Management individual or group indiduals perform act of management


Management is basically referred to an individual or a group of indiduals who perform the act of management. The people to whom this act is assigned are the managers. Management is the process of controlling, planning, and leading, organizing the human beings, as well as financial resources and materials of an organization. This process is employed by managers who take the responsibility of achieving the organizations objectives through the people assigned to them. They achieve these results by supervising and motivating the people in the organizations. As all the operations and responsibilities are taken by the management to achieve the targets of the organization, the success of any organization will also depend on the Management who are expected to participate effectively and actively. Hence Management is the cornerstone of organizational effectiveness. There are different definitions of Management in different people opinions. Some of the basic definitions of Management given by Management experts are listed below:

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"Management is an art of getting things done through people"

This definition was given by Mary Parker Follett in the early twentieth century.

"Management is the process of achieving organizational effectiveness with a changing environment by balancing efficiency, effectiveness and equity, obtaining the most from limited resources, and working with and through other people."

This definition was given by Naylor.

According to Peter Drucker, He defined management as having a basic task that is marketing and innovation.

From all the above definitions it can be concluded that management in organizations will lead to more productivity and hence greater profits when the employees are satisfied with their jobs which in turn will improve the morale of the company.

Management is sometimes defined as art and sometimes it is defined as science. However in reality Management can be defined as a combination of art and science. However there are many justifications available for it to be defined as an art and for it to be defined as a science. It can be an art because its basic process is o carry out the activities, hence it is performance oriented. Also because it involves getting work done through others, and a variety of skills are required to make people work. It can be a science because it uses principles that are universally accepted and also the results are easily predictable. It can be concluded that management is an art as well as a science because any given organization consists of technical as well as social subsystems. Hence management is an art as well as a science.

Management being a combination of art as well as a science focuses on many roles in an organization like advocating, integrating, coaching, tracking the performance of the employees, allocating the available resources to the employees who are more independent or in the teams. Hence management playing so many important roles for an organization has become the cornerstone for organization effectiveness. There are many factors that affect the successful performance of the work organizations. All these factors are to be overlooked by the management so that the organization runs smoothly and effectively. Some of the factors that affect the successful performance of the work organization are as follows:

1] Motivation

2] Performance in the workplace

3] Communication Skills

4] Leadership skills

5] Time Management skills

6] Technical skills

7] Behavioral Management

8] Human skills

However there are many factors that affect the successful performance of the work organizations, in this essay I will try to cover as many factors as possible and will be explaining the factors that are critical to the successful performance of the work organizations. Some of the critical factors that affect the performance in any work organization are:


Motivation can be defined as a desire or need that will cause a person to act accordingly. Motivation can also be defined with respect to two aspects i.e. status striving motivation and accomplishment striving motivation. The status striving motivation is directly correlated to extraversion whereas the accomplishment striving is directly correlated to conscientiousness. These two aspects of motivation lead to increase in sales performance as extraversion is integral aspect of any employee with good job performance. Every individual in a company provides a building block of knowledge to that company and if this knowledge is feared to dry up without proper motivation of the employee. The motivation can be in the form of freedom and dignity that is spread out from the individuals. Upon proper motivation of the employees the knowledge of each individual employee of the company can be continuously constructed which is a valuable asset to the company. By Motivating the employees the managers are sure to increase the productivity and financial status of the company and also it will help the employees to be satisfied with their jobs.

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Let us take the example of Asda[1] for the way it tries to keep its employees motivated. Asda being the second largest retailer in UK only after Tesco. At Asda the employees are given as much importance as to any other stakeholders of the company like customers, shareholders etc. It considers both the internal and external stakeholders of the company to be equivalent. Asda believes that its employees must have a good effect in the community in which they work. The values in which Asda believes like respecting the individuals which in this case are its employees, aiming for excellence and providing a good customer service to the customers, all these are achieved with proper management efforts. All these values are passed on to the new employees through an induction program from the management.

