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Marks and Spencer is one of the important companies in this world. It is identified as the considerable organizations that trade various products variety under their name. M&S is working in about thirty countries. M&S has a strong customer loyalty and have made a strong brand perception over the years (Duncan, and Everett, 2005). The consumers have confidence and reliability in M & S. According to research (2007), M &S guides the over a majority of its rivals in terms of customer service, trust, quality, variety, reliability and value chain. The organization manages in clothes, foodstuff, home appliances, and financial facilities, with over 20 million customers visiting its stores every week. About 65,000 people are working in this company. It has also a developing company on the international position functioning in Hong Kong, America, Ireland etc. M&S currently has focused on its main local activities, selling off different its global retail stores (Ewing, 2000).
In the UK, it is may be the most important store and it is the considerable organization of clothing in terms of income (Huczynski and Buchanan, 2010). This organization has an essential profitability and success since its establishment with famous position for its modern, excellent products and logical price that present customers importance for their wealth. It is the most favoured company in UK. The services and sales of M&S have been reduced in the time of 1990s. It started to re-assess its general performance and strategic performances it practised the transformation of higher management and swift modification plan throughout the last five years (Duncan, and Everett, 2005). Currently, this organization is maintaining to revitalization and makes development.
Problem in M & S
As the new millennium approached, it became clear that M&S was in serious trouble - falling sales, failed revamps and profit warnings in 1999 wiped a third off the company's share price. The focus of this case is on events at the company since then, but it is relevant to note that the main reason for M&S's millennial misery was that its management did not seem to have its eye on the ball while some key changes were happening in the sector (Ewing, 2000). M&S's broad appeal left it vulnerable to attack by specialist competitors - fashionable designer labels at the top of the market and rapidly growing low-price, good quality market entrants at the bottom. Stuck in the middle, the M&S range started to look uninteresting, even dowdy and was slow to move off the racks. Its international strategy looked over-stretched and risky. As the crisis deepened M&S appointed a new Chairman and Chief Executive in 2000: Belgian-born Luc Vandevelde, whose career experience included the French supermarket group Carrefour. At the same time, M&S hired designer George Davies to develop and introduce the new Per Una range, in order to improve the company's image with the all-important women buyers. By the middle of 2002, things were looking up, and Vandevelde was so confident in the recovery that he started to scale back his commitment to M&S. Unfortunately that confidence proved to be ill-founded. By early 2004, sales and profits were starting to slip again, and later that year Vandevelde resigned, leaving M&S in a dangerously uncertain position (Eagle, and Kitchen, 2000).
Human Policies in M & S
M & S has pursued the important human resources plans to struggle the competition (Cook, 2004). This organization has proceeded through just single aspect but this has developed multifaceted strategic method to struggle the demand of time. Researchers have defined that the organizations maintains the leadership status with about 35% of the UK market with recorded earnings throughout 2007/08, making every £1 out of £4 spent within the UK retail industry (Arnold, Randall, and Silvester et al 2010). To keep its leadership status within the business and being one of the important organizations across the world, it hires a large number of employees to add importance at particular positions of its retail activities.
Improving Management Techniques
The performance management obtained through different effectual approaches of management techniques. The management re-established modern approaches of working job and managing their work responsibilities and roles. The management important methods indulged into the procedure to improve the core capabilities of the employees (Cook, 2004). The performance management is the important aspect to acquire the competitive advantage through the constant inputs of manpower into his procedure of M & S (Armstrong, 2009). This assures in the long term that the permanence can bring the maximum outcomes. The latest strategy of M & S to indulge human resources into this aspect of plan remained a considerable method to bring up the consequences. Especially the contribution the core aspect plan of the organization has considerable input through the staffs and this surely brings the transformations into the procedure.
HR an Agent of Competitive Advantage
The human resource is the essential agent of not just transform but also the agent of competitive advantage. Through suitable functioning of human resource strategies and participation of human sources in to the preparing and decision making establishment of the M & S. It has become probable to support the organizational strategy into the system. This injecting process has established it probable to inspire staffs internally (Anon, 2003). This has brought the consequence into the constructive contribution of staffs at work. According to the M & S management, ''the staffs are additional participative and come up with the brand latest perception. The staffs have become a genuine power of the company this power has given not just the raw perception but also this has assured the accomplishment of competitive advantage that the company has achieved through the attempts of staffs at work. The performance of the company has enhanced widely. This has ensued more pleased consumers (Armstrong, 2009). This surely has enhanced the income level which demonstrates constructive results in the income side.
Concepts and Practices Leadership in Business
The themes of leadership and related topics of persuasion, motivation, changes were brought as stakeholder discussions and research that during the international level, but also by the current period of transition policy and new concepts of authority that accompany it (Bower, 2004). They require no doubt by the pressing needs of competitiveness and upgrade the economy, and proactive role to play in the national dynamics of globalization. People note at the outset that the way they perceive and conceive leadership is not really standardized until now, and it often varies ideologies, cultures, companies, sectors or individuals, and it has evolved in history (Ewing, 2000). There would not he actually many ways to design leadership there are leaders, whether in business (but also in politics, society in civil or military)?
Leadership concepts were strongly influenced in the minds of people; it seems, on the one hand by stereotypes and analogies or amalgams with power authority, chief, boss, and other forms of authority by national policy (Arnold, Randall, and Silvester et al 2010). The references to the great leaders of international stature who inspired each other through time and history have also had some influence. This work highlights the importance of the "soft" management, considered now dominant in the success of the company. The part of the iceberg up this hidden, human resources and knowledge psychological and sociological associated, has become a major issue in comparison with the "hard". Today, although the international literature has become abundant on the theme of leadership, it is nevertheless a complex at the intersection of several disciplines, from social sciences to art.
Dissociation between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation and Staff Satisfaction
A particularly fruitful in the study of motivation that is cleared by the theorists of academic motivation that emphasize the virtues of intrinsic motivation (related to personal satisfaction that can be found to achieve a activity) versus extrinsic motivation or slightly more self-determined (due to the appreciation that you may have to get a reward from the outside or the consequences of this award for self-image and personal goals). Intrinsic motivations are not lacking in their interest. In fact, they appear to be associated with the implementation and spontaneous self-determined learning activities, without external pressures to use or develop a system of extrinsic rewards (Bevan, 2001).
All appear as attractive as the intrinsic motivation compared to other more situational motivations, people can consider for much debate about them as definitively closed. Indeed, play on extrinsic motivation (rewards in various forms, evaluations, social comparisons, more or less severe sanctions ...) does is probably no less effective in terms of learning but requires organization, control and time largest. Moreover, although the distinction between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivations seem more obvious, everyone, teacher or manager knows that there may be areas of passages between these motivations which does not reflect the dichotomy between intrinsic aspects and extrinsic. In this regard, Deci & Ryan (1985) suggest such a process of "internalization" when received reinforcements matter to self-image and a process of "integration" when the individual perceives the behaviour issue as important itself in terms of its own goals and values. Far from being opposed to intrinsic and extrinsic motivations can therefore maintain mutually. People can ask whether a decrease in intrinsic motivation of students (or employees) cannot be explained by disappointment or dissatisfaction with the school (or company) and its system recognition. Finally, the motivation seems more unstable than is usually considered and depends on changes in life trajectory adolescent or adult work. As noted motivation seems to be the result of a set of factors too complex and dynamic to be revealed by quantitative measures and predefined point (Cabinet, 2004).
Motivation, Satisfaction and Productive Behaviour
According to study (2004), there is a relation between work behaviour and satisfaction, particularly in the issue of discretionary approach (voluntary approaches of staffs who participate to long for the suitable performances of the company without being comprised in the work description of the staffs). Staff pleased with his condition and staffs relations, observes to keep fairness through altruistic gestures and conscientious. Some people defined that a staff who relates in discretionary approach is through description intrinsically inspired, as these approaches go beyond the role defined through the company and are not actually rewarded or identified thereof. They observe as the presence of extrinsic contentment harmfully expected altruistic approach at job (Bevan, 2001).
Overview of Performance Management and Performance Evaluation
Staffs comprise the internal equity and the important part of a company. They are surrounded in a highly aggressive market, which is why organizations understand the value of attracting and maintaining the excellent staffs, and that just trained companies can live and develop. In this approach, M & S manages their staffs like the most considerable assets that have a great aggressive advantage over those who do not. It is important being conscious of this condition, particularly for those organizations who desire to keep a role model in their market. To acquire anticipated consequences, a company should have the determination of its staffs. Moreover, it is important that staffs grow quickly and lean to work better if their performance is assessed on a common basis in an effectual approach (Cornelissen, 2003).
Performance management (PM) was described by Mabey & Salaman (1995) as "a structure in which performance through people can be guided, observed, inspired and rewarded, and whereby relates in the cycle can be observed" (Robbins, Judge and Campbell, 2010). Performance assessment is an important part of performance management approaches, which lean to perform both the aims of business growth and staffs development (Cabinet, 2004). The considerable aim of performance management is to observe staffs performance against related aims to drive organizational performance and higher people. The aim of PM is not just to increase the performance of people or company but also to manage with underperforming people (Cornelissen, 2003).
Ways to Foster Employee Development using Performance based Goals
Different practices are there within the area of human resource management that can improve employee growth for his personal development and career, apart from simply controlling performance on the standard term (Mullins, 2010). Exercises like selection and training are defined to increase staff information, ability and skill, which in fact increase staff' task performance. Enhancing task performance and citizenship within the organization, and decreasing absenteeism and turnover must increase organizational performances (Bevan, 2001). Once the HR performs actions that improve interest of staffs and relation with the company, their connection consequences in constructive organizational tradition where every staff takes role in development, sustainability and growth. Much of the discussion within the HRM literature has focused on the question of whether the impacts of HRM exercises are universal across institutions or whether the productivity of staff development strategies are dependent upon other aspects. Different aspects have been suggested as moderators of the connection between HRM exercises and organizational productivity, comprising quality management practices, organizational strategy, and methods to control staffs performance. Different literatures have revealed proofs for fit between HRM exercises and plan (Cabinet, 2004).
Along with most businesses, M&S found itself back in defensive mode as sales and profits tumbled. At the beginning of 2009, the company announced more than 1000 job losses from headquarters and retail stores. Sir Stuart took firm action in March 2008 to shore up the business against the recession, including assuming the combined role of Executive Chairman. This move supported criticism in different parts of the investment society the separation of the Chairman and CEO is felt through many to give the Board with considerable independence in securing shareholder interests. By the summer of 2009, the controversy resulted in a critical motion at the company's AGM, which Sir Stuart won with 62 per cent of shareholder votes. M&S's famous battalions of small shareholders had decided to back the manager who had turned their company around. Had the transformation not been made, M&S might have been far less able to withstand the recession. And despite the hard times, the company's 'Plan A' is still a priority, with detailed progress reports on the website and every sign that M&S means business. This study acquired its aims in a productive approach, whereas also defined in positive suggestions for the organization. As mentioned in the research goals, the study found out what was performance evaluation, and how does M & S engaged in conducting the evaluation of its employees' performance.