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Organizational cultureÂ refers to a scheme of joint supposition, standards, and philosophy that show individuals what are suitable and unsuitable behaviours. These principles have a tough effect on employee behaviour as well as overall performance of the company. Company success could be recognized to an organizational culture that is important, customer-oriented, empowering, and people-oriented. Organizational culture is still a comparatively new notion. Though, the topic of organizational culture is not that old but the pace of its development is very high in the field of management studies. Culture is invisible even though it affects all employee behaviours, opinion, and productivity; employees try to turn into more alert of their company's culture when they have the chance to contrast it with other companies working in same industries around them. The systematize function engages building and applying directorial design decisions. The culture of the company is intimately correlated to organizational design. For instance, an organizational culture that authorizes staff to take decisions could show tremendously unwillingness to oppressive organizational design, hindering the management's capability to surpass such a design. Though, an organizational culture that encourages the management structure (and in other way) can be very commanding.
Researchers also explain that an association among organizational cultures and the overall performance of the company, with regard to achievement indicators such as turnover, product sale volumes, share of the company in market, and the positive fluctuation in share prices. At the similar time, it is significant to have a corporate culture that suits with the necessity of the firm's internal environment and that is totally responsibility of company's management to test and apply. To the degree that mutual standards are correct for the firm is in enquiry, performance of the company may advantage from culture.Â For instance, if a firm is operating its business in latest technology industry, having a corporate culture that supports creativity and adaptableness will encourage its overall performance. Though, if the company in the similar IT industry having a corporate culture with traits of constancy, a high esteem for organizational traditions, and a sturdy partiality for preservation rules and policies, the company may undergo because of this implemented culture which is good but not suitable for the IT driven companies. In general, just as applying and supporting the right corporate culture may be a competitive edge for the company over its rivals in the industry, and applying the unsuitable culture may direct the company towards difficulties, performance obstructions and it may finally be responsible for failure of organization.
So the corporate culture of any company has very significant role in good performance of the company and it is management liability to encourage sympathetic and companionate culture through acceptable management style to achieve the business goals effectively.
Factors that affect on employees performance at workplace
There is no doubt in the statement human capital of any company is the most precious asset for the company. A flourishing and highly prolific business can always gives value to its staff and management and attaint the high level of performance by satisfying and motivating them.
Working Environment/Culture and employees' performance
Business and company internal climate significantly affect on the performance of the employees. It also expresses that the satisfaction level of employees who are engaged with the company. Internal climate of the company also determines how the employees values are addressed and management efforts to fulfil them. It shows how the staffs are respected and how their problems are suitably well thought-out, even any minor or a big issue.
A scheme is required for providing the necessary work at any level of the business and the staff has to go after the set rules and there may be a complexity in accepting the paradigm rules.
To collect feedback from employees is also very productive to involve them in their jobs successfully and fetch the higher output from them. The method of feedback collection also matters a lot in the way of satisfying and involving them into their jobs. More the polite method will be used by management more chances are there for employees' involvement.
Immediate supervisor or the manager role is also very significant in fetching the high profitability for the company by exploiting the maximum skills of the labour, workers and their subordinates. The style of managers towards managing their staff is also matters a lot towards improving the performance of individuals at job places. More the managers are lenient, participative and polite to their subordinates more it motivates the workforce hence high performance would be achieved.
Motivation factor is also very essential and plays very significant role in the success of companies. This is up to management how they choose the diverse ranges of methods to motivate the whole workforce and take high level of performances from them which further enhance overall performance of the company. Each method of motivation has the separate effect on the motivation level of the workforce.
Employees' skills are also very chief factor to motivate them. More the employees trained / developed / and equip with the latest skills required for their job tasks more they feel confident and this would increase their satisfaction level among them and further definitely improve the job performances of the employees. Companies should focus on the training and development programs and equip their employees with latest knowledge regarding their jobs.
Employees moral and the supportive organizational culture are very difficult to define but can be perceived and these two perception should take care by the management as their first priority to bring improvement in business and achieve the high profitability by enhancing the employees' job performances.
Question No. 3
Explain Organizational Theory and its link with today's Management Practices?
Classical Organization Theory
The theory classical organization has been emerged in the early years of current century. Classical theory entails the combination of thoughts and includes:
and Administrative theory.
Frederick Taylor (1917) explained the scientific management theory (often known as "Taylorism") at the starting of current century. Taylorism theory has mainly four rules:
Search out the "best way" to deliver every task,
Vigilantly compare every performer to every job task,
Strongly control employees, and offer benefits & reward along with the fear of punishment as the key motivations, and finally
Job task planning and controlling by the management
Chandler (1962) carried out the research on the four biggest United States corporations and explained that a company would logically develop to meet up the needs of its strategy. Chandler's explanation was that companies would perform in a sensible way to approve changes from the external business environment. Efficiency was a role of management's capability to accept the changes from the external business environment regardless of considering the strategy formulation a natural way.
