Libyan Telecommunications

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The Libyan Telecommunication Company

Since the company was established and formed, the management has no control or decision making over the company's future. The company belongs to the government like everything else; as the project talks about the management structure the Libyan communication company has no promising future in expansion and development.

The Libyan telecommunication company provides communications services, and this service includes landlines, mobile phones, broadband, and TV services for the most Libyan cities, and their management structure contains four management sections that manage the company according to the managerial structure of the company are communication and messaging management, management of exchange such as(MGW) media gateway, control centers and maintenance, Network Management, and support management and adaptation.

The Libyan communication system has been updated technical wise, but the business operation including the management structure and the expansion still need to be authorized by the government or the one in charge in the infrastructure of the new Libyan development plan. For the company to get a head in expansion and development they have to find a role model in this field, in this project the British Telecommunication system was the best around the world to learn from and adopt its basic management system module.

British telecommunication (BT):

British Telecommunications provides a communications services. This service includes landlines, mobile phones, broadband and TV services. BT is one of the world's leading companies in telecommunications solutions and services Operating in 170 countries. The main activities includes networked IT services, local, national and international telecommunication services and higher value broadband and internet products and services.

In the UK BT serves over 18 million business and residential customers with more than 28 million exchange lines. BT group consist of four customer line business:

Figure 3 shows how the company operates in many ventures such as the financial sector in which deals with accountancy, money transactions, stock market, banks, exchange market, and everything else involving finance. Then there is the customer service sector where the company has an army of phone operators to deal with customers. To try to attract a new target audience if possible and answers customer calling with care and establish a proper communication with customers. The MD markets is where the whole sector deals with the movement of the company investments, and the communication system dealing with the communication management structure similar with what the Libyan management structure shows in figure 1,2, this section is the only section the Libyan communication company have at this moment.

The next sector is operation management which is responsible for all operations around the world regarding risk management plans and contingency plans.

The HR sector deals with human resources where they have data on all the BT employees around the world and they are also responsible for work enforcement, the marketing functions has increased with the time and the use of advanced technology in marketing has increased considerably such as telemarketing in which any company can reach large amount of their target audience by click of a button, or sending e-mails with one merging e-mail for one million of their customers or pop up advertising, but the most function in marketing has proofed the most effective and increased communication between the company and the customers is the (company website) in which opened doors for both organizations and customers to get closer.

The second reason why business needs to create and develop their business database, because the trade online require an effective website that can reach wide target audience using the SQL the most widely used database management system as its free online and it works very effectively and can be installed from most web hosts, to sum up the rational as follow:

The MD Service Design specializes in designing products, services and innovation and also engineering processing, such as technology design or product design that are made especially for BT, The new business system today has new advantages when it start creating electronic business that has been for quite some time in the west and start to catch up in the rest of the world, creating verity in business system such as e-commerce and e-marketing with coded and encrypted numbers can enable computers experts to create data that create information and images on the internet for businesses.

The company with their advantage of the expertise has used the DFD language many times before for many local businesses and trying to create a new system that will rime with their company reputation and enhance the encrypted system to make it more secure for themselves and their customers, the company needs to create more control on the data as their customers are local businesses that buying software and other technological parts.

The company has to create control about the distribution channels and the technology production line database such as information about employees ID numbers and references, employee's files, customer's files and even products performance such as software performance and capabilities.

The next sector is the Major Programmed which is different from the operation sector, as they are responsible for the design and analysis of the programmed that are suggested by the board of Directors.

The next sector is the Products and Strategy which operate according to the movements of the markets, as the products and strategy change rapidly.

The Legal Sector is responsible for dealing with all legal matters that are affecting the company, such as representing the company in court cases where the company is being sued by other companies or individuals, and following the company's business legal papers proceedings such as patients or licenses and give the proper legal advice to the company MDs for taking the proper decisions.

The last sector that has been created is the 21 CN customer experience and it is an innovation sector from BT for their customers and this sector is basically software that has been developed to create new experiences for BT to close the gap of communications. BT Communications Markets, 2001.

The Management missing links

The background of the problem contain explanation about the two companies in comparison and the difference in technology and management between them and the gap that exists, as the British Communication was established and formed long before the Libyan Communication, and has been advancing and expanding ever since.

Competition in the telecommunication industry is very strong; it depends critically on the quality of the services provided, safety, and on-time delivery of services. Demand for this service or product is driven by factors virtually outside the control of the Libyan company and its management. The products of telecommunications cannot be stored, they have to be consumed immediately, and this characteristic adds to the importance of quality as a major player in the competition for market share. The costs incurred in the services provided by the telecommunication consist of many elements.

The implementation of a quality management system becomes an essential factor in continuous improvement to produce good quality services at competitive prices in the telecommunication industry.

This research begins by defining concepts of quality over the past two decades, explaining how quality management is important for any firm, and then defining the cost of quality. The literature review goes on to cover the basic aspects of quality management.

The methodology was adopted by the researcher to undertake the objectives, specifically calculating the costs of quality. This research is drawn from books, e-books, journals and the Internet.

This research has given the quality standards followed in most firms: these are ISO 9000, Six Sigma, and QFD.

ISO is the International Organization for Standardization and is administered by accreditation and certification bodies. ISO 9000 is a kind of standard for quality management systems; it is maintained by the ISO. Some of the requirements in ISO 9000 include: covering all key processes in the business; regularly reviewing person processes and the quality system itself for effectiveness; continual improvement of quality; and monitoring processes to make sure they are successful

Six Sigma is a business management strategy, originally developed by Motorola that today enjoys widespread application in many sectors of industry, Six Sigma looks to know and remove the causes of defects and errors in industrial and business processes. It uses quality management methods, including statistical methods. Six Sigma carried out within an organization follows a distinct series of steps to reduce costs and increase profits.

Quality function deployment (QFD) was originally developed by Yoji Akao in 1966; he combined his work in quality pledge and quality control. Akao described QFD as a "method to transform user demands into design quality, to deploy the functions forming quality, and to deploy methods for achieving the design quality into subsystems and component parts, and ultimately to specific elements of the manufacturing process." (Akao, 1994)

QFD has been used by some firms and organizations. It is about improving design to help planners focus on a new or active product or service from the viewpoint of development needs, the definition of quality varies from person to person and from one organization to another. The British Standard Institute (BSI) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) define quality as "the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy the given needs". It is defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) as "the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements", where requirements are the need to meet stated expectations, generally implied or obligatory, and characteristics are distinguishing features. These can be: behavioural (courtesy, honesty, truthfulness); ergonomic (physiological or safety-related); physical (such as the strength of a material); sensory (such as smell, taste); temporal (reliability, punctuality, availability); or functional (such as maximum speed). Requirements are needs or expectations that are stated, implicit, or mandatory (ISO 9000).

The next few diagrams will show the comparison of the two companies and their management structure, and will show that BT has more management function than the Libyan company, as the Libyan company contains only one operation sector, which is how to deliver basic communication services to the customers, also, the business 2 business operation is very basic and still outdated with limited support.

The gap that exists between the two companies includes about 11 departments, which need to be created to reach the British telecommunication management system. As the Libyan company depends solely on the Libyan government decisions and instructions, lately, the government took a new direction thinking of a new infrastructure for the country. Some researchers suggested that the Libyan companies should find a role model for their plans to start designing a new updated system.

Figure 4 shows the example of the company operation management structure that led the BT to a great success and expansion as the one of the most active sector in the company management structure, and the operation includes the following: BT Retail: is the largest UK communication service provider. It supplies wide range of communication service, such as voice, data, internet and multimedia service.

BT wholesales: provide network service and solutions within the UK include ADSL. It serves over 700 communication companies Open reach: It providing products such as wholesale line rental and local loop unbundled lines to around 400 communication companies. BT global service: it provides global reach and a complete range of networked IT solutions and services. (Oftel, Office of Telecommunications, 2001).

The investment section is very important for BT as it is the main stream for the company money transactions and sales and marketing operations, and the importance of the this section is to increase the revenue of the company by encouraging companies and individuals such as customers and employees to buy shares from the company and try to attract shareholders to invest their money in the company stock market operations, but the idea of investments must come first after the government apply the system of privatization for most companies to be able to succeed in the market locally and globally.

Telecommunication reviews

According to the editors Brian Levy and Pablo T. Spiller in their book regulations, institutions, and the commitment, the book study about the comparative in telecommunications around the world. It study's the performance, the success or failure factors of many countries that their telecommunication system are similar to the Libyan telecommunication company and their micro and macro business environments are similar to Libya as a country. Brian Levy, Pablo. T. Spiller, 1996.

In the next book the author Christian Marc Ringle explains of how prober strategic management can create opportunities and raise challenge to big corporations as in our study if the Libyan company can learn and plan, they might create this challenge if they adopt the right strategic management plan. Christian Marc Ringle, 2000.

The costs of telecommunication reviews

"The core issues in the literature on telecommunication and other public utility costs are the derivation and test of conditions that guarantee the natural monopoly character of the sector. In the case of a single product firm, the analysis is not complicated. The case of multi-product industries is relatively more complex and empirically more intensive". The much referred-to multiproduct industry theory developed by Baumol, Panzar and Willig (1982) suggests that the test of Global subadditivity determines the presence of a natural monopoly in an industry" Baumol, Panzar and Willig (1982).

"Armstrong and Fuhr's (1993) estimations show that the lower the density of the subscribers, the higher the fixed costs. On the other hand, vintage and the number of access lines are found significantly and positively related to NTS costs. The fixed cost per access line is also found significantly and inversely related to population density. The size of the firm is found moderately significant, indicating higher fixed costs for firms above 5000 access lines. On the contrary, when operating costs are considered, lower density does not necessarily mean higher overall costs. Armstrong and Fuhr, 1993.


The theory comparison has two sides that shares the same powerful ideas and share the same research tools with similar results, but the danger of misunderstanding of the hidden in theoretical meanings of the theories, might mislead researchers mind in different directions.

The use of a theory, has to be tested and understood properly the hidden meanings of each analysis in the philosophical sense, to dig in the theory itself, the researcher state of mind when wrote the report, the analysis always based on a survey, research, hypothesis and the researcher own personal conclusions, this methodology is widely recognized for confirmatory studies in the same subject and it covers all aspects of the study.

The research has different methodologies used to identify novel factors in different aspects in the research itself, these methods helped researcher to get closer to results and identify any problems that arose.

In the representation and inference in the comparative case study by Douglas Dion, the writer convey the notion that the dependent variable in the political involvement by choosing events that happened and gathering information about how and when the events happened, to determining what all events have in common and why, the methods has proofed accuracy for targeting selected dependent variable. Dion, 1998.

The survey Participants:

The research depends heavily on the main participants when it comes to sociology study, as the main factor in the study are individuals or in case of group learning (families), the participants will be asked to contribute time for any empirical research and they will be pay for their time.

This study was designed to use a mailing survey for information collection about the particular topic and the outcome performance. A mail survey provides the most appropriate balance to obtain relevant, up to date information from a large variety of companies either by regular post or online application, the survey will target individuals and families involved in the circle of the society and the surrounding environments.

Since scientists find different types of research methods, they realize that the research does not represent individual, the human characters represent individuality, the field advanced and theories explored the scientists and researchers begin to divide about ideas and theories and which way is the best for results, the first person in sociology invented the positivism were presenting theory about using positivism as a theory for the research. The inventor claims that seeing things more positive, and establish ground methods for every research, and see there is more to find, in the other hand the anti positive who are the opposite who see things the way they are in which in later in this section will realize that those individuals or character are the favorites of quantities research. Norrie, Lawson, Collier, Bhaskar, Archer, 1998.

The qualitative and quantitative methods are the main debate as theories. The qualitative research involve many variables quantitative involve many phenomena and view variables, the two has it operation but some argue that if they combine the two will deliver convincing results in which will help researcher see the large picture., Well others are skeptical about the combining the two methods.

The quantitative analysis measuring things with the use of natural science, qualitative methods measuring things using the philosophical methods in which generating theories of positivism to predict the future as there is more to explore and discover through research and through reveal the human soul.

The quantitative research relay on numbers and information that has been represented in a mathematical sense or as data configuration with tables and numerous numerical codes that represent the quantity of the information that has been supplied by computer or the calculation from the research point of view, as these methods is counted reliable to some scientists when they use the variable can be identified and controlled in the other hand the qualitative research paradigm is more reliable and widely used among researchers and recommended mainly because the direct interaction with living recipients who help researchers to find out more than they expect. Eisenhardet , 1989.

The scientists argue that the use of qualitative paradigm are some time vicious by using human and animal for research by isolating one another just for the sake of results as the quantitative research paradigm users only using blackboard and computers to calculate numbers and configure as they press at the theory as immoral and more expensive than quantitative research.

The interpretation of social studies is defined as values of the qualitative social science in which represent the physical and social reality together as one aspect in the qualitative research, the concept of social science is research that suggest the sustainability of social reality using the traditional research methods.

The interpretive research paradigm as the use of the qualitative research using the small samples of using living being, not appropriate, as mentioned earlier unethical because when the samples are in use in the experiments, the variables which are the human or animal cannot cancel one another as a replacement and that is the dilemma of the traditional research as in quantitative variables can be little or large it is still replace and cancel one another as they are just a data and numbers. Greenwood, 1994.

Gathering, analyzing data:

In this chapter the first stage of the project is gathering primary information for the Libyan telecommunication company as there is not enough data to support the project from any sources in Libya and the information provided is really outdated and poor. The most important factors in this research are people and numbers, the project will commence on gathering primary and secondary data.

Qualitative and Quantitative research

Ethnographic Research, this type of research has being used more often in sociology to focus on cultures of certain societies and how new comers deal and blend in the new type of culture, the research study the behaviors of human and their performance for everyday life.

