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This is an assignment to describe leadership skills required by a manager operating effectively at strategic level. In order to complete my task it's necessary to consider few questions which are as follows:

What is a manager?

What is the role of a manager?

What is a leadership?

Does manager have leadership qualities? If yes what is it?

What is strategic management

What is strategic level?

What is strategic planning?

What is difference between manager and leader?

I will be explaining each question individually however may not be necessarily in the same order. I will try to refer back to each question in and link as far as possible to answer my main question as a topic.

After considering each question it will become clear what are leadership skills required by the manager. Finally I would be concluding at the end by providing the difference between leaders.

Strategic Level:

Strategic management:

These are decision making tools undertaken by the owners. These tasks are usually carried out by general managers on behalf of the owners who bear all risks. This particular field is intended to deals with emergent initiatives utilizing all vital resources, which aid in enhancing the performance of the firm through external environments.

However it is clearly obvious to survive in this fast pace moving environment it is extremely vital to set a specified mission of some sort by an organization. In order to achieve such targets every organization has a vision in their mind. After setting such vision the organization requires to set objectives, developing policies and plans, often in terms of projects and programs. This particular project or program is designed to achieve such targets, and further aid in allocating these resources in order to implement the organizations policies, plans, and objectives.

In order for an organization to complete its project and to evaluate the overall performance to continue to progress towards its objectives to achieve their targets a balanced scorecard is often used. According to recent research and studies leading economist and management theorists have stated stakeholder requiring performing strategies needs a modified balanced scorecard in order to boost their expectations, hence increasing the chances for organization by comparing their own performances and policies against the score card.

Strategic management is performed by the management who acts as agents on behalf of the owners. This is an ongoing process that evaluates and controls the business and industries in which the organization environment operates. The management often retrieves information from other sources to set goals and strategies such as; assessing its competitors market comparing annual reports published by their competitors, using government statistics if any published in relate to their environment in which they operate helping to meet all existing and potential competitors. Furthermore the company management may wish to reassess each strategy annually, quarterly monthly, and weekly or on daily basis depending on the information required by the organization.

This system of management assists in determining how the strategies and or policies are to be implemented and whether it has succeeded in achieving its targets or needs replacement by considering a new strategy aid in meeting the changed circumstances if any due to new technology, new competitors entering the market, new economic environment especially during the recession time currently damaging the volatile market or any change in new social, financial, or political environment.

It is evident Strategic management not only includes management team performing but the Board of Directors also interested and have a vital role to play within the company in performing and analyzing their strategic management policies. Furthermore other stakeholders of the organization also create interest depending on the organizational structure.

Strategic management is a level of managerial activity under setting goals and over tactics. Strategic management directs towards the enterprise in order to provide to such strategies and relates closely to the field of Organization Studies and research as stated earlier by economists and management theorists. Usually in the field of business administration economist and management theorist often mention strategies, those are stated by an organization must be consistent and accurately related to the plan , policies and objectives abs far as possible, for they often talk about "strategic alignment" between the organization and its environment or "strategic consistency."

Strategic consistency

Strategic consistency incurs when actions undertaken by an organization are always kept consistent, timely and accurate in accordance with the expectations of management, and these are further in turn consistent with the market and its context.

Strategic Plan:-

Entrepreneurs and business managers are often consider immediate issues and forget the ultimate objectives. Therefore for this reason a business review or preparation of a strategic plan is always a virtual necessity. Considering this a perfect recipe for success may not be achieved, but bearing in mind without this it is most likely without this a business will fail. A sound plan should consider:

Framework for decisions or for securing support/approval.

Set out the objectives and detailed planning.

Explanations of the business to those who are interested in the market, to inform, motivate & involve others.

Benchmarking & performance monitoring.

Block building for next plan.

Concept of strategic planning is simply to create long term and short objectives. When considering a strategic planning it is critical for a company to formally consider how an organization is able to achieve its targets and accomplish its goals.

Strategies are defined by organization, in various ways, however they all fundamentally agree that a strategy about how to achieving targets and how to achieve them. Here are couple of definition founds in books. 

"Strategies are simply a set of actions that enable an organization to achieve results."

"Strategy is a way of comparing your organization's strengths with the changing environment in order to get an idea of how best to complete or serve client needs."

"Strategic planning is the formal consideration of an organization's future course. All strategic planning deals with at least one of three key questions:"

"What do we do?"

"For whom do we do it?"

"How do we excel?"

Strategic planning often consists of detailed analysis of competitors and company own business approaches or mission in order to succeed successfully within the market

Management's plan often consider the following for

Nature of the business

Competitive position of the company within the market


Performance targets

Theoretically three strategies are usually considered: Among each categories is a focus of a strategy:

Organizational strategy: This considers the organizational hierarchy development such as: Groups of business mergers takeovers etc.

Programmatic strategy: At this point a vital strategy, decision to be implemented is addressed and determined how to develop, manage and deliver that particular decision such as: Providing prenatal care service to disadvantaged expectant mothers by providing information and intake services via welfare offices and as well considering government funding towards it.

Functional strategies: Here the effectiveness and efficiency of the company decisions are considered the impact of managing the administration and support required, Such as: Developing a financial system with an organization that assist in providing information using company debtors.

In order to achieve these business goals, various strategic analysis tools or techniques are used. Two of the most commonly used are mentioned below:

SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats), 

PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social, and Technological),

At this point its vital to note that strategic plan should not be confused with a business plan

A strategic Plan is most likely to be a short document whereas a business plan is usually a much more substantial and detailed document.

Further also note strategic plan are neither same as an operational plan.

The strategic plan should always to be considered being visionary, conceptual and directional in contrast to an operational plan. This document is more to be for which is likely to be shorter term objectives. This particular document is tactical, focused, implementable and measurable. As easy an comparison an example may be considered , compare the process of planning a vacation, where, when, duration, budget, who goes where and how to travel are all considered as strategic issues, and not forgetting the final preparations such as tasks, deadlines, funding, weather, packing, transport and so on are all operational matters

Furthermore a satisfactory strategic plan must be realistic and attainable so as to allow managers and entrepreneurs to think strategically and act operationally.


Leadership in context can be described in various ways. However it is often consider leadership being performed by an individual and to whom others follow his or her polices or strategies in order to achieve their targets. At this point it's worth mentioning that this is usually not the case.

"Process of social influence in which an individual is considered only to aid and provide support to others in the accomplishment of a common task required by the company".

Furthermore Definitions are provided which are influenced by famous individual and are implemented within the environment and more inclusively these polices or strategies are of followed by others. These have emerged as below.

"Alan Keith of Genentech", a well known management theorist, has describes

Leadership is a process of social influence in which an individual is considered only to aid and provide support to others in the accomplishment of a common task required by the company.

Furthermore he stated "Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen."

"Dr Ken "SKC" Ogbonnia", an executive vice president at First Texas Energy Corporation, describes

Every individual is not born with a particular skill. However when the person realize that he is mastered in a particular skill, manages to learn everything and so becomes the leader.

Furthermore he states "Effective leadership is the ability to successfully integrate and maximize available resources within the internal and external environment for the attainment of organizational or societal goals."

Management & Leadership

In every new business management is always considered to be the essence of every company or organization.

Therefore it is further evident that there is always and influence of an individual towards leadership.

It's often said by various economists and management theorists "Whatever needs to be done is only there just to keep things afloat".

So theoretically, for any business whatever the environment, a business to grow and remain healthy, the management or an individual depending on the size of the company must ascertain to master certain basic skills in management and leadership which assist in avoiding crisis or situations not able to be managed by the company or organization.

These basic skills include various tasks to create a perfect management and or leadership, such as complex problem solving decision making, planning, meeting management, delegation, and communications and identify priorities to their tasks to.

It is these basic skills that become the foundation from which a company is able to develop more advanced practices in management and leadership, therefore assisting in crisis when organizational personnel are struggling.

So theoretically problems are created only often due to forgotten basics and not simply because of implementing state of the art techniques in management and leadership.


"A manager is a person or individual who is has been a duty to supervise and oversee one or more employees or departments carrying out assigned duties as required by its company. However depending on the size of the company there may be various managers in various departments or only one single individual.

Theoretically it is the managers who have who learned skills and have become experts creating management and leadership skills.

This management tier can be further categorized as a single, dual or triple management layer involved."

Division Of Management:-

In smaller companies only one single handed individual would be enough to handle all day to day major responsibilities. However when considering larger company's management can be divided into three tiers:

Upper or senior management


Lower management

Lower Management:-

At this point usually one single person is considered to be enough, who operate at basic levels of commerce or function however depending on the size of the organization managers cans be further sub divided according to function or different roles.


Here at mid level management responsibility is to oversee and supervise the lower management tier and at the same time ensure they are accurately generating reports to their seniors. This can also further be categorized according to particular function and or department.


This is tier where mostly highly skilled and those with specialized experts are found. At this point it often consists of a Board of directors or shareholders who own the company and are responsible for making vital key decisions that affect the company.


For centuries there were confusion among the individual as a contributor and a leader, and thought separating "leaders" from "followers. After few decades this distinction was finally cleared and hence created three fundamental challenges:

How can an organization provide leadership from everyone?

Those who influence others how can they choose lead others and perform more effectively and efficiently?

Environment is constantly changing so how can leaders continue to be successful in this changing environment?

It became necessary to Address these challenges and provide certain awareness and consider as thought acting as the "leader," regardless of their formal position. 

Soon companies began to realize what managers really are:

A leader is represented as the Manager who is able to provide practical strategies the tools and techniques are presented in order to develop leadership applied on daily basis in accordance to the company policies

Difference Between Manager & Leader:-

Leader or Leadership: These are probably the first two terms that might stimulate your thoughts and ask yourselves some questions and hence able to answer yourself by now:

"What are the qualities that make a perfect manager?"

Either of these words may or not be part of any individual person that is a manager.

However some may think that a Manager and a Leader are the same, but they are not necessarily identical.

It is worth noticing an effective manager will have leadership qualities "manager" will be only one facet of a "LEADER, however an individual with leadership qualities may not necessarily be manager"

A Leader may possess a natural set of talents that may inspire people to follow them, to be loyal, and to produce or provide services. Some managers always possess these qualities, but others do not possess them, or on some occasion hold to certain degree that can be enhanced through training and coaching.

Ongoing Professional Development would target that need and a good alternative would be Self-Improvement training through books, a career coach, a counselor, a job club, a professional organization, or other entities and resources.

Those managers that do not have specific leadership qualities and talents or that do not receive guidance to draw them out sometimes work much harder than their subordinates to produce results for the company.

In extreme cases, they may even become workaholics and possibly feel that their subordinates are not capable of adequate work production and quality.