Lawrence and Lorsch (1969) also threw light on this theory and added that how companies accept changes to suit themselves into demanding business environment. In extremely unstable industries, companies mostly perform by giving the authorities to their managers significantly to make free decisions at their job places.
Senge (1990) portrays thinking schemes as:
By getting to know how the individual actions form the reality. If one trusts that his existing circumstances or state is just because of anybody else, or by the forces which are out of control, then why that person stick and think about his vision? The vital basis at the back of this theory is this is the vision a motivator through which one can build up his future somehow. Systemize theory also helps the individuals to look how the individuals' actions have formed their current situations, thereby giving them confidence that what they can create for their futures. (p. 136)
Until in recent times, almost all the companies obeyed Weber's theory of bureaucratic management structure. The day by day expanding complexity of international companies built up the need of some new management structures that Drucker explained (1974) "federal decentralization". In the federal decentralization management structures, a company arranged so that there are quite few self-governing units operating at the same time. "Each of that self managing business unit has its own style and structure of management which, in effect, runs its own independent business." (p. 572)
So if we analyze deeply each of the theory is contributing somehow into current management practices deeply. Doing right things with effectiveness and efficiency by continuously looking the external environment and bringing change into current business strategies accordingly with the strong positive decentralized (suitable) organizational structure currently managers are running their businesses. There is no doubt that the current inventions or new management practices are directly produced from these classical organizational theories and have deep impact on current management practices.
Question No. 4
Comparison between two management Approaches?
As explain in the previous question that many of new practices have been developed on the basis of previous classical management theories. Today different companies are using different approaches to run their business. Some companies even have different style of management for their different departments. Some prefer to empower the employees and some prefer to use autocratic style to restrict the employees. The leader with the preference of participative style always include its followers, employees, workers, team members, and relevant personnel into decision rather than taking alone the charge for decision making. Companies who are using the decentralization approach are with the view that when employees are trusted by management and delegation of authorities provide more satisfaction among employees. If any manager wants to increase the productivity he/she should realize its workforce that they are important, their sayings are important and the company will listen their contribution at the time of decision making. This sort of management practices deeply satisfy the whole workforce and also increase the productivity. Today in business world where companies are using the concept of team work concept to get more productivity from their staff, every team is responsible for the tasks assigned to them and they have proper authority to perform those tasks. Empowerment also reduces the need of supervision and role of manager authority this is why some managers at workplace do not like the empowerment concept. In participative style of management each member of company is authorize to register his/her say into decision making and he/she is responsible for his/her job and perform his/her job at his/her own. The concept also has the similar ideology such as consultation management approach, management by objective approach, empowerment management technique, power sharing and combine decision making. On the other hand autocratic style of management also exists in current business world. As few managers think that workers do not give their hundred percent at their jobs until the tight supervision force them to do so. This style of management is often very worrying on associate worker and makes theÂ work environmentÂ itself not such a fun place to be.Â But like all management styles, there is particular time and a particular situation when these styles suits and fit perfectly in the organization. An autocratic manager uses the one way communication with its subordinates.Â Managers tell workforce exactly what they want to be done.Â The feedback workers would get from this type of manager would generally be unplanned.Â Managers would simply tell workers when they have made a mistake. The process of decision making is normally one-sided and they achieve objectives by leading people.Â It does not mean autocratic style is no good but there are actually situations when this style is effective. In the workplace, some circumstances may just produce such conditions that may support the autocratic style and sometimes it may support the participative style of management. But overall participative style is favourable in sense it delegates the authorities and responsibilities and most favourable results can be generated. In general, in the time of pressure or crisis some workers may really favour the autocratic style - because some workers prefer to work according to the manager instructions. So to conclude this- the autocratic management style is very successful when in the time of stress and strain, but very stressful during those times when the pressure is off the followers or co-workers.
Highly participative >
Autocratic decision by manager
Manager proposes decision, listens to feedback, then decides
Team proposes decision, manager has final decision
Joint decision with team as equals
Full delegation of decision to team
Question No. 5
Define Application and performance of three motivational theories
Acquired Needs Theory (Mcclellan)
Need for achievement, accomplish something difficult. In business context when a worker is assigned with the particular goals/tasks to achieve and if he/she accomplishes those tasks it satisfies his/her need.
Need for affiliation, form close personal relationships. Affiliation and personal relationship with colleagues and his/her boss satisfies him/her more deeply and he/she works with high attention and motivation.
Need for power, control others. Assigned goals could be achieved in better way when the management assigns some authorities and empower its employees which further satisfy the needs of worker.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Intrinsic motivators:Â Attainment, job duties and capability. Intrinsic motivators always come by actually performing the job tasks and their attainment. These motivators are achieved by the individuals so that they can satisfied and further for their own future improvements. If they don't motivate themselves because of their own good sake then extrinsic motivators may not be enough to fetch the high level of productivity from them.
Extrinsic motivators:Â salary, wages, benefits, rewards, management feedback, encouragement, gratitude, and favourable conditions at work. These are the motivators which are not directly control under the individual but its environment. This is normally considered that access of extrinsic motivators may impact badly on the intrinsic motivators so there must be balanced between both types of motivators. Management should motivate the employees by offering the good future opportunities to the employees and with the balanced extrinsic motivators offering.
