What is Leadership?
Leadership is an integral part of work and social life. In face in any given situation where a group of people want to accomplish a common goal, a leader may be required. Leadership behaviour occurs in almost all formal and informal social situation. Even in a non formal situation such as a group of friend some sort of leadership behaviour occurs where one individual usually takes a lead in most of the group activities. And also leadership is the process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastcally towarda objectives.Leader is a person who influences a group of people towards the achievement of a goal.
Leadership style is the manner and apporach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivation people.There are 3 main different styles of leadership.
Autocratic or authoritarian style
Participative or democratic style
Laissez-faire or free rein style
Autocratic style: -
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This style usually applied when members of the group lacks of knowledge about certain procedure or tasks. Authoritarian leaders provide the group members with clear expectations on what should be done, when it should be complete, and how it should be accomplished. This is an extreme form of transactional leadership, where leaders have absolute power over their workers or team. Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions, even if these would be in the team's or the organization's best interest.
The autocraticÂ leadership styleÂ is seen as an old fashioned technique. It has existed as long as managers have commanded subordinates, and is still employed by many leaders across the globe. Many leaders who start pursuing leadership development are often trying to improve upon their organizations autocratic leadership style.
This leadership styles offer many advantages to managers who use them. These include: reduced stress due to increased control, faster decision making, improved logistics of operations, a more productive group 'while the leader is watching".
There certainly a few disadvantages are Manager perceived as having poor leadership skills, Teams become dependent upon their leader, People dislike being ordered around, Increased workload for the manager.
Democratic Leadership is the leadership style that promotes the sharing of responsibility, the exercise of delegation and continual consultation. This leadership style is suitable to be used when the group leader and the members of the group understand and exactly know the objectives of their roles in the tasks.
This style of leadership has many advantages. One of it is the group members and the leader is treated fairly. No one either group member or the leader dominates the decision making and problem solving. This style of leadership actually encourages two-way communication between the leader and the group members. And also Positive work environment, Reduced employee turnover, Creative thinking and etc.
This style of leadership is applied when the group members know or have more knowledge than the leader does. Laissez-Faire leader allow their group members to make a decisions. This is based on the point that the leader has less knowledge about the task compared to the group members whom they practically know what they suppose to do.
This style is best used in situations where the leader cannot be an expert in all situations. Thus, it is important that the leader understand and delegate certain tasks out to knowledgeable and gain trust worthy of the group members or the employees.
This leadership style is not an effective way to conduct a task or any activities. This style of leadership shows that the person in charge is lack of good characteristics of a great leader. They important key to be stress on here is important to be educated and knowledgeable.
Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting human behaviour and performance. This is the reason why managers attach great importance to motivation in organizational setting. Everyone can called motivation as "the core of management". Effective directing of people leads the organization to effectiveness, both at organizational and individual levels.
Motivation is the complex forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization. And also motivation is something that moves the person to action and continues him in the course of action of action already initiated.
Theories of Motivation:
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Vroom's Expectancy Theory
Porter-Lawler Model of Motivation
Motivation is the most important factor in whole concept of every management. And also they practicing CSR because it is the right way to conduct business and invest in its own strengths, and it build value and enhance business performance. There are many motivation theories such as classical theory, human relations and content theories, process theories, etc. These theories differ on what makes a job "satisfying" such as, pay levels, working hours, work environment, fringe benefits, management styles, promotion prospects and organization culture.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Need Theory
Abraham Maslow formulated his "hierarchy of needs" in the 1940s, and originally published in 1943. He identified eight innate needs. This theory is concentrate on people's needs. At any time one group of needs is dominant, and the needs of the group must be met before the individual can proceed to the next group. In a work context employees must be provided with the opportunity to fulfill these needs.
Employees are highly motivated and specialized in their tasks
Provides promotions to their employees
Provides a safe, secure job environment
Friendship between employees, social activities
Staff satisfaction by providing payments and offers
Figure: Maslow's hierarchy of needs
All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy and only once a lower level of need has been fully met, would a worker be motivated by the opportunity of having the next need up in the hierarchy satisfied. For example a person who is dying of hunger will be motivated to achieve a basic wage in order to buy food before worrying about having a secure job contract or the respect of others.
The second level consists of safety needs. If this need is paramount, individuals become safety-seeking tools. Such adults are not motivated by safety needs. The need for order is apparent in the general tendency in societies to have religions and to organize into groups. The need for security may be as much an emotional need as it is a physical one.
The third level consists of the love needs. This is associated with the need to belong. It is a basic need for other people. It is the need to feel a part of a group. For example, it is natural to have friends, for adults to marry, and in general to share affection with other people.
The fourth level consists of the esteem needs. Esteem needs are essentially the need for individuals to have a stable and high evaluation of themselves, for self-respect and the esteem of others. Esteem is the result of real capacity, achievement and respect from others. Self-esteem leads to self-confidence, worth, strength, capability and adequacy of being useful and necessary in the world.
The highest level need is self-actualization. Self-actualization consists of being all that one can be. This is clearly the most difficult need to truly understand. It is associated with the unique expression of oneself. It is often linked with creative expression. However, it is never a fully satisfied need, i.e., the need continues and the individual is never self-actualized.
Maslow's theory of the hierarchy of needs states that the lowest level needs must generally be satisfied before the next level of need will emerge.
As a manager, it is important to understand the level of needs that others have. This is at the root of developing effective incentive programs and in maximizing productivity. A business should therefore offer different incentives to workers in order to help them fulfill each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy. Managers should also recognize that workers are not all motivated in the same way and do not all move up the hierarchy at the same pace. They may therefore have to offer a slightly different set of incentives from worker to worker.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
Frederick Herzberg and his associates conducted research wherein they interviewed 20 engineers and accountants from nine different companies in U.S.A. Herzberg had close links with Maslow and believed in a two-factor theory of motivation. He argued that there were certain factors that a business could introduce that would directly motivate employees to work harder Motivators. However there were also factors that would de-motivate an employee if not present but would not in themselves actually motivate employees to work harder Hygiene factors. Then he called these factors hygiene factors and motivating factors respectively. Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself. For instance how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility, recognition and promotion. Hygiene factors are factors which 'surround the job' rather than the job itself.
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Hygiene Factor:-These factors provide no motivation to employees but the absence of these factors serves as dissatisfies. Many of these factors are traditionally perceived by management as motivators but these are really more potent as dissatisfies. These are called 'Hygiene Factors' because they support the mental health of employees.Some of the Hygiene Factors are, Wages, salary and other types of employee benefits, Company policies and administrative rules that govern the working environment, Interpersonal relation with supervisors and subordinates, Working conditions and job security.
Motivational Factor: - These factors help to build strong motivation and high job satisfaction. They are also known as satisfiers. These are related with the job content. Their absence or decrease will affect the level of job satisfaction. These factors are achievement, advancement; work it, possibility of growth and responsibility. Some of these Motivational Factor's are, Work itself, Recognition, Achievement, Responsibility and Growth.
Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to management and by improving the nature and content of the actual job through certain methods. Some of the methods managers could use to achieve this are Job enlargement, Job enrichment and Empowerment. Job enlargementÂ is workers being given a greater variety of tasks to perform which should make the work more interesting. Job enrichmentÂ means involves workers being given a wider range of more complexes, interesting and challenging tasks surrounding a complete unit of work. EmpowermentÂ is the delegating more power to employees to make their own decisions over areas of their working life.
In any company considering satisfaction and dissatisfaction is to consider the difference between job enrichment and job enlargement. A worker that is asked to do a more challenging task (job enrichment) will probably be more satisfied than will a worker who is simply expected to do an increased amount of the same work (job enlargement) that has been performed in the past.Â Management must simply realize that hygiene factors and motivators are different and that both must be addressed.
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor is best known for his formulation of two sets of assumptions about human nature: Theory X and Theory Y. Very simply, Theory X presents an essentially negative view of people. It assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility, and need to be closely controlled to work effectively. Theory Y offers a positive view. It assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, accept and actually seek out responsibility, and consider work to be a natural activity. McGregor believed that Theory Y assumptions better captured the true nature of workers and should guide management practice.
Theory X assumed that lower-order needs dominated individuals, and Theory Y assumed that higher-order needs dominated. Theory X is a manager has thorough knowledge and excludes workers from decision-making process. A manager has authority or power to take decisions. Y-theory is just opposite to X-theory. So, X-theory is considered as traditional theory and Y theory is considered as modern theory. Y-theory is emphasis the importance of workers in the accomplishment of enterprise objectives.