One of the main reasons how the employees at Asda are motivated is by them being valued at Asda by continuously bringing improvements in their profiles. A survey conducted at Asda showed three major results as to how the employees at Asda were kept motivated. The employees were driven by:

A] Taking action

B] Gaining recognition for their efforts and

C] Getting freedom to use their own initiatives.

After all The Management at Asda believes that "If colleagues are motivated, they work better, feel better and have less time off".


Performance at the work place by the employees is the major criteria for organizations to be successful. The performance of the employees at the workplace can be improved by giving them proper workplace coaching by the management. Performance management is basically a system in which a line manager works as a coach for a workplace by giving the employees the required feedback and also by overseeing the employee's continuous developments. Getting rid of the employees who underperform can be time consuming, expensive for the company and it will also be affecting the workplace morale. Instead of getting rid of these underperforming employees the management can provide them with proper training and make them well versed with the job requirements. Hence a proper management system from the management which will revolve around a coaching model will help prevent any such situation from arising.

The employees can be provided with tools that they can use to implement a performance management system that will be including development of a particular code of conduct as per the requirements of the company, which will also describe as to how a manager will be operating on the job. For a effective performance management to take place first of all the mangers must be well equipped so that they will be able to coach competently to the employees and they must be well aware as to what actions they can take when any employee does not respond properly to the workplace coaching. Hence if the employee performance is improved it will provide a significant guidance for both the senior level managers and the line managers.

Text book: Earl Carter, Francis Mahon[3]

Performance can be better explained with the help of Audi[2] case study. From the case study it can be seen as to how Audi from the recruitment to the training of its staff for the position of the service technician, how much importance it gives to improving the performance of its service technicians. First of all training is provided to the employees to develop the skills which will enable them to contribute effectively towards meeting the organizations objectives. This means that employees acquire the skills that enable them to deliver the brand values of Audi to keep on par with any technological change. On the other hand it also enables the employee's personal development like education. Hence the development and training approach that Audi has developed will also help the employees to fulfill their personal needs. A line manager identifies the type of development and training that needs to be given to any particular employee which in turn will increase the productivity of the company. By giving a sophisticated training and development to its employees Audi improves the performance of its employees at the workplace and better performance of its employees at the workplace of Audi means that:

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1] Audi has highly skilled technicians who will enhance the Audi brand.

2] Dealerships of Audi will also be benefited by having employees who are confident, motivated and independent and who are capable of providing a high quality service.

3] Customers are also benefited by knowing that they will always be coming first, and their expectations are also exceeded by highly skilled technicians.

Most important of all, the employees themselves get benefited by identifying their development needs and by developing these skills which will be enabling them to become more motivated which will result in more productivity of the organization.


Professionally, Communication is a process of information transfer between two communicating entities. The Management in any given organization must possess good communication skills. These skills are basically a way of how to talk to your superiors, your peers and to your subordinates. Without proper communication skills the exact idea of is required from the employees will not be delivered to the employees and it will result in huge losses for the organization. Therefore Communication skills are of most importance at a workplace because if one understands what is the importance of a particular thing then that thing will be better done than without proper understanding. Effective Communications skills are important to any employee because of three main reasons. Firstly, because the manager will be viewed by everyone in the office if he is having a positive influence. Secondly, because the manager will learn to get his point effectively across the employees, by this he can ensure that work is done properly and the way it should be done. Thirdly, because it makes the manager look like a team player and he will be loved by the company overall. Hence effective communication plays a major role in the success of any organization. The interaction between employees in a company determines the organization culture of the company and the work environment. Officially there will be two main types of communications within any organization. These are the written communication and the oral communication between the management and the employees. The written communication is the most widely accepted type of communication that is accepted in today's organizations as it proves as proof of whatever is being told and heard between the management and the employees of the organization. With this type of communication nothing is expected to go wrong especially when any particular task is assigned to a colleague, he cannot get away with doing anything that was not related to that being asked as there is always a report which is present in the form of a written communication. Though written communications are widely accepted in today's organizations oral communication has its own importance as these skills are most prized by the employers at the workplace.

