Literature Review of Changes in Management Behaviour

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INTRODUCTION

This literature review explores the changes that have occurred in management work during the last 40 years (i.e. during the working life of somebody about to retire) and the changes that are likely to occur in management work during the next 40 years (i.e. during the working life of somebody who is just starting a career) using concept of motivation, different motivational theories and details some of the motivational tools used within business organizations on a macro level. Motivation theories and techniques are widely used both within normal every day life and the corporate environment. Managers now understand the importance and effects of motivation on their employees in achieving business goals and objectives. The review concludes by explaining how Technology's Impact on Management Styles.

Management Changes in terms of Behaviour and Culture.

Organizational culture and behavior, although different in meaning, signify two very important aspects of people management. These terms are largely related to the psychology of employees, and these two tools can be used and have been used by the management to improve the efficiency and work-rate of employees in an organization in the past and is still being used. So what is organizational culture and structure? Let us examine both these terms one by one.

To understand what is organizational culture, we first need to understand what culture is. Culture is a set of values that are adopted by people who cohabit any place. For example, when we refer to a culture of a particular place (say, Polish Culture) we are talking about the shared traits of the people who lived there, their lifestyles, their rituals, etc. If we apply this definition of culture with the prefixed word 'organization', we are referring to the rules and the underlying values of an organization that are constant and apply to all employees, without any bias or favouritism. It is the foundation of the overt and covert behaviours and reactions of all people that work in an organization.

Going into the depth of this subject, it is said that organizational culture and ethics can be broken up into 3 tiers on an organizational culture pyramid. The lowest tier is that of artifacts and behaviors. Artifacts and behaviors are the most tangible aspects of organizational culture. The physical layout of the workplace and the displayed behaviors of the employees comprise this level. The next tier on the organizational culture pyramid is that of values. Values are those thoughts which influence the assumptions and behaviors of employees. Hence they are tangible. The top tier on the organizational culture pyramid is that of assumptions and beliefs. This tier is the most crucial and intangible aspect of organizational culture. At the same time assumptions and beliefs are toughest to imbibe in the employees and takes time. But once the employees are in tune with the assumptions and beliefs of the organization, they stay on and impact the values and behaviors of the employees.

Thus we can see that it is very important that a good organizational culture is created, taught and followed. It is the responsibility of the management to create a good organizational culture through organizational leadership which is harmonious, symbiotic and realistic. A good organizational culture based on mutual respect fosters teamwork and efficiency. These changes are what management has seen and hope to improve in the life of an employee just starting a career.

Organizational Behaviour

Organizational culture and behaviour are quite interrelated as organizational culture influences behaviour structure and vice-versa. Organizational behaviour is the study of how individuals behave in an organization. It is one of the key areas in the field of management. Organizational behaviour, as the name suggests, studies the behaviours of individuals but is restricted to the behaviours displayed by them in the organization. It deals with the overt and covert behaviours of employees and their response to certain stimuli. It also studies an important branch of group and team dynamics. The point of studying organizational behaviour by managers is to understand the behaviours of employees, why they behave in a particular way, and look for ways in which wrong employee behaviors can be improved.

Over the years several organizational behavior theories have been suggested. These theories gave the various models of organizational systems. Organizational systems have been modified over time to ensure employee satisfaction and organizational progress. Organizational behavior is the art and science which advocates that there can indeed be mutual satisfaction between employees and the management as opposed to the old notion that these two parties are always at loggerheads due to disparate visions. Organizational behavior says that a shared vision and employee motivation leads an organization towards success.

This was all about organizational culture and behavior. It is interesting to know that organizational culture is a part of the vast topic of organizational behavior. After all, organizational culture too deals with the modification and improvement in organizational behavior of individuals.

Motivation Theories within Organization.

