Managing Individual Performance In A Workforce


Now days companies are trending to re-organize their workforce into teams. With this inevitable trend, managers have to pay more attention to the way they form the teams.   These team   have brought empowerment and competitiveness to the companies, making this trend a very desirable one.   Managers are using techniques like MBTI and the Maslow¡¦s Hierarchy to ensure optimal productivity within the group.   This paper intends to demonstrate the outcome of the simulation Managing Individual Performance and the way that these two techniques were used to get to this outcome.  

Project teams are the most important work structures for the business life. The success of these teams is highly dependent upon the people involved in the project team. This makes the project team selection an important factor for project success. The project team selection can be defined as selecting the right team members, which will together perform a particular project/task within a given deadline.

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Castka et al.(2001) also suggest the following issues, which should be considered when selecting team members (especially for high performance teams):

. Team member competency=compatibility=suitability

. Skills (especially technical and functional ones), processes, tools and techniques

. Interpersonal skills, communication, personality preferences

. Value system

. Shared vision, purpose, goals, direction and

. Organizational values including openness

Considering the above factors, I would select the appropriate project team members by matching their skills and the requirements of my project. While doing this, the aim is to enhance the potential quality of a newly formed team, and to avoid disappointing team performance in early stages.

The Success factors of managing a team include: creating commitment between all members, dividing the work and sharing and disseminating the information.

Failure of a team may arise from the following: groupthink, risky-shift, social loafing and

free riders.

Key factors in managing a team are: having well defined norms and roles, creating a

cohesive group that motivates the team members to follow and complete the team goals.

The individual personality has a major influence on a project's success:

Attitude - People who respond well in crisis situations tend to have three elements that help them deal effectively with the trauma of the moment to avoid being paralyzed by indecision or suffering from a sense of victimization. They:

have a strong belief that they can influence events

find personal meaning and purpose in navigating the turmoil of the development of the organization

observe and absorb lessons, both positive and negative, that occur along this journey

Knowledge - People who have prepared themselves and have greater knowledge do a better job of surviving. Over time studies consistently show that the prepared, knowledgeable mind typically performs better handling change and crisis than the untrained one

Emotional Balance - People who experience high anxiety tend to overreact or respond inappropriately under pressure. Before long, they become overwhelmed by the situation and progress is hopelessly stalled.  By contrast, people who are more relaxed in their roles better handle the challenges that often go with the territory.

Realists - There are people who want everything right. There is a fine line between waiting for every detail to be perfect and being good enough to meet the target.

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers, 1962):

MBTI is a self-report, forced-choice personality inventory that was based on Carl Jung's theory of psychological types (Jung, 1921/1971). Every year, between 1.5 million and 2 million people in the United States take the MBTI, and it has become the most widely used personality assessment tool (Goby & Lewis, 2000; Zemke, 1992). A major reason for the popularity of the MBTI is its relevance in many quite diverse areas − education, career development, organizational behavior, group functioning and team development, psychotherapy with individuals and couples, and in multicultural settings (Quenk, 1999). Because of its position as the most widely used scale for "normal" adults in diverse areas, the MBTI has been translated into many different languages such as Norwegian, Italian, and Chinese (Miao, Huangfu, Chia, & Ren, 2000; Nordvik, 1994; Saggino & Kline, 1996).

With the translation and modification of the MBTI in Mainland China, there is a palpable need to explore the factor structure of the Chinese version MBTI, and this was the purpose of our study.

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Based on the theory of psychological types, the MBTI consists of four bipolar scales:

The Extraversion-Introversion (EI) scale which measures how an individual distributes his/her energy − directing mainly toward the outer world of people and objects as opposed to the inner world of ideas and experiences.

The Sensing-Intuition (SN) scale which measures how one prefers to gather information − focusing mainly on the five senses as opposed to insight.

The Thinking-Feeling (TF) scale which measures how one is likely to make a decision − based on logical analysis as opposed to needs for affiliation and warmth.

The Judging-Perceiving (JP) scale which measures how one chooses to approach life −preferring order and rules as opposed to flexibility and spontaneity. The eight raw scores, that are the scores on the two opposing poles of the four scales, can sort individuals into 16 possible rational categories or types.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow developed a theory of personality that has influenced a number of different fields. This wide influence is due in part to the high level of practicality of Maslow's theory. This theory accurately describes many realities of personal experiences. Many people find they can understand what Maslow says. They can recognize some features of their experience or behavior which is true and identifiable but which they have never put into words.

Maslow has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. In the levels of the five basic needs, the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied, nor the third until the second has been satisfied, and so on

Maslow's theory presents that once a need was gratified, it no longer had a motivational effect. Knowledge work is characterized as non-repetitive and results-oriented using both traditional scientific methods and new intuitive, imaginative methods . They are in line with Maslow's theory in terms of self-actualisation need of the individuals. Literature shows that

According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the basic factors in work need to be in order before the motivators can affect positively on employee's performance. Appelbaum & Kamal argue that it is nearly impossible to increase job satisfaction by non-financial incentives, if the employees are unable to maintain a comfortable standard of living. Therefore non-financial incentives only supplement the fair pay, and the careful implementation of these incentives assures their success (Miner, 2006; Appelbaum & Kamal, 2000).

Team Selection :

When making selections for team members, first we should identify the task-specific outcome the team is to accomplish.The company's vision, mission, and business objectives should be a part of the desired goal achievement. Therefore, the process for selecting team members should include measuring the values of styles and diversity.

Performance of Team members :

It is very important that we measure the performance of the team this is the only way we can assess whether or not the set objectives are being met and with what standards, if they are not being met where are the flaws and possibly we can identify the measures we need to take in order to rectify those flaws so one could see that how crucial it is to measure the performance of the team. Measuring the team performance will also enable us to benchmark the activities for the future references and also will help us in improving the standard over the time.

We set individual objectives that will tell us whether the team member did or did not perform as expected, these Objectives should be realistic and attainable but also should represent a significant challenge

Motivation Factors:

The key here is to understand what motivates each employee so they can empower themselves in an environment that will enthuse them.

We need to understand, what motivates us, time, money, learning, recognition of a job well done?

We should look at strategies, we can try:

Always work to align goals of the organization with goals of employees and make sure they are SMART.

Find out what really motivates team member by asking, listening and observing them.

Support your team members through organizational processes and procedures e.g reward system, performance systems so you don't just rely on relationships to motivate your team.

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Clearly demonstrate and identify member performance to the member and organization when goals are met. You need to have clear aims that you and your team member have agreed to with goals set and rewards established upon reaching the goals.

Celebrate achievements about goals achievements met by your team members. This is often forgotten which can lead to a more cynical view of efforts and rewards about the organization.


Having the right core team can make or break a project. Therefore, great care should be taken when selecting team members.

As a leader, one of your core responsibilities is to manage your team effectively. Most leaders seek to develop new skills and enhance their abilities in order to improve their leadership capabilities, and thus, their team's effectiveness

Motivation is the process that initiates and maintains goal-directed performance. It energizes our thinking, fuels our enthusiasm and colors our positive and negative emotional reactions to work and life.

All motivation theories including Maslow's hierarchy of needs propose a similar idea: Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation