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Human Resource Management

Human Resource is the department within an organization whose responsibilities are providing direction, recruitment of, management of the people who work in the organization. Human Resource Management can also be performed by line managers

It is also a strategic and comprehensive approach about how to managing the people and workplace, environment and culture.

Effective HRM enables employees to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company's benefit and the accomplishment of the organization's objectives and goals


Leadership is an abstract quality in a human being to induce others (his followers) to do whatever they are directed to do with zeal and confidence. It is a quality or ability of an individual to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically.

"Leadership" is an inter-personal influence exercised in a situation and directed through communication process, towards the attainment of a specialised goal or goals" -Robert Tannehbaum

Every organization-family, group, society, business, government or any other organization needs a leader who leads the organization to the best of his ability.

The leader is the force of the organizations that designs, executes, coordinates, and controls all the function of an organization, i.e. planning, executing, organizing, directing, and controlling

Leadership and Management:

Leadership is sometime misunderstood with words in management.

Some scientist treat leadership and manager ship as synonymous but they are not synonymous. It is however; true that effective management requires effective leadership

Berris once commented

"There are many institutions, I know are well managed but very poorly led" this statement is fair enough to differentiate between management and leadership.

Theories of Leadership

Executive - The manager has both a high task orientation and a high relationship orientation.

Compromiser - Poor at making and sticking to decisions

Benevolent Autocrat - Has some trust and regard for his team so is more effective

Autocrat - Has no confidence in others and is unpleasant, overbearing and less effective

Developer - Trust the team implicitly and wants to develop them as people

Missionary Interested - Focussed on harmony and cooperation so not as effective

Deserter - Someone who is uninvolved and withdrawn

"Great Man" Theories:

Great man theories assume that the leadership is inherent.

According to this theory great leaders are born, not made. Such type of theories often portray great leaders as mythic, a role model, heroic and destined to rise to leadership when needed.

Trait Theory

This theory identifies the traits of leaders due to which they are leaders in other words what characterises are in leaders as compared to those who are not leaders. These theories rest on the assumption that leaders were born to lead due to their qualities which they have from their birth, which other persons don't have.

It says that leadership is only to the chosen ones and not accessible to all. These approaches have been discouraged for this reason and led to failure because there has been little consistency in the lists of characteristics which research has discovered.

Contingency Theories:

These theories of leadership focus on some specific variables which are related to the environment and situations that might determine which style of leadership is best for that situation and environment. According to this theory:

"No leadership style is best in all situations".

Success of these theories depends upon number different factors, including aspects of the situation, the qualities of the followers and leadership style.

Situational Theories:

These propose that leaders choose the best action based upon situational variables. Different types of leadership may be more suitable for certain types of decision-making.

Ohio State University research has given four situational variables that affect behaviour

Cultural environment

Differences between individuals

Differences between jobs

Difference between organizations

Behavioural Theory:

Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the concept that great leaders are made, not born. This theory focuses on the style of leaderships and on actions of leaders not on their internal states or mental qualities.

According to this theory,

Persons can learn or forced to become leaders through teaching and observation.

Participative Theories:

These theories suggest that the leadership style is one that takes the ideas of others people into their knowledge. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from other members and help group members to make relevant to the decision-making process and feel them more committed towards organization goals. In these theories, however, the leader has the right to allow the other people to give their input.

Relationship Theories:

These theories are also known as transformational theories which highlight the connections which are formed between leaders and followers. 

Transformational leaders inspire and motivate people by helping group members focusing on the importance and higher good of the task. Such types of leaders are focused on the performance of their sub-ordinates, but also want each person to fulfil their potential which they have in them. Leaders with such styles often have high moral and ethical.

Leadership types

These are as follow:

Traditional Leadership - Based on birth or heredity

The Traditional Leadership by Max Weber is "based on the belief that power is bestowed on the leader based on the traditions of the past".

Charismatic Leadership - Based on personality,

This type of leaders leads by infusing energy and eagerness in their team members. This type of leader are committed to their organization for the long term success

Situational Leadership - Based on the right person for the situation

"Today's organizations need heroes at every level. To truly succeed in a turbulent world, more than half the workforce needs to step up to the plate in some arena and provide change leadership" .as said by John Kotter

Appointed Leader - has bureaucratic authority with a rational or legal basis

Leader is one which is appointed by a higher authority in an organizational unit; usually these leaders are in a managerial position, or to a team leader.

Functional Leadership - Leader like behaviour

These types of leadership are not as a person but actually it is a set of behaviours which help a group to perform their task or reach their goal.

Leadership characteristic

Some characteristics of leadership which are found through research are as follow:

Acceptance of responsibility

Self confidence

General confidence

Sound judgement



Leadership skills

Skills of leadership which a leader follows are:

Organisational ability

Acceptance by people at all levels


Encouraging initiative in others delegation



Problem solving

Course Work:

Kilpatrick and Locke Approach:

Kilpatrick and Locke (1991) in a meta-analysis supported trait theories which says that leaders are born not made due their personal qualities which they inherit or God gifted

They did seem to find some consistency around the traits which are as follow:

Honesty and Integrity,

Drive to achieve,


The motivation to lead,

Including the ability to withstand setbacks, standing firm and being cognitive ability; knowledge of the business; and emotionally resilient. They also note the importance of managing the perceptions of others persons which are in relation to these characteristics.

Peter Guy Northouse, is Professor of Communication at Western Michigan University and thus has wide experience of teaching communication and leadership to both undergraduate and graduate classes

Northouse said

"The trait approach emphasizes the personality characteristics of the leader; the style approach emphasizes the behaviour of the leader"

Northouse (2006) provided a historical comparison for the lists of traits which are uncovered in other studies. The most well-known expression for the trait theory is the work relating to charismatic leadership. House (1976), for example, describing charismatic leaders as being dominant and having a strong desire to influence other peoples

Northouse (2006) suggests that there are components that characterise leadership which are as follow

Leadership is a process;

It occurs within a group context

It involves influence

And it involves goal attainment.

Blake and Mouton Approach:

Whereas Blake and Mouton supported the behavioural theories they believe that leaders are made not born.

If any person is provided with the environment and training he will learn leadership quality

Robert R. Blake and Jane Srygley Mouton worked together at the psychology department of the University of Texas during the 1950s and 1960s. They are known primarily for the development of the "Managerial Grid" as a framework for understanding managerial behaviour.

They set up a company, Scientific Methods Inc., to disseminate their ideas on organisational development and management effectiveness

Managerial Grid which they developed is as follow

Country Club Leadership:

This type of leader is mostly concerned about the needs and feelings of people of their team. These people work under the assumption that as long as their team is secure and happy then they will work hard and give maximum output. That environment is very relaxed and fun for the team members but production suffers due to lack of direction and control.

Produce or Perish Leadership:

It is also known as Authoritarian/Compliance Leaders,

"Leaders in this category believe that employees are not that much important".

Employee needs always come on secondary level to the need for efficient and productive workplaces. This type of leader is autocratic; it has procedures, work rules, strict policies, and views punishment as the most effective means to motivate the employees.

Impoverished Leadership:

These types of leaders are mostly ineffective leaders. Leader has neither a high regard for making a systems for getting the job done, nor for creating a work environment which satisfy and motivate employee. This creates a place of dissatisfaction, disorganization, and disharmony.

Team Leadership:

According to the Blake and Mouton model, "this is the most important managerial style among all".

These leaders stress on production needs and also on the needs of the people equally. The main thing here is that employees of the organization are involved in understanding organizational purpose and determining production needs. When employees are committed to, and have a stake in the organization's success, their needs and production needs coincide and ultimately organization gets benefit. This creates a team environment which is based on trust and respect that leads to high satisfaction and motivation of the employees and, as a result, high production to the organization.

Conclusions and Analysis:

Kilpatrick and Locke:

Trait theory is very simple. But this failed to explain to produce a clear cut result. The theory could not produce one personality trait or a set of traits that could be used to distinguish a leader from non-leader.

The theory does not consider the whole environment in which leadership develops. Traits may be only one factor.

Many agreed that the use of traits had not proved useful fro selecting leaders. By analysing over a hundred studies it was found that only 5 percent of the traits appeared in four or more studies which was conducted. The theory fails to explain why some person who possessed aome of the traits of the leaders.

Trait failed according to me because it couldn't explain the following.

No exhaustive list of traits:

There is no such a list of traits which could explain the essential characteristics of a successful leader. Even no thinker or researcher could be able to give a single list of traits in order of preference for the leader characteristics.

No consideration for situational factors:

Effective leadership is not a function of traits alone. Traits did not consider situational factors which are important in making a person a leader of a group. Traits come to light only when a situation arises and they are helpful in facing a particular situation but without a situation traits are useless.

Blake and Mouton:

The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid is a useful and practical framework which helps to think about leadership style.

By plotting concern for production on X-axis against concern for people on Y-axis, the grid highlights how placing too much emphasis in any one area on the sake of the other cause to low overall productivity.

This model also proposes that when both "production and people" concerns are high for leadership, employee engagement and productivity increases accordingly, so the both get benefit.

Whereas the grid does not clearly explain the complexity about

Which leadership style is best?

It certainly provides an excellent place to analyze performance and improvement of general leadership skills.

A large organisation adopted the "Managerial Grid" as the framework for its leadership development programme. The programme was generally well accepted and successful application of the team management style was seen to be connected to future promotions.

Most managers, on completing the programme, set out to display 9, 9

leadership behaviours. However, this had unexpected and undesirable consequences.

Not only were team members daunted by their managers suddenly displaying a

different style, but sometimes the 9,9 style was not appropriate in the circumstances

in which it was used. The organisation eventually discontinued the programme due to the damage that it was causing to the organization.