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Human Resource Management
Human Resource is the department within an organization whose responsibilities are providing direction, recruitment of, management of the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers
It is also a strategic and comprehensive approach about how to managing the people and workplace, environment and culture.
Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company's benefit and the accomplishment of the organization's objectives and goals
Leadership is an abstract quality in a human being to induce others (his followers) to do whatever they are directed to do with zeal and confidence. It is a quality or ability of an individual to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically.
"Leadership" is an inter-personal influence exercised in a situation and directed through communication process, towards the attainment of a specialised goal or goals" -Robert Tannehbaum
Every organization-family, group, society, business, government or any other organization needs a leader who leads the organization to the best of his ability.
The leader is the force of the organizations that designs, executes, coordinates, and controls all the function of an organization, i.e. planning, executing, organizing, directing, and controlling
Leadership and Management:
Leadership is sometime misunderstood with words in management.
Some scientist treat leadership and manager ship as synonymous but they are not synonymous. It is however; true that effective management requires effective leadership
Berris once commented
"There are many institutions, I know are well managed but very poorly led" this statement is fair enough to differentiate between management and leadership.
Theories of Leadership
Executive - The manager has both a high task orientation and a high relationship orientation.
Compromiser - Poor at making and sticking to decisions
Benevolent Autocrat - Has some trust and regard for his team so is more effective
Autocrat - Has no confidence in others and is unpleasant, overbearing and less effective
Developer - Trust the team implicitly and wants to develop them as people
Missionary Interested - Focussed on harmony and cooperation so not as effective
Deserter - Someone who is uninvolved and withdrawn
"Great Man" Theories:
Great man theoriesÂ assume that the leadership is inherent.
According to this theory great leaders are born, not made. Such type of theories often portray great leaders as mythic, a role model, heroic and destined to rise to leadership when needed.
This theory identifies the traits of leaders due to which they are leaders in other words what characterises are in leaders as compared to those who are not leaders. These theories rest on the assumption that leaders were born to lead due to their qualities which they have from their birth, which other persons don't have.
It says that leadership is only to the chosen ones and not accessible to all. These approaches have been discouraged for this reason and led to failure because there has been little consistency in the lists of characteristics which research has discovered.
These theories of leadership focus on some specific variables which are related to the environment and situations that might determine which style of leadership is best for that situation and environment. According to this theory:
"No leadership style is best in all situations".
Success of these theories depends upon number different factors, including aspects of the situation, the qualities of the followers and leadership style.
These propose that leaders choose the best action based upon situational variables. Different types of leadership may be more suitable for certain types of decision-making.
Ohio State University research has given four situational variables that affect behaviour
Differences between individuals
Differences between jobs
Difference between organizations
Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the concept that great leaders are made, not born. This theory focuses on the style of leaderships and on actions of leaders not on their internal states or mental qualities.
According to this theory,
Persons canÂ learn or forcedÂ to become leaders through teaching and observation.
These theories suggest that the leadership style is one that takes the ideas of others people into their knowledge. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from other members and help group members to make relevant to the decision-making process and feel them more committed towards organization goals. In these theories, however, the leader has the right to allow the other people to give their input.
These theories are also known as transformational theories which highlight the connections which are formed between leaders and followers.Â
Transformational leadersÂ inspire and motivate people by helping group members focusing on the importance and higher good of the task. Such types of leaders are focused on the performance of their sub-ordinates, but also want each person to fulfil their potential which they have in them. Leaders with such styles often have high moralÂ and ethical.
These are as follow:
Traditional Leadership - Based on birth or heredity
TheÂ Traditional Leadership by Max WeberÂ is "based on the belief that power is bestowed on the leader based on the traditions of the past".
Charismatic Leadership - Based on personality,
This type of leaders leads by infusing energy and eagerness in their team members. This type of leader are committed to their organization for the long term success
Situational Leadership - Based on the right person for the situation
"Today's organizations need heroes at every level. To truly succeed in a turbulent world, more than half the workforce needs to step up to the plate in some arena and provide change leadership" .as said by John Kotter
Appointed Leader - has bureaucratic authority with a rational or legal basis
Leader is one which is appointed by a higher authority in an organizational unit; usually these leaders are in a managerial position, or to a team leader.
Functional Leadership - Leader like behaviour
These types of leadership are not as a person but actually it is a set of behaviours which help a group to perform their task or reach their goal.
Some characteristics of leadership which are found through research are as follow:
Acceptance of responsibility
Skills of leadership which a leader follows are:
Acceptance by people at all levels
Encouraging initiative in others delegation
Kilpatrick and Locke Approach:
Kilpatrick and Locke (1991) in a meta-analysis supported trait theories which says that leaders are born not made due their personal qualities which they inherit or God gifted
They did seem to find some consistency around the traits which are as follow:
Honesty and Integrity,
Drive to achieve,
The motivation to lead,
Including the ability to withstand setbacks, standing firm and being cognitive ability; knowledge of the business; and emotionally resilient. They also note the importance of managing the perceptions of others persons which are in relation to these characteristics.
