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"Equality and equal are incomplete predicates that necessarily generate one question: equal in what respect?" (Rae 1981, p132) I will be exploring and discussing the relevant matters of equal opportunity and managing diversity within organisations. Investigating matters concerning factors such as equality and objectivity during the recruitment and selection process. "Recruitment is a process which aims to attract appropriately qualified candidates for a particular position" (Pilbeam and Corbridge, 2006) and "The set of activities and processes used to legally obtain a sufficient number of qualified people at the right place and time so that the people and the organization can select each other in their own best short and long term interests" (Schuler,1987) Selection is the method of selecting the right employee by varied means, in order to make a decision for employment. (Graham & Bennett 1998: 206) This process within an organisation should be neutral and provide a fair chance for all social categorise.
According to theorist managing diversity is sustaining an atmosphere where individuals, regarding any social factors as ethnic, sex etc should able to climb the career ladder (Thomas,1990). Furthermore why should organisations be aware of managing diversity and equality within the working environment, and what benefits will be granted if these recruitments are met effectively and fairness is ensured "The basic concept of managing diversity accepts that the workforce consists of a diverse population of people. The diversity consists of visible and non-visible differences which will include factors such as sex, age, background, race, disability, personality and work-style. It is founded on the premises that harnessing these differences will create a productive environment in which everybody feels valued, where their talents are being fully utilised and in which organisational goals are met." (Kandola and Fullerton, 2002:8)
In regards to organisational needs, they seek proactive and highly talented individuals to order to fill there job specific roles. Since all companies seek for business sustainability, therefore those companies require talented employees and workers who will participate among the organisations organic growth. Recruitment process should only concern the "underlying characteristic of a person which results in effective and superior performance in a job" (Boyzatis, 1982) avoiding all social differences and discrimination. In addition organisations have obligations to follow legislation "Where the emphasis is on meeting legal obligations to ensure separate groups are not discriminated against in the workplace. A longer-term agenda that aims to move away from such a narrow approach is suggested by the notion of managing diversity." (Goss, 1994) such as the equal opportunity act to ensure the selection process is devoid of any sort of discrimination. Discrimination is "the differential treatment of persons supposed to belong to a particular class of persons" (Banton, 1994, p1) or oppression "Inhuman or degrading treatment of individuals or groups; hardship and injustice brought about by the dominance of one group over another" (Phillips, 1997, pp32-33)
Two elementary ideas to ensure fairness within organisations are the provision of equal opportunities and managing diversity. However "Diversity is understood as being different from equal opportunities" (Kandola and Fullerton, 2002: pp, 169).
Organisations demand the talent of the employees which will contribute to the growth of the business. Since the expansion of the business depends on the employees, for this purpose it is good practice to attain talented employees, as at the end of the business day, the company wants to recruit its desirable candidate who has the potentiality to grow along with the companies demands and complete any required work accordingly in an efficient manner. It is very much correct that the poor strategy of recruitment and selection shall bring the companies goal achievement lower and will affect the companies target to remain incomplete. Organisations shall have to consider that traditional companies require their recruitment process to be done internally, whereas in some cases, talent is not being generated. How organisations tend to pick their correct candidates within their chosen procedure is in question in the present days.
