a direct link between cultural values and organisational behaviours. For example, norms of acceptable behaviour, type of conflict and various leadership styles can be seen as few of the conflicts which can arise inside and organisation. Therefore, it is very much important that all foreign employees must undergo training so as to gain some insights in order to understand the difference.
When an organisation goes international, there are various factors to consider by the human resource management of the parent company which will then help in developing a human resource strategy suitable for the host country. Some of the key major factors are cultural differences, business etiquettes etc. For example, shaking hands which is considered appropriate in western countries are simply not considered in eastern countries. i.e. a simple hand gesture which replicates 'Namaste' is ideal. Arab nations usually have Friday as their week holiday which contradicts the western nation, which is Sunday. For human resource management policies and procedures, all the cultural and national aspects should be taken into consideration. For example, while developing the dress code policy, it is appropriate that an Arab woman is allowed to wear only 'Burkha'. It is by the rule in the Arab nations that the working employees of an organisation to grant accommodation, food, and a mandatory 30 days leave for all employees working with any organisation. So it is the responsibility of the human resource management team to provide all these facilities to the employees who all are working with the organisation.
There are also lot many factors like (a) orientation (b) power (c) gender (d) Achievement.
Orientation: It is basically seen as the formation of two major groups inside an organisation. They are collective and individualistic. An individualistic oriented organisation will take care of only themselves and their primary group. The collective group can be seen as the orientation of the organisation where people trust one another and create a feel of loyalty among the individuals along the organisation. Here, the whole organisation is following a top-down order of command orientation which is good for the transparency of the operations.
Power: It is a dominant factor in every single organisation that, employees usually fight for their power dominance. It is vital to have an arranged power structure to the organisation thereby providing a systematic approach to all of the organisations operations. The business which the organisation had recently acquired is very poor in its power distribution and there are many power conflicts within the business operational levels. The new proposal must take this factor into account and should reduce internal misalignment.
Gender: The new generation is operating in such a way that it gives equal importance to all genders. Both the masculine and feminine characteristics are encouraged and appreciated. The international commerce and the university acquired will maximise the blend of gender into the business
The Human Resource Management Model
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As it can be inferred from the diagram shown below, a human resource management model has been explained. All the individual sections in the HRM management model are inter-connected. All the planning processes are done prior to the commencement of recruitment and selection. After recruitment, it is vital to socialise with the whole environment and each individual of the organisation. This will lead to the initial performance of the employees. Then, there a lot many factors like employee appraisal, rewarding which will in-turn increase the performance factor by a great deal. Thus, monitoring can be done by the HRM for effective and efficient implementation of the all the pre-planned work practises.
While proposing any strategy relating selection, many factors need to be taken into consideration. One needs to check the feasibility and flexibility of the selection procedures and the associated programmes. It also has to check the major flaws that can happen while selecting the recruitment policies. Another major factor which is highly sensitive is the factor called culture. So, the whole organisation has to be tuned into a global platform where every culture is respected and treated as equal. Thus, socialisation has a lot to offer to the modern organisations. As a result of this, a new dimension in business has been formed. There are four forms of work organisation.
Central Orientation: A central orientation can be characterised by a strict division of tasks, many hierarchical layers, and a distinction between several activities concerning personnel, financial and communication matters (European Foundation, 2001). Here in this particular work format decisions are taken only at the top of the organisation.
De-centralised Organisation: Unlike from the centralised system, here the work is organised and distributed in a team like structure. The major decisions are taken by the combined effort of the whole team members. Major flaws and in-competencies are met at the shop floor.
Human factor orientation: It is normally measured as the degree of concerns that a management shows while taking organisational decisions in compliance with the organisations workers and their knowledge as the essential component. Based on the degree of dimension an organisation shows it is further classified into (a) high human factor orientation (b) low human factor orientation
If we take the essence of all these above mentioned work organisational structure, it can be further classified into (a) Taylorism (b) Human relations (c) Lean production (d) Socio-technology
Taylorism: Here, in this particular model the emphasis is given fully on the efficiency and productivity. For the purpose of achieving efficiency and productivity, the work lump sums are usually are divided into small and narrowly defined tasks. The Taylorism model can be characterised by a central orientation and a low human factor orientation.
Human Relations: Here in this model, a lot of emphasis is given for individual inside the working environment. Productivity in human relations work model is normally seen as the integral of motivation, work appraisal, social relation among and within the workforce. Here the worker needs and wants are taken into consideration while decisions are taken at the top. Thus, the model characterises by a high human factor orientation but with a central orientation.
Lean Production: The term lean production is generally associated with recent market needs like quality, flexibility and innovativeness. The model often highlights the need of efficiency combined with flexibility. Lean production is an attempt to reduce impediments to the smooth flow of production through continuous improvements in productivity and quality, just-in-time (JIT) systems and elimination of wasted time and motions (Landsbergis et al., 1999). Thus lean production model is a decentralised model with low human factor orientation due to its low human regards within the work environment.
Socio-technology: Here in this model, all the factors like (a) quality of work (b) flexibility (c) productivity are taken into account. The group basically keep its basics on achieving flexibility through more complex task performed by autonomous work groups those are entitled to make business / managerial decisions. Thus the Socio-technology model can be characterised by a decentralised orientation and a high human factor orientation.
Thus, by incorporating and applying the best of all these models into the working pattern and culture of the organisation, the business achieves high level of flexibility, quality, efficiency and productivity. The work dimension of the Aretalgni Inc will be designed and crafted in such a way that there is lot of room for individual performance and thereby ensuring high productivity rate. The organisation will be more inclined towards a centralised working pattern with high human relations factor orientation.
Impact on working conditions and Health
''Organisational policies can only influence productivity outcomes if they are supportive of the organisational model'' (McDuffie, 1995). Human resource policies can often protect workers from high physical demands. Social human resource policies thus can be seen as a representative for variables like work organisation and health and safety outcomes. Some of the measures that can help in improving the health and safety conditions in an organisational level are by,
Decreasing Job Demands
Occupational Health Policy
Supportive Leadership Style
Increasing Control Options
Training / Information Management / Participation programmes
Hiring of skilled employees
Stress Management Programmes
Time Management Programmes
Organisation has to check the compatibility before migrating and after migrating data.
The employees should involve in learning new technology (Training).
The employees should be trained before implementing new technologies.
In order to excel and outplay in the present competitive market, organisations have focus on a better organisation of work at the workplace through exhibiting variables like skills, trust and quality. From the whole brief and analysis it was quite evident that the culture and the organisational work model plays a vital role for the success and productivity of any business. The importance of training and its impact in business is quite phenomenal. The functionality of having a quite structure organisational work model is highly highlighted all along the brief. For achieving high productivity and turnover the organisation was recommended to follow a centralised working pattern with a high human relation orientation. This high human relation orientation of the organisation will bring in credibility and thereby enable the whole business to glue together effectively and help to progress towards an efficient working environment. Some of the ineffective practises are overcome through the recommended practises and the negative impacts in the business can bring to minimal level. Thus, the work can be managed efficiently and effectively for a sustained future in the current vibrant market.