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Alderfer has provided an extension of the Maslow's need hierarchy and Herzberg's two - factor theory of motivation, particularly the former. Based on the empirical evidences, he has found that there seems to be some overlapping between physiological, security, and social needs. Also, the lines of demarcation between social, esteem, and achievement needs are not clear. Based on
these observations, Alderfer has categorized the various needs into three categories: existence needs, relatedness needs and growth needs.
Existence Needs: Existence needs include all needs related to physiological and safety aspects of an individual. Thus, existence needs group physiological and safety needs of Maslow into one category as these have similar impact on the behaviour of the individual.
Relatedness Needs: Relatedness needs include all those needs that involve relationship with other people whom the individual cares. Relatedness needs cover Maslow's social needs and that part of esteem needs which is derived from the relationship with other people.
Growth needs: Growth needs involve the individual making creative efforts to achieve full potential in the existing environment. These include Maslow's self - actualization need as well as that part of the esteem need which is internal to the individual like feeling of being unique, felling of personal growth, etc.
In applying motivation theories, managers should take into consideration how an individual reacts to his work which is a function of fit among; individual's personality characteristics need patterns, values, and ability, Characteristics of job such as nature of challenge it offers, the autonomy in performing the job, and the use of skills in performing the job. Thus, in applying motivation theories at workplace, both intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of the job must be considered. Intrinsic factors are directly related to the contents of a job while extrinsic factors are related to the context or environment in which the job is performed. Thus, motivation theories help in designing reward system, empowering employees, improving quality of work life, and work design. Since motivation influences productivity, managers need to understand what motivates employees to reach peak performance. It is not an easy task to increase employee motivation because employees respond in different ways to their jobs and their organization's practices.
The nature of groups and group behaviour within organizations
The term group can be defined as two or more persons interacting and working together for a common purpose. When people work in groups rather than as individuals, the goals of the organization can be easily achieved. Group dynamics refers to the interactions between the members of a group. The performance at work and relationships outside the organization are influenced by the nature of groups in the organization.
Nature of Groups:-
The group means as "A collection of individuals". The members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment. There are three views on the nature of interaction between members of a group or group dynamics. The first is the normative view, which describes how to carry out activities and organize a group. According to the second view, group dynamics consists of a set of techniques which include brainstorming, role play, team building, sensitivity training, self-managed teams, and transactional analysis. The third view explains group dynamics from the viewpoint of the internal nature of the groups.
There are formal and informal groups in organizations.
A group formed by the organization to accomplish a specific task is termed as a formal group. The organization sets up a formal group and allocates tasks and responsibilities to different members with the intention of achieving organizational goals. Command and task groups are examples of formal groups. A command group is relatively permanent in nature and finds representation in the organization chart. Task groups, on the other hand, are formed for a specific task and are temporary in nature. After dissolution of the task group, the members of the task group continue as members of their respective functional departments or command groups with reduced duties.
Unlike formal groups that are established by the organization, informal groups are formed by the employees themselves. The reasons for the formation of informal groups could be the need for companionship, common interests, growth, recreation, or support.
There are two types of informal groups - friendship and interest groups. Members of friendship groups have a cordial relationship with each other, common interests and are similar in age, ethnic heritage, views, etc. They like each other's company and want to spend time together. Interest groups are formed to organize an activity and are temporary in nature. Informal groups mainly satisfy the social needs of members.
Action Oriented Roles
Challenges the team to improve.
Puts ideas into action.
Ensures thorough, timely completion.
People Oriented Roles
Acts as a chairperson.
Explores outside opportunities.
Thought Oriented Roles
Presents new ideas and approaches.
Analyzes the options.
Provides specialized skills.
The stages of Team Building
Before the 1960s, it was believed that groups were formed in a specific sequence but it was later realized that they do not follow a standard pattern of development. Established models of group development are the five-stage model and the punctuated equilibrium model. Team building is an
effort to create a climate that encourages and values the contribution of people, with energies directed towards problems solving and task effectiveness to achieve the team's purpose.
The Five-Stage Model
According to the five-stage model of group development, all groups pass through the forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning stages. The duration of each stage varies from group to group and some groups do not pass through all the stages. This model became popular in the mid-1960s.