Nowadays it is widely accepted that the most important resource of any company are its employees; therefore competent manager need to have the clear understanding what motivates their subordinates to achieve effective performance as from efficiency of their work the success of the organization depends. Consequently, the task of manager consists in as much as possible effectively to use personnel opportunities. In independence on the manager decision the effect from it can be received only in case if this decision would successfully be embodied in the employees' affairs. And it can occur only in case if workers are interested in results of the work. For this reason, it is necessary to motivate the person, to induce to action.  

"Motivation is a combination of needs that influence behavior and action" (Kressler, 2003). In case if an employee is to successfully complete a task in any organization, he or she requires motivation, performance capacity and development potential in order to activate

skills, experiences, talents and creative energies, and reach company goals.  

The main purpose of this assignment is the consideration and analysis of motivation theories (content & process theories), on which based the modern management within organization, for effective human resource management. Thus it is necessary to examine these theories in terms of its strength and weaknesses and also practical relevance in understanding what and how to motivate employee for organization.  

In order to gain the basic knowledge about the theories of motivation the Maslow's theory of need will be considered and analyzed in terms of its strength and weaknesses and also practical relevance in organization. In his well-known theory Abraham Maslow proposed that individuals have a basic set of needs and that this needs are arranged as hierarchy of needs. Maslow is well known for his theory known as the Hierarchy of Needs.   Maslow's hierarchy is set up in a pyramid starting with the most basic needs at the bottom and working up to the most advanced needs.   He claimed that we as humans are motivated by unsatisfied needs.   Also, certain lower needs have to be satisfied before higher needs can be obtained.   At the lowest level, we need certain physical needs, such as food, air, and water.

To be able to understand what motivates someone, we first must look at what motivation is.   According to Webster's dictionary, motivation is something (as a need or desire) that causes a person to act (Dictionary).   Motivation is also said to be an inner desire to satisfy an unsatisfied need. What this is telling us is that we are motivated if we need or desire something.   Motivation is based upon a satisfaction of something deep inside us.

Keywords (Motivation, Classification, Theory, Learning Organization) have led to so many changes in management behaviour over the years and will still lead to as many changes as possible.

Motivation is having the desire and willingness to do something. In psychology, motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior. Motivation is a temporal and dynamic state and it should not be confused with an individual's personality or emotions. Different things motivate everyone and some of these factors are not monitory orientated: instead they react more effectively to incentives that offer personnel recognition and achievement. Motivation is based on individual needs, not external influences. When an individual wants to do something for need, motivation occurs automatically.

Within an organization motivation can have an effect on critical business outputs such as yield, customer complaints and customer demand. This can be said to have changed over the years and is sill changing.

Lets use an example to find out how motivation works in an organisation to improve changes over the years:

Our organization is experiencing a problem in that sales are lower than they have been in ten years and we need to make drastic changes in order to improve the motivation of our employees, said the CEO of one of the largest paper plate producing business in Corby, Nathants.

Mr. Kingsley, the CEO, knew that motivation of employees was important because of its significance as a determinant of performance and its intangible nature.   Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to choose certain behaviors from among the many alternatives open to them and is key to the success of any business. Mr. Kingsley hired a consulting firm to determine the best motivation techniques to use to motivate the administrative, production and sales personnel at his company.   What follows is the motivational theories use by the Corby Paper Company to recover from the great recession of and how thirty years later businesses are still learning from the theories that prepared this paper company to be a role model for organizational behavior for over twenty years.  

One of the key aspects of management is motivating.   Finding the right form of motivation is a problem that's been around ever since motivation in the work place was conceived as an idea.   As of now, there are several theories to what kind of motivation works the best to get an employee motivated to produce their best work.   Unfortunately, many try motivating employees by using extrinsic rewards, such as cash or the like.   What they don't realize is that in the long run, this is making their employees less productive than they were to start with. After this we have esteem as the need.   We need to feel achievement, status, prestige, and mastery.   The highest level of the hierarchy is self actualization.   This involves true personal fulfilment.

