Leadership In Organizational Settings Business Essay

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This is was introductory class of Organization Behavior in the Management course alongside an opportunity to participate in class, My initial exposure to organization behavior was in my engineering course which I opted due to my inclination towards management, it thought me fundamentals and basics. My key learning's from the course were ways for self motivation and motivating others; It also taught me how to adapt to various cross cultural behaviors. Now, as a student in Business School I have the opportunity to enhance my understanding and learn in depth about organizational behavior and its implementation with time and environment. In the introductory class I learned four functions of management, three levels of organization analysis, three types of skills and with experience how human technical skills reduce with growth in position. The most important lesson from this session and the one that I can relate with my work experience is the big five theory; I always heard my seniors and colleagues saying that to become a successful manager networking was more crucial alongside communication. Also understanding and adapting to various trends of countries to have a global approach and understanding. In my job tenure I utilized a few of organizational behavior tools but without thorough understanding. I am keen to learn more tools that will help me become a successful manager.

SESSION 2 11/12/2012

2: Individual Behavior, Personality and values

I remember I used to think every time one thing from my schooling, college and perhaps in my employment days that is behavior & personality; Why are some people quiet and calm, whereas others are loud and aggressive? Is it because the way of me looking and jududging the person is different or it's their personality attribute? I finished my schooling and college in India, in this tenure I met many people and made many friends who were very different in nature with each other, what found me interesting is the way of behavior they carry and I used to think on this, moving further I completed my undergraduate studies and was place in middle east; my firm had diversity of employees, in initial working days I still remember my peers used to behave very ugly/crook with me this was because they dint like my behavior or my personality and I also started comparing people and associated them with their nature, but as time progressed we started to understand each other. From this session I learned the five factors of personality and organizational behavior, Jungian and myers-briggs types of personality, relationship among occupational personality types, this gave me knowledge of analyzing individuals' behavior and personality. Now I can relate and tell as to which of my colleagues fell under with classifications. Further, is it that important to know the individual values? after learning about values, my answer will be yes, because in my job I used to travel to different countries and meet different behaviourical people, and initially I never felt comfortable adapting the culture but later as I was exploring I started adapting the culture and felt comfortable, this made me learn how important individual values are .

SESSION 3 17/12/2012

3:Perceptions and Learning in Organizations

"Every individual has an opinion or perception about others", I was only aware of the definition of perception and did not know what perception is. How to explain that individuals may look at the same thing, yet perceive it differently, this session class gave me complete understanding of perceptions and learning's in an organization, the factors that influence perception are perceiver, situation and target, for example: In India one of the wedding party on Friday night, I noticed a old lady dressed very fashionably and elaborately, and that same woman dressed for my Monday morning language class, catching my attention and rest of the class. Here I noticed that neither perceiver nor the target has changed in between Friday wedding party and Monday morning language class its only the situation is different. Further, I learnt about stereotyping where grouping is made according to race or individuals together and giving judgment without knowing them, doing this stereotyping is actually wrong and very hurtful, where there is differentiating men and women in culture and work practices. For example: in middleast women are not preferred to work, and are bound to household work.

I remember in past when i newly joined my job and after couple of months training something went wrong with work, my manager started yelling at me while others were observing me, this can relates to simplify in understanding the attribution process. Learned about internal and external three variable factors used to attribute achieving behavior that is Distintiveness, consensus & consistency. Further learned about Johari window system where we saw four factors i.e., open area, blind area , hidden area & unknown area, here its good to have more open area so that the information known to me is shared with others, the more open area we have its good to work in organization.

SESSION 4 18/12/12

4:Employee Motivation : Foundations and Practices

From the study of motivations in this session I understand that the term "motivation" is the force that compels us to action. Motivation can be divided into two types that is internal (intrinsic) and external (extrinsic) motivation, the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can be defined by example: if a person paints the picture for his hobby or collection is known as intrinsic and the person who sells the painting for the profit is called extrinsic.