For instance, at IBM the effective communication is given more importance. In fact, the team members at IBM are funded if they manage to give their ideas to the management by effective oral communication In terms of presentations in front of the high level executives which are formal presentations. It also conducts personality tests with the managers and the supervisors. Also effective communication skills result in promotion of the employees. An employer who was at the junior engineer level at IBM had been promoted to the level of a production engineer manager in five years time as he had managed to demonstrate effective communication skills, stayed cool under the pressure and also managed to deliver strong presentations. From this case it is clear that effective communication is a very important criteria in the successful performance of work organizations.


Leadership skill is the most critical management skill that affects the performance of the work organization. As a successful leader of any organization can take the organization to the next level in terms of success of the organization. The success can be of about financial status of the organization, it can be about the improving the brand value of the organization, it can be about improving the interest of investors to invest in the organization and many more things. A leader can be successful and can achieve all these things for the organization only if he is able to master all the management skills. Leadership skill basically is the ability to motivate a group of people or the entire employees of the organization towards one goal. Good leader must possess deep human qualities, beyond the notions of authority. In today's era, good leaders are an enabling force that help the organizations to develop and perform to achieve a sophisticated alignment of people's needs and also to achieve the aims of the organization. The traditional concept of leader is to have a top hierarchical position in the organization. Of course, to be at the top level does not necessarily mean the leader should have technical knowledge or must be intellectual. However possessing them will be an added advantage but these are not compulsory. Management is no way related to leadership as Management is about processes whereas leadership is about behavior. Finally good leadership requires behaviors and attitudes that relate to humanity.

A good example of a great leader in today's era in an organization can be Sir Richard Branson who is the leader of the Virgin group. There are many other leaders also who are doing good for their organizations like Steve Jobs who is presently the leader of Apple. Richard Branson was an opportunistic entrepreneur who never followed the path of growth through joint ventures with the established businesses. He was a realistic, charismatic entrepreneur who could take any risk for the betterment of his company. This approach permitted his company to expand, in terms of both product and geography.


As the Communication skills are critical for the performance of a work organization, the technical skills are also important for the performance of work organization. Although these skills are not that important as that of the communication skills these skills still possess some advantages. The employees must be able to use the modern technology that is available to communicate. There are many different types of technologies that are available for communication purposes that can be used for official purposes in an office environment. Some of the technologies that are available are fax, email, voice mail and word processing. Cd-rom and other types of external media are strictly restricted for the business use in the organizations for the safety of the organizations. Also the access of internet is limited to only some computers in company because of the fear that employees may be wasting their time by surfing in office.


Time management employs development of tools and processes which will help in increasing the efficiency and productivity of the company effectively. Time management has changed itself into everything from the methodologies like enterprise resource planning to the consultant services like personal organization in the businesses of the organization. By time management we simply mean that wasting our time without doing the things required and to manage the work time by doing the things the employees need to do. Hence time management is thought as a set of time management skills. The logic behind time management is that once we are capable to master our time management skills, the employees will become more organized, effective and be happier with their jobs. The first step that the managers can take to manage the time of the employees is by analyzing how the time is spent by the employees currently and to decide how they can change how their colleagues spend their time. Hence with effective time management the productivity of the jobs at the workplace will be increased. Each employee will be making progress at work.

As from all the above factors we have discussed it is clear that there are many factors that influence the performance of the work organizations. However there are some factors that act like obstacles to the effective organizational performance. Some of the factors that act like obstacles to effective organizational performance in the organizations are:

1] Deviation in workplace

2] Absences


Deviation in the workplace occurs when the employee voluntarily causes a course of an action that will be going to threaten the well being of the individual which will have a direct impact on the organization. Some of the examples of the deviation in the workplace by the employees in clued stealing, withholding effort, strange behavior with the co workers etc. These examples can be further classified into organizational deviance and interpersonal deviance. From the above examples the stealing and withholding effort will come under the organizational deviance and the rude and strange behavior with the coworkers will come under the interpersonal deviance. The interpersonal deviance negatively related to high level of agreeableness whereas Organizational deviance is negatively related to high degree of conscientiousness and it is also positively related to high degree of neuroticism. From this we can conclude that employees who are stable emotionally and who are conscious about what they do are less likely to refuse to give as per their effort, while the other employees, who are aligned with the beliefs of the organization are less likely to be impolite to their employees. Another factor that can be included is the perception at the workplace. Employees with positive perception are less likely to pursue the deviant behavior.