Two Factor theory (Herzberg)
Hygiene factors: the factors when they are not present or available to the individual they really motivate the individual but with having them may not be properly perceived by the individually productively. For instance if a person don't have job then the availability of job motivate the person but after having that job his / her motivation may lose somehow as before he / she had. In general, these are extrinsic items low in the Maslow/Alderfer hierarchy.
Motivators: These are factors whose presence motivates. Their absence does not cause any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate. Examples are the intrinsic motivators.
All three theories suggest that workers have their needs and if the company/management provides them best working conditions, salary packages, right authorities, achievable goals, rewards, career development and all other benefits which satisfy their basic needs it can motivates the whole workforce and that company can reap the fruit in shape of high productivity from its workforce. Even few factors/needs are so if they are fulfilled at any job by management workers become self motivated and perform better for considering it own responsibility and own work. It creates organisational citizenship and loyalty among the whole workforce.
Question No. 6
Explain Factors lead to inefficient teamwork?
Some teams' show efficient result after completing the job as a team and some teams may fail to achieve so while working as a team. Working in team or getting desired output from the team work is difficult and simple at the same time. In an organization management should keep an eye on the factors that may boost up the team work by satisfying the individuals needs and also the needs of teams. Team work culture should be promoted by the management to attain the higher level of success through team work.
The points given below define how these factors lead a team towards inefficiency at the job place.
The mission and vision of the company and also the shared objectives of the team should properly be communicated with the team to attain the maximum output from the teams. If the management fails to do so teams may not perform well within the organization and lack in performance. Goals should be cleared and properly shared with the teams for their high performance.
Sometimes within team such an environment produce due to inefficiency of team leader where team members do not feel comfort to perform their jobs. This lack of trust situation should be overseen by the management and controlled for better results.
Communication between management and team also between team members within the team is very important for team work. Feedbacks, solutions and problems must properly be listen and understood by management and team leaders to motivate the members.
Team members may not have powerful intellect of belonging to the groups. They may not have practice profound assurance to the group's decisions and performance.
Team members may have the different ideology, way of thinking, and way of performing so the uniqueness among team members may produce somehow conflict among members.
Sometimes routine and daily tasks badly impact on the members moral so there must be some innovative ways to find out by the management to motivate the workforce.
Inability of ream members to evaluate their own performances, their improvements, their job practices and functionalities and communication with other team members it may create the hard situation. The team values and ethics should be clearly shared with all the members. Proper evaluation method can reduce the inefficiency of teams in any organization.
The team has not agreed upon procedures for diagnosing, analyzing, and resolving team work problems and conflicts. The team does have member personality conflicts and clashes and team members also take sides in a disagreement. Rather, members work towards mutual resolution.
When the members of the team are not included in the meetings, tasks and decision making regarding the team work it may create some space between team members, team leader and management which directly and badly impact on the performance of the teams.
Team members may not be able to produce the most beneficial decisions together and further do not hold and show their dedication to carry out the decisions made within the team which may be because of internal clashes and this could produce the sever results for the whole team.
Question No. 7
Evaluate the changes that technology can bring into business?
Technology is playing a very significant role in the current business world. From the recent years companies have befallen on technology hugely and the reason behind this dependency is that companies have no other choice to expand and control their multinational businesses without relying on use of new technologies into business. Almost all small or large, national or international businesses and even industries across the globe are implementing new IT solutions, computerized systems, automatic processes and machinery to increase and enhancing the business.
Technology is the biggest reason behind the globalization and with the idea of globalization and ease of new technologies each business entity is striving to access international markets. Through advent of e-commerce and website development every business is trying to maintain corporate website and facilitation the customers nationally and internationally through online offerings.
The importance of keeping up with changes in business computing and technology can be more important over time as your business grows. As an IT professional far too often I have seen many small businesses get way too far behind in computing technology and wonder why they should pay for the upgrades. Usually I have to explain to them the hard way that the current computers system that are over 4 years old are not going to perform the requested task very well and are not supported by software. Usually do to combination of software changes and incompatibility with older software and hardware platforms that cause issues. I explain that it actually will cost them more money in the long run to try and maintain there existing computer equipment then buy a new replacement.
Some of benefits can include lower power requirements for the devices, more storage capacity for computer files, improved CPU along with memory speeding up processes run on the computer, faster and higher quality documents from new printers. Less down time and less delays in completion of customer request. These are just a few of the benefits of keeping up with technology in your business.
Technology also forces existing leaders to change their business strategy. For instance, the mobile phone operators all over the world are shifting to IP technology because of its disruptive nature. While operators themselves have become ISPs
Investing in the proper technology is the key to success it does not matter if you have established small business, home office or if you're a new start up business. Remember that your business most likely will change over time along with the clients you are serving so your computing equipment should also.
In conclusion business computing when done right can truly add to your business by adding to productivity and efficiency of the day to day operations and can help you take on more clients and over all help you build your business.