Even though UK government has introduced legislations Labour Law 2006 and recently Equal Act 2010 but that is not obviously enough to stop discrimination from being abused with colour, social status and many more. The current and future demands are increasing as society has a vast diversification and great potential, but this needs to be utilised and to the extent where every company will give value to their mission with management of diversity and equality. Managing diversity will only create a vibrant working experience, where every person is equivalent and their skills and attributes are being used to achieve organisational goals (Kandola and Fullerton, 2002:8). Diversity management is required within the recruitment and selection process and should avoid discrimination of any sort involving and managing the diverse pool of recruitment within the UK job market. Regarding equal opportunity and or managing diversity management is "The challenge of meeting the needs of a culturally diverse workforce and of sensitizing workers and managers to differences associated with gender, race, age and nationality in an attempt to maximize the potential productivity of all employees." (Ellis and Sonnenfield, 1994)
Gathering the most competitive and knowledgeable person for a reputed organisation is not hard, but it is obviously tough to select and recruit talent without any stereotypes intervening. The job market is now more competitive than ever and it is obvious that the market has increasing demands of those who are talented. Even though to acquire those talent is costly via induction programs and assessment centres, but every organisation requires most competitive and fit person to recruit, fulfilling their conditions. For instances, if it is taken that one of reputed company needs a very knowledgeable person who will fit to that organisation easily and do the work efficiently, and to recruit such a person, the company may go for their in-house recruitment, but in some cases it is very much understandable that some organisation needs diversity in their management which will have no impact to internal employees but will effectively help the organisation to acquire outer knowledge to cope up with new generations.
For recruitment "Every vacancy presents management with an opportunity to rethink the structure of the organisation and the allocation of duties" (Plumbley, 1991). The new employee within the organisation the company may go for three distinctive ways. These are: The Company may choose and fill up their job opening by internal recruitment by replacing internal employees, or by advertisement through internal built up human resource management, or in some cases some company may choose for external human resources solution Companies who have a vast database and look for effective candidate. These companies have the opportunity to fulfil and keep diversity within management of the organization, so that the organisation may get the best employee in their management team who will have pro-activity to give their best effort. "Employee selection is a matter of answering the question where the candidate will be asked and to which applicant should a job be offered" (Reitz & Jewell, 1979) further more bearing in mind and "Identifying any adverse impacts of the recruitment process on vulnerable groups (for example minorities, especially where Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action legislation exists." (Fisher et al, 1993)
Diagrams viewing the recruitment and selection process
Figure 1: Taylor's recruitment and Selection processes
The recruitment process as described above is showing the job analysis specifying the needs and making fair requirements, Job description which and shouldn't alienate or discriminate, person specification, competency analysis, competency framework, recruitment selection, appointment and induction program of a new employee. This process belongs to the state that the recruitment shall be done under this process.
The selection process is also in line with the recruitment process. As the recruitment needs to depend on the recruitment of the person that is required to attached them throughout the recruitment and selection processes as a whole. The selection processes are explained below.
Figure 2: Selection processes
At the start of the selection is the application verification process, which is required to be done to see if the eligible candidate has been given their application with correct information as "One fifth of the working population has a criminal record recognizing that for men under 35 the figure is one in three." (CIPD, 2006) and is for the desired position. Then afterwards an Interview has to be undertaken by the employee, which can be divided into two broad parts, as one of them is written and the other one is verbal. After written and verbal examination has been taken, it then moves on to skills evaluation, skills are valued at this stage with further verification and understanding of the outcome of the written exam. Following precedes the process of application rating. In this process the candidates are rated in consideration of written exam, their background profile, working experiences and if there is any other consideration left. Once the rating is done then the process comes up along with the employee verification. And after that the skills profile are given to the board member of recruitment where the decision on the right candidate who will be most effective for the organization are selected. Once the selection decision is taken then the employee is called up as know to hiring procedure where he or she is hired. It may be the company policy that the recruited employee will get a higher training of the background and knowledge of the environment where the employee will be anticipated to work with a long time.
After all of the above evaluation and greater understanding about why equal opportunity and managing in organisations are required to work towards eradicating discrimination in the job sector are widely observed and also by the government. Which has also taken consideration to this matter seriously, where the various tasks has been undertaken and considered the social life of those who are harassed in that area. Even though it exists like seeking that person who is from the vicinity of the companies' area i.e. locations are chosen but this has been reduced dramatically but not to the extent that it doesn't exist. To protect the social awareness of equal of opportunity and or managing diversity management are very much needed for corporate social awareness and responsibility and also it is required to get the talent no matter from where the talent is gathered via unbiased use of human and resources.
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