Job Absences is very much a part of the factors that act as a obstacle to the performance of the organization. Employees are not able to perform effectively if they don't even come to work. The employees who are conscious are less likely to take absences from the work. The employees who are more concerned with their jobs are more satisfied with their workplace and tend to take fewer absences. On the other hand employees who are less concerned with their jobs are less satisfied with their workplace which is mainly cause due to stimulation. From the above two concepts it can be proved clearly that conscientiousness in the employees is the only deciding factor for the absences taken by the employees. Thus the absences are caused only when the employees are less interested in their work organizations which can be due to many reasons. Less employee satisfaction in any company will surely decrease the performance at the work organizations.

The organizations of the present era are always trying to bring out new things and them continuously trying to bring in changes in the way they work. Even if it means that they have to forget or give up their traditional way of functioning that their founders had set up that had been carried on over generations. The organizations are ready to give up all these just to bring about changes in the organization working styles not even being sure whether it will be leading to success of the organization of the organization or not. They are just concerned with changing the nature of the work. In today's world the organizations are forced to change the nature of the way they work due to different technological breakthroughs and competitive pressures. By bringing about the changes nature of work of the organizations they have become more agile and have become leaner. Also the organizations have become more focused in terms of identifying the values from the customer perspectives. They have become more dependent on the competences in the technology. These changes have resulted in the organizations having less hierarchical structure, also the organizations are not capable to provide stable careers to the employees which can be lifelong which was not the case in the earlier organizations. The only reason why the organizations are doing this is to keep the competitive advantage over their counterparts. The best example for this can be that of HP[6]. The founders of HP had founded a way called HP way which went on to be very famous during those times and most of the other organizations copied and they were successful to some extent. In the HP way it gave freedom to the employees in many ways like there was no fixed schedule for the employees to work, by doing this the employees got a chance to balance their professional and personal life which showed in their better performance at the work and there were many other things like this which made the employees feel better at the work place. As the days have passed the HP way has begun to lose its importance because of change of nature of working styles of HP which is not a good sign for the progress of HP as if the founders of HP would be present today they would never want their HP way to decline.

Hence from the above facts it is clear that changing nature of modern work organizations is not a good sign and it no way improves the company's progress, the companies will have to stick to their motives on which they had been founded because it was these motives that had made the companies to develop become such large organizations.


From all the theories discussed and examples stated for the respective theories it can be concluded that Management is a combination of both art as well as the science. Also, Management is the cornerstone of organizational effectiveness. Management plays a pivotal role in the success of an organization. Management also possesses a number of tools which it can use upon requirements to ensure smooth flow of the organization.

Before the start of the course of organizational behavior I had no idea about what exactly organizational behavior means. For me Organizational behavior was not more than the behavior of the employees at the work place, As the lectures started and passed on I got an idea that OB is not just behavior of employees at the workplace but there is lot more to OB than I knew. The Lecturer Mr. Ben Botes tried his best to deliver all the theories in more practical way as possible which helped me gain deep knowledge about OB. After having completed this course work I have learnt a lot about the Organizational behavior in the organization. Especially relating the theories to the practical examples of organizations helped me in understanding the core concept of organizational behavior. The course has helped me a lot in understanding what OB actually means and now I think I will be able to implement whatever I have studied in this course n whichever workplace I will be going. In my view I think every employee no matter from what background must have knowledge about the organizational behavior. Having knowledge about this subject will reduce the job of the managers at the workplace as every employee will be knowing his own limitations and his own responsibilities and he will already be having idea as to how to excel in the organization that he is working