Computer Changes And Their Impact On Management

The world of computers is a field that is not only very young, but is also rapidly changing.   In one lifetime, computers have evolved from a multimillion dollar unit that filled entire buildings, to a few hundred dollar personal computer that fits on a desktop with more power than its predecessor.   How does this change in cost, size and power affect our management decisions?   To look at these areas, it should be understood that each characteristic not only makes a significant impact for management, but is enhanced by the other two changes.

The reduction in computer costs over time has the obvious implications of reduced overhead costs for a company's management and possibly a smaller budget requirement for the information technologies department.   Closer inspection of the lower computer costs shows that the reduced overhead can have a number of implications dependent

on management decisions.   One decision would be to show an increased profit

on the end product's margins.   This makes stockholders very happy.  

Management could also decide to provide more computer technology for the company without an increase in budget, or provide hardware with less compromise in   functionality.   The additional money could be used for additional specialty computer hardware that would not normally be purchased.   A company would have to research whether the increase in computer technology would be able to provide the necessary competitive advantages or productivity increases.   Management might also decide to take an exhaustive look at the entire company and its business process' to determine if other areas might use the money for upgrades as well.   These upgrades can be in the manufacturing process, research and development, sales, or in manufacturing to name a few.

The reduction in cost also impacts the reduction in size of the computer hardware which has been getting smaller and smaller.

"The productivity of work is not the responsibility of the worker but of the manager" (Drucker 2005). For a company to be successful, they must have effective managers. Management must continually build upon their failures in order to find a method that works well for them and the organization. Throughout history, business leaders and academia have discovered new ways to improve on the different styles of management. There are various management styles beginning in the classical era and continuing on to the contemporary era.   The classical approaches to management included styles such as Systematic Management and Human Relations, all which were practiced prior to WWII.   The contemporary approaches, which began after WWII, include Organizational Behavior and the Contingency Perspective. Technology has influenced the methods in which organizations manage. As technology progresses, we continue to see approaches designed to accommodate these advances.

An engineer named Fredrick Winslow Taylor developed scientific management. Taylor introduced the idea of using scientific method to find problems with efficiency in a company or process. By using the scientific method in making management decisions Taylor believed he could make managers and workers more efficient and happier in their jobs. Taylor wanted to "pay workers according to their productivity while at the same time improving working conditions" (European business forum). Taylor theorized that making the worker's environment more pleasing would in turn make them more efficient, and productive.

Change's In Technology in the past 40 years.

• Computers: Computers have had a dramatic change from the way they used to be, when a computer would take up an entire room and weighed tons of pounds and had the same amount of power as a scientific calculator. Now, computers come in all shapes and sizes to suit your personal needs, weather it be a laptop, or a normal pc with a flat screen anything really.

Another major invention was the internet. This is a massive change not only to the computer world, but to the entire world as well. The internet has many different facades, ranging from newsgroups, where you can choose almost any topic to discuss with a range of many others, from university professors, to the average person, to email, where you can chat in real time to people all over the world, to the World Wide Web which is a mass of information networked from places around the world

• Telephone:

In modern life, telephone has become a daily tool and essential in everyday life. But it was very rare 40 years ago. At the end of the 1960's, telephone existed as equipment in offices.

In 1982, the first row of coin phones emerged in Beijing, from that, more and more public telephones were beginning to appear

In the 1990's, phones started to become more and more popular around the world.

Now in the 21st century, phones play a big role in everyone's life, recently some top IT companies have began to put forward new products that connect mobile phone together with the internet.

• Fax Machines:

Fax machines have gone through some changes but most would agree that the biggest change has been from thermal paper to plain paper. Obviously, I would have remembered thermal paper but times sure have changed. Thermal fax machines were ones with long roll of paper and each fax would be cut to the size that it transmitted.

Plain paper faxes now have saturated the market and the prices have dropped so that anyone can afford them.

CONCLUSIONS

It is not in doubt that, we will always have changes in

Skill Variety, Task Identity, Task Significant, Autonomy, Feedback and Improved technology this should tell the difference between work in the working life of somebody about to retire and somebody who is just starting a career.

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