The critical social research gives more understanding about people communication skills and how using human natural abilities will help not losing the human touch.

The Ethical inquiry is an intellectual analysis of ethical backgrounds problems such as deal with ethical issues in ever day's life in societies such as at work, public places, and other ventures where people meet and gather.

Foundational Research examines the foundations for a science in which analyses the beliefs and develops ways to specify how a knowledge base should change when new data comes along and in the changing in the events.

Historical Research help the research find data that has being conducted by other researchers in the same field and extract useful information from their empirical field research

Grounded Theory is used when research based the study on other theory and develops other theory on the same research and tries to find different aspect on the same ground.

Phenomenological Research which an opportunity to study and research an expected or unexpected arising of event(s).

Philosophical Research is conducted by field experts within the boundaries of a specific field such as sociology, the research use the qualified individuals of the field to use the intellectual analyses in order to clarify definitions, identify ethics or make a value judgment concerning an issue in their field of study.

Secondary Data collection

The secondary data used as collecting other researchers and publishers theories that explored and excavated the field, run many interviews and collected many data in their journey of the research, which give the new researcher the chance to study their empirical field experience and enhance the idea about the research. The previous books, researches, and journals relevant to the present research were reviewed, and in order to reach the target of the present research the author used descriptive statistics regarding to mean and standard deviation, the following are the main points.

  • * The generation of models, theories, and hypotheses * The development of instruments and manipulation of variables * Experimental control and manipulation of variables * Collecting of empirical data * Modeling and analysis of data * Evaluation of results
  • Risks of failing the project

    The risks I have to consider when preparing the project are many things, most of which might occur as I start the project or some times in the middle of it, such as illness or death in the family if that occur, my contingency plan is continue doing the project but reducing the hour as I will busy with the unexpected event.

    The other unexpected event is traveling far for a seminar or meeting some one important, the risk here is I won't be present in the UK for any emergency that might occur about my project, and my contingency plan is to carry my laptop with me with the full communication gears and gadgets as online chat to be able to communicate with my supervisor or colleges to be informed of any changes or new instructions.

    My Plan for the project:

    First two weeks from commencing the project I will travel to Libya for the purpose of gathering as much data as possible, and the communication with both colleges and the supervisor will be through the e-mail and chat room if possible to monitor any changes or progress.

    After that when I get back to England to share these information with colleges and the supervisor just to put these information for analysis to verify what I need, and in the third week I will start organize my thoughts and papers and organize what has been requested from me, the forth week is the time to arrange few interviews with my supervisor to discuss any changes or alteration in the project and show the supervisor the information available to me that I brought from Libya.

    The fifth week gathers all my papers and data and after discussed all the aspect of the dissertation, I will commence righting my dissertation in the sixth week until the tenth week, then I have about one week to submit my papers, and this week extra for any unexpected events.

    The plan mentioned is timed and organized perfectly, but as a person believe in good management I have to come up with contingency plan for unexpected turn of event such as the flight delays in Libya or in England, or when booking a ticket finding the schedules' of an airline is fully booked till August, or just have family emergency that might delay my project and the submission of my papers.


    The project aims and objectives are to achieve building a system in telecommunication by adopting the British telecommunication system or a similar system as a role model to follow. This will require the Libyan government to support the project politically and financially for it to be successful.

    Covering the missing links:

    The first thing is fix the company's Management structure and system.

    Privatize the company and appoints its employees as shareholders, and then the senior employees have to appoint CEO for the company by free election and also appointing a board of directors.

    Companies in Libya need to build shares and investments to grow their revenue and expand their horizons. The Libyan communication company needs to be independent from the government as soon as the government announces their new plans to privatize local companies.

    When the company realizes that the investment department starts working, they need to create another department to handle all the financial matters.

    Create customer service department and appoint director to manage customer enquiries with call centers around the country and customer care centers to come close to people and give more attention by provide more connection with people.

    The legal services such as solicitors should have their own department for legal advice and sorting international company problems when it occurs, this department in international companies as BT is very important and active because it deals daily with court cases from companies and individuals and sorts any conflict or debate about the business.

    The HR department at the moment in the Libyan telecommunication company is an office with one employee sorting out empty files with a small archive, when it should be a whole department with a director appointed to manage the internal customers (employees) as this department deals with the human resources of the company and should have a very extensive archive about each employee.

    They need to create an operation and major programmed department specializing in risk management as a defense structure management, and their job will be to help the company apply and implement contingency plans to avoid future problems.

    The departments mentioned should be enough for now, as the Libyan company at this time still needs to focus on the local market.


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