Peter Guy Northouse, is Professor of Communication at Western Michigan University and thus has wide experience of teaching communication and leadership to both undergraduate and graduate classes
"The trait approach emphasizes theÂ personality characteristicsÂ of the leader; the style approach emphasizes theÂ behaviourÂ of the leader"
Northouse (2006) provided a historical comparison for the lists of traits which are uncovered in other studies. The most well-known expression for the trait theory is the work relating to charismatic leadership. House (1976), for example, describing charismatic leaders as being dominant and having a strong desire to influence other peoples
Northouse (2006) suggests that there are components that characterise leadership which are as follow
Leadership is a process;
It occurs within a group context
It involves influence
And it involves goal attainment.
Blake and Mouton Approach:
Whereas Blake and Mouton supported the behavioural theories they believe that leaders are made not born.
If any person is provided with the environment and training he will learn leadership quality
Robert R.Â BlakeÂ and Jane SrygleyÂ MoutonÂ worked together atÂ theÂ psychology department ofÂ the University of Texas duringÂ theÂ 1950s and 1960s. They are known primarily forÂ theÂ development ofÂ the "ManagerialÂ Grid" as a framework for understandingÂ managerialÂ behaviour.
They set up a company, Scientific Methods Inc., to disseminate their ideas on organisational development and management effectiveness
Managerial Grid which they developed is as follow
Country Club Leadership:
This type of leader is mostly concerned about the needs and feelings of people of their team. These people work under the assumption that as long as their team is secure and happy then they will work hard and give maximum output. That environment is very relaxed and fun for the team members but production suffers due to lack of direction and control.
Produce or Perish Leadership:
It is also known as Authoritarian/Compliance Leaders,
"Leaders in this category believe that employees are not that much important".
Employee needs always come on secondary level to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader is autocratic; it has procedures, work rules, strict policies, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate the employees.
These types of leaders are mostly ineffective leaders. Leader has neither a high regard for making a systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work environment which satisfy and motivate employee. This creates a place of dissatisfaction, disorganization, and disharmony.
According to the Blake and Mouton model, "this is the most important managerial style among all".
These leaders stress on production needs and also on the needs of the people equally. The main thing here is that employees of the organization are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization's success, their needs and production needs coincide and ultimately organization gets benefit. This creates a team environment which is based on trust and respect that leads to high satisfaction and motivation of the employees and, as a result, high production to the organization.
Conclusions and Analysis:
Kilpatrick and Locke:
Trait theory is very simple. But this failed to explain to produce a clear cut result. The theory could not produce one personality trait or a set of traits that could be used to distinguish a leader from non-leader.
The theory does not consider the whole environment in which leadership develops. Traits may be only one factor.
Many agreed that the use of traits had not proved useful fro selecting leaders. By analysing over a hundred studies it was found that only 5 percent of the traits appeared in four or more studies which was conducted. The theory fails to explain why some person who possessed aome of the traits of the leaders.
Trait failed according to me because it couldn't explain the following.
No exhaustive list of traits:
There is no such a list of traits which could explain the essential characteristics of a successful leader. Even no thinker or researcher could be able to give a single list of traits in order of preference for the leader characteristics.
No consideration for situational factors:
Effective leadership is not a function of traits alone. Traits did not consider situational factors which are important in making a person a leader of a group. Traits come to light only when a situation arises and they are helpful in facing a particular situation but without a situation traits are useless.
Blake and Mouton:
The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid is a useful and practical framework which helps to think about leadership style.
By plotting concern for production on X-axis against concern for people on Y-axis, the grid highlights how placing too much emphasis in any one area on the sake of the other cause to low overall productivity.
This model also proposes that when both "production and people" concerns are high for leadership, employee engagement and productivity increases accordingly, so the both get benefit.
Whereas the grid does not clearly explain the complexity about
Which leadership style is best?
It certainly provides an excellent place to analyze performance and improvement of general leadership skills.
A large organisation adopted the "Managerial Grid" as the framework for its leadership development programme. The programme was generally well accepted and successful application of the team management style was seen to be connected to future promotions.
Most managers, on completing the programme, set out to display 9, 9
leadership behaviours. However, this had unexpected and undesirable consequences.
Not only were team members daunted by their managers suddenly displaying a
different style, but sometimes the 9,9 style was not appropriate in the circumstances
in which it was used. The organisation eventually discontinued the programme due to the damage that it was causing to the organization.