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Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working to gather in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aimsÂ (Koontz & Weihrich, 2006).
According to George Terry, He defines management as a process "consisting of planning, organising, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplished the objective by the use of people and the resources." According to this definition management is a process to do something by systematic way. (Terry, 2008)
The Evolution of Management thought
Management as a practice has an almost unlimited history. Visualize a group of prehistoric people attempting to develop a devise that would help transport heavy objects. Management as a formal study, in a comparison to a practise, began in the 1700s part of the organisation revolution, (Durbin, 2008). Here we take a briefly historical look at management to understand and cover historical developments and various approaches which are related with motivation, leadership, and job satisfaction, team work, organisation design and effectiveness and its relevant organisational change. The evolution of management thought can be understood in a three part as under.
Human relations approach
Classical approach to management
The classical writers thought of organisation in term of its purpose and formal structure. They focused on the planning of work, technical requirements of the organisation, principle of management and the assumption of rational and logical behaviour. The purpose of this approach is to understanding how the organisation works and how its method of working can be improved. Classical approach is emphasis on a hierarchy of management, technical requirement and formal organisational relationships. The classical approach prompted the start of a more scientific view of management and attempt to provide some common principles applicable to all organisations (Mullins, 2005). The classical approach to management encompasses scientific management and administrative management.
Scientific approach to management:
F.W. Taylor is the father of scientific management. Scientific management approach is focused on the efficiency of individual workers and assumed that employee was motivated by money. Many individual helped to develop this theory including Frank and Lillian Gilbert. Taylor developed an interest to work efficiency and productivity. For example Taylor studied all the jobs in Midvale plant and develop a standardised method for performing each one and also installed a Pearce rate pay system in which each worker was paid for the amount of work that individual completed during
The work day rather than for the time spent on the job. Scientific management became mainstay of business practice. In this approach it facilitated job specialization and mass production. It also demonstrated to managers the importance of enhancing performance and productivity and confirmed their influence on these matters. For example such as UPS and McDonald's still use some basis concepts introduced during the scientific era today in their efforts to become ever more efficient (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).
Administrative management was concerned primarily with how organisation should be managed and structured. This theory developed by max weber who was German Sociologist, lawyer and economist. This theory based on Max Webber's fourteen principles which is help to make organisation design and effectiveness. The fourteen principles are Specialization/division of labour, Authority with responsibly, Discipline, Unity of demand and Direction, Remuneration of staff, Centralization, Line of authority, Order, Equity, Stability of tenure, initiative, Esprit de cure. Mostly all the organisation has run on these principles.
Human Relations approach to Management
The human relation movement initially espoused a daily farm of management: Contended cow gives more milk so satisfied worker gives more work. The human relations approach is maintained an interest in worker participation and consider leadership but shifted the emphasis to the daily task that people perform. The human relations approach combines prescriptions for design of jobs task with theories of motivation. Two of the best contributor of this theory was Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor. (Draft and Dorothy Marcic, 2008)
The Human relation approach assumed that employee wants to feel useful and important those employees have strong social needs and that these needs are more important than money in motivating employee. Adviser of Human relations approach advised manager to make worker feel important and allow them a modicum of self-direction and self-control in carrying out routing activities was expected to enhance motivation. The human relations approach to motivation carries the concepts of needs and motivation one step further. The human relations believe that the illusion of contribution and participation would enhance motivation. It assumes that people want to contribute and able to make genuine contributions (Griffin and Moorhead, 2009).
The work of Maslow
A major impetus of neo human relations approach was the work of Maslow who in 1943, look forward a theoretical framework of individual personality development and motivation based on a hierarchy needs (Mullins, 2005). Maslow believe that people are wanting being, they always want more and what they want depends on what they have. He suggests that human needs are arranged in a series of levels, a hierarchy of importance. The hierarchy of needs is shown as ranging through five main levels from lowest level to highest level. Lowest level need is psychological needs, safety needs, love needs and esteem needs and top level need is self-actualisation
Physiological needs: it included the basic needs for Food, Sex, Air and sleep etc. These needs are probably the easiest to evaluate and to meet.