There are six different ways to motivate that is incentive, fear, achievement, growth, power & social. These are the tools used by the heads of organization to motivate the people in the organization. The following example can illustrate the various tools if one employee of a team is not performing well and its effecting the others the manager may have to think how to motivate that employee, so that he performs well and also motivate others too, that is manager can motivate him by giving incentives for achieving the target setup by him.

This study of motivation helps us to know about how to motivate peers and subordinates, self motivation, job satisfaction by Maslow where he showed the steps in the pyramid structure, further learned about Alderfers ERG theory which he recategorized Maslow's hierarchy of needs into three simpler and broader classes of needs that is existence , relatedness and growth.

Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory which differentiated between motivators and hygiene factors; that motivators give positive satisfaction and hygiene factors that do not motivates if present but if absent result in de-motivation. Rewards and punishment are parts of motivation, if the team or the individual is performing well he is rewarded and if the performance is bad its vice versa i.e. punishment by not giving incentive or by demoting. Money play's a very important role because the first important motivation in performing job is paying or compensation, further the motivations can also be in form of promotions and benefits (psychic or fringe benefits). There are also major conflicts between organization and individual, the reason to get demotivated is nepotism for example: A team of five are working and a feedback is received, the manager favors one among five by giving high appraisal than others; the other four gets de-motivated. Use of feedback system very useful by this we can judge the performance and give performance appraisal.

SESSION 5 7/01/2013

5: Teams Dynamics

There is a very famous saying by Dr Meredith Belbin "What is needed is not well balanced individuals; but individuals who balance well with each other." Teams are created by everyone but the one and successful teams are those which are high performance team working together with bringing creative taught. It's mostly common to see in teams that attitudes and ego clash takes important role to make the team non effective. This reminds me the work environment and teams i had in TCC company in state of Qatar, it was very challenging job for me, my role was of a project engineer leading team of 150 men ,in the initial days of my project I faced lots of problem with the team, the problems were race, language, attitude and ego. As the company was under Egyptian management and I was the first Asian to get recruited in the company, my first step was to spend some time daily with workforce make them understand and motivate them to work. As time elapsed I understood the problem in them, it was ego, so I separated them and reshuffled their duties. By incorporating this idea I transformed the same team to a high performing team. This also helped me to complete my project in 2.5yrs with high margin of profits to the company. With my experience and study in this session I can say that for a very effective team we need to change three elements that is attitude, behavior and outcome in to positive. Better the cohesion better is the performance. The team should trust, communicate and respect each other to become a HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAM

SESSION 6 8/1/2013

6:Power and Influence in the Workplace

Power and politics the name itself sounds so interesting and one of the favorite topic in organizational behavior study. According to me the word "power" means strength, people who have strength can do wonders, why I am saying this is because I observed in my previous organization what is power and how people listen to the person who had power. I remember when ever I used to meet my General Manager his way of speaking to me or to clients, convincing people and ordering people was superb, he taught me how to utilize power effectively and make it efficient to organization. The sources of power in organizations are reward power, positional power, coercive power, expert power, referent Power and information power. An some example of positional power is that the manager is given power to assign work to the juniors and their reporting to him; example for reward power: the manager who holds power for influencing salary, incentive, position appraisal and promotions; example for coercive power: it is the ability of power given which can terminate, punish or reprimand other employee; legitimate power mostly hold by CEO. Further a video was projected, showing how the voltage frequency was increasing for every wrong answer, whether they can resist the shock or not, by seeing this I was thinking that my manager used to convey my work and how I use to take that work seriously and accomplish it. Further understanding the contingencies of power like centrality, visibility and substitutability. An example of pilot strike was illustrated in class without pilot the airplane cannot be driven nor a common person can drive it.

SESSION 7 14/1/2013

7: Leadership in Organizational Settings

I had read somewhere that "the art of leaders is saying no, not saying yes, as its very easy to say yes". In class we had a debate that Leaders are born and not made, I disagree to the statement because I can illustrate with the example of Adolf Hitler, before becoming the dictator of Nazi party he was a chancellor and also head of the state. Not all can become leaders; an effective leader should have that gut feeling to rule in tougher situations, know ways to approach to people emotionally