This is the initial stage of group formation where members try to identify acceptable behavior in a group. The members try to mold their behavior so as be a part of the group.
In this stage, disagreements about leadership among members may give rise to other conflicts.By the end of this stage, a relatively clear hierarchy of positions in the group emerges.
This stage of group development enhances a sense of camaraderie in members through the development of close relationships. A common set of expectations for behavior in the group is the outcome of this stage.
In this stage, members of the group exhibit committed performance to achieve goals defined in the norming stage. This is the last stage for permanent work groups.
This is the last stage for temporary groups such as task groups or committees formed to accomplish a certain task. After this stage, the groups cease to exist. While some of the members may feel happy about the accomplishments, others may be depressed that they will lose friends after the group disperses.
Factors leading to Effective Team Work
Creating Procedures for Conflict Resolution:Â No matter how good a team may be, conflicts will inevitable occur sometime or the other.
Effective Communication:Â It goes without saying that communication is a vital factor of interpersonal interaction, and the very term 'teamwork' represents interpersonal interaction.
Good Leadership:Â One of the most important aspects of effective teamwork is effective leadership. This means that the team leader should have the skills to create and maintain a working culture that is positive.Â
Defining Clear-cut Roles:Â It is necessary for teams to know clearly what their purpose is, what role each member of the team has to play, what each person is responsible for, what is not within their scope, and the resources they have to achieve their goals.Â
To build up effective team work in Organization
Qualified with appropriate technical knowledge & skills
State problems, along with alternative solutions/options
Support the team leader in putting decisions in to action.
Proving appropriate feedback (both positive & negative)
Help the team leader to succeed in projects & targets
The attraction people feel towards team and motivation to remain members. Related toÂ social identityÂ -high cohesiveness exists for those who identify themselves with the team. "Team cohesiveness"Â is the force bringing team member's closer together.
Causes of Team Cohensiveness :-
The external competition and challenges.
To build team cohesiveness based on mutual reliance it helps to keep the group regularly informed so that all members have a clear understanding of the group's goals. Assigning an essential part of the task to every group member and guiding each group member's individual talents toward accomplishing the group's goals are also effective tools in this framework.
Motivational tools and techniques
Give some flexible benefits scheme is essentially a system which provides staff choice over the mix and level of cash and benefits received.Â
Investors in People
Giving employees a stake in the company's future growth by offering a share scheme / share option plan is often a good way of linking the interests of your business and your employees.
Delegating effectively-By wisely assigning responsibility, the majority of the membership will be involved.
Treating members equally
Using praise and criticism
Salary / wages/ increments- all these are fringe benefits used to motivate the employee, but this being only a temporary phase.
Evaluating the impact of technology in team functioning
As mentioned earlier, group activities can be seen in action at a high rate. People enjoy involving in group activities rather than working alone, plus the efficiency & the accuracy tends to be high in final results and that leads to success. When the tasks are done in teams, frequency they succeed is greater than the frequency they fail, compared with individual activities.
Technology becomes a vital importance to help the progress & success of group activities. Pizza hut already owns a sophisticated range of new technologies that cause the efficiency of their business.
Technologies which have improved team functions in many organizations are used :-
Mobile phones allow teams to communicate even when team members are out of the office, on the road or otherwise unavailable. Sometimes having always access to team members can hinder team functioning.
Allows asynchronous communication which means team members don't need to be in the same place at the same time in order to communicate effectively. Emails can be sent via intranet system built within departments. This is a cost free method that can be used in group communication & decision making.
Providing PersonalÂ computersÂ allow team members to carry out various tasks and communicate more effectively. Laptop computers allow you to do this anywhere but providing laptops can be costly for the company. They are now lighter, more powerful and a longer battery life.
Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) now have much of the same functionality as laptops, but are smaller, more portable and have a longer battery life. These technologies can be adapted among managerial levels for certain reasons they can't provide them for all the team workers.
Phone technologies such asÂ blackberryÂ and 3G data cards allow team members to work and communicate remotely and this out in the field or with clients. This system is not yet introduced in many organizations but they are trying to bring that technology as a tailor made system that will help team functioning within the company.
Using messenger software such as Yahoo messenger, msn messenger, Skype etc is there to be seen in team functions. Without relating to the company, employees can communicate with their team members even staying at home & without any cost effect. This technology is used & known among employees without the involvement & intervention on managers.