Safety needs: Security of job, order, law and stability. This need can be satisfied by such things as job continuity, the need for predictability and orderliness
Love need: These included affection sense of belonging, social activities, friendships and giving and receiving love.
Esteem needs: These include both self-respect and the esteem of others. Self-respect involves desire for confidence, strength and freedom and achievement. Esteem of others involves reputation, prestige, status and attention.
Self-actualisation needs. This is the development of one's full potential. Maslow sees this as what human can be, or becoming everything that one is capable of becoming.
Once a lower need has been satisfied, it no longer acts as a strong motivator. The needs of the next higher level in the hierarchy demand satisfaction and become the motivating influence. Only unsatisfied needs motivated person. Maslow believe that each need level must be satisfied before the above level can become important. Thus once physiological needs have been satisfied their important become less and security needs emerge a primary source of motivation (Griffin. 2009).
Believe that One person earns all the money that he want and is very satisfied with her standard of living, additional income may have little or no motivational impact on her behaviour. Instead person will try to satisfy other needs such as desire for higher living esteem. However, if previously satisfied level need become deficient again the individual returns to that level. For example person lose his job, first he may not be worried because he has confidence and saving. But his saving dwindle, he will become motivated to seek new income. He may seek a job that pay well and satisfied his esteem need. As his financial situation growth decreasing, he may lower his expectation and focus on simply finding a job with a reliable pay check. In according to Maslow theory of motivation in organisation some employee motivated by satisfied their basic need , someone want job security and safety, Some person want friendly and helpful atmosphere at job, mature understanding, etc. But in organisation some people works for his status, prestige. They want job title and some responsibility. Not each and every person can get this self-actualisation. The work of Maslow has drawn attention to how to motivate the people and to get more outcomes from employees by satisfied their needs.
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
Theory x and theory y developed by McGregor, was a professor at Massachusetts institute of technology and strongest advocate of human relations management. Theory X and Theory Y focused on how the people and manger behave in organisation and what people like to work in organisation. Theory X leader believe that people are motivated by satisfied their basic needs and will take path of pushed, where Theory Y leader believe that people are motivated by higher order and try to achieve their full potential.
Theory X leader and manger following this assumptions:
People dislike work and whenever possible they tried to avoid it.
Since people dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled by punishment to achieve goal.
People won't to take responsibility and looking for formal direction whenever possible.
Most people place security with work and will show little ambition.(Shriberg, 2009 )
Theory Y Leader base behaviour are as under
People willing to work
By comparing both theories, Theory X assumes that people dislike work and lack ambition and they are irresponsible at work, where Theory Y assumes that people like to work and they focus on their work and willing to do something, capable of safe -control.
Manager with Theory X assumption, for example they act in directive command and control, fashion that gives people little person say over their work (Schermerhorn, 2010). In theory X employees are follow the order which gives by supervisor what to do and require doing. Theory Y mangers tend to behave in participative way that allow employee more job involvement, freedom and responsibilities. Theory y creates opportunity to satisfy esteem and self-actualisation need and it's tending to do as much as better job they can do.
The human relations approach theory is also called a behaviour approach and this theory emphasis that how to motivate employee and give the job satisfaction to get more productivity. In organisation this theory is focus because it's based on employee need and which people like to do what type of work in certain circumstance.
The evolution of management thought is based on theory of leadership, motivation, and the job satisfaction. These theories were explained by different approach in management. This approach is Classical, Human relations and Modern approach. By reading this theory I understood that in certain way of job task in organisation how we have to behave with employee, how we can get more outcomes through most effectiveness and How to motivate the employee in organisation. Leadership, motivation and job satisfaction theory involve in classical and human relations approach. Where job design and organisation effectiveness were explained in modern approach to management.