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Organisational achievement depends upon the performance of the employees. Organisations can achieve their goals if employees perform well. Every organisation has its mission statement to achieve the objective. To significant extent this is due to the fact that making people satisfied in and with their jobs generates high employee performance. This essay will examine why making people satisfied is compulsory in their jobs to generate high employee performance. Job satisfaction and job performance are closely related to each other. Job satisfaction is defined as "the degree of pleasure an employee derives from his or her job" (Muchinsky, 2003 p.307) and the job performance is defined as "the value of the set of employee behaviour that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organisational goal accomplishment" (Colquitt et al.2009 p.37). People satisfaction is not necessarily only in the organisation, but as well as other aspects of life. A student for example if he is satisfied with their studies will perform better.
On the other hand, in the meta- analysis studies by Michelle and Paul conclude that "there is no strong relation between job satisfaction and job performance". Job satisfaction is strongly related to the motivation in the place of work, this is the main factor that improves the employee's performance in the workplace to achieve the organisational goal. However, this essay will also throw light on the different motivational theories and some others factors such as incentives and reward schemes that make people satisfied in their jobs and then they perform better. This essay will also conclude the strengths and weakness of motivational theories.
As mentioned above that job satisfaction affects job performance. According to Strauss (1986 p.264) "Early human relationists viewed the morale-productivity relationship quite simply: higher morale would lead to improved productivity". This means that if people are highly satisfied in their jobs and sincere with their place of work they will perform well. Now the question rises how we can make people satisfied in their jobs. Motivation means to revitalize the employees for good progress on the work; good performance on the job is closely related to motivation. Motivation is like mediator between job satisfaction and job performance. As Huczynski and Buchanan (2007) stated "Motivation is the cognitive decision-making process through which goal-directed behaviour is initiated, energized, directed and maintained". Vroom (1964) reported "a median correlation of +1.4 from the 20 studies that he reviewed in the meta-analysis of job satisfaction and job performance", and he proposed three variables theory about the work motivation, job performance and motivation are concurrent to each other the first one is E for Expectancy, I for Instrumentality and V for Valence. These three variables makes and motivational equation i.e. M= E*I*V that managers can use to predict whether a particular reward will motivate employee or not. 1. Expectancy: The probability that effort will be followed by personal accomplishment. 2. Instrumentality: The probability that performance will lead to outcomes. 3. Valence: The value of outcome by an individual of an outcome.
More to the point, Staw "demonstrated that positive emotions on the job lead to favourable job outcomes". In 1959 Herzberg described that the employee attitudes in the workplace and motivational theory. He examine that factors causing job satisfaction are different from those causing job dissatisfaction. Motivation factors consist of things such as recognitions, responsibility, achievement, advancement. Hygiene factors include relationships, work conditions, salary, status, company car, and security, relationship with subordinates, personal life and policy.
In Maslow theory of motivation hierarchy of need, there are nine different levels in Maslow's (1943) hierarchy of needs (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2007): he explained that what employee wants in the organisation. Biological and physiological needs, these are the most important and basic needs which include such as water, air, food and sleep: for example employee expect good quality of food in the workplace during the lunch time. Maslow argued that necessities of life are most basic needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met. People in the organisation want security, law, health and safe neighbourhoods, and biological needs are more important then the security needs. Social needs include for belonging, love and affection, this is the most important factor for employee satisfaction. Happiness generates new life for depress people if the people are happy then they can work with high motivation and can do some efficient work at their job. Good relationship in the work place with other colleagues create better job environment. In most organisations employees perform their job as team work, so friendship matter in this situation.
Need for self esteem such as resignation and respect in the front of other worker, now-a-day esteem needs are becoming more and more important. These include the need for things that reflect on confidence, personal worth, social recognition and accomplishment. Knowledge and understanding needs are known as cognitive wants. Self actualizing need is the highest level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Self actualizing people are self aware, concerned with personal growth; less concerned with the opinions of others and interested fulfilling their potential.
Moreover, the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is moderated by other variables according to the qualitative and quantitative review. Incentives and rewards are also the best way to make people satisfied in their jobs. Organisation incentives refer to both the reason for staff to join an organisation and the way an organisation rewards and punishes its staff. "Incentives system can encourage or discourage employee and work group behaviour" (Allcorn, 1995). Incentives and rewards are connected to each other, incentives are provided by an organisation to their all employees or worker. Rewards are tangible (bonus, benefits, annual leave) or intangible (recognition, praising) those are given by the organisation for outstanding performance of an individual or group. It will also address the different motivational approaches which are generally used by the managers towards their employee. Locke's (1970) "hypothesis exposes another limitation of the pay for-performance contingency hypothesis". In addition, pay is most common factors but it depends on different organisations e.g. one business organisation is paying good salary to their employee and incentive like paid in holidays, car and house while other business organisation is pay only salary to their employee no incentives, pay will substance in this situation. Spector (1997) explained that "the pay is the only one of many job rewards and research indicates a weak correlation between pay and job satisfaction".
In addition, according to my job experience, it is also true that if people are satisfied then they will perform well. Furthermore, Herzberg explained (2004) that "If you want people to do a good job give them a good job to do". When I used to work in London International Company, I was satisfied with my job because my salary was well enough and my work was well organised. My manager used to have a meeting everyday early in the morning before the work. I was performing very well; also our manager has given some project about the office work when me and my colleague finished our project then the manager has given us some rewards like bonus. This signifies that job satisfaction has an effected on job performance. But in the ground reality according to my point of view the motivational theories does not work in the particle life because employees expect everything from the managers, and we cannot fulfil them their every need.
In the strengths, for the organisational manager it is very well to use the motivational theories, incentives and rewards scheme. By using these theories managers can get a good performance of work from employees and give them rewards. Nevertheless, on the other hand if the employees perform well but the organisation or manager does not give them any reward the employees will lose the motivation.
By hammering the final nail, I conclude that there is strong relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. On the basis of the research done that if the employees have some problems and not satisfied with their job it will influence on the stakeholders of the organisation like customers, shareholder and other member of the organisation. Also, companies must provide appropriate ambience for work, training for the employee, rewards plan and learning. According to my point of view employee's motivation is very important for an organisation. Every large or small organisation must adopt motivational theories to satisfy the employee because it is very important to encourage employees to achieve company goals efficiently and effectively which would leap benefits for the organisation in terms of achieving higher profits. Basically hard work and struggle makes the heart satisfied in true meaning "hard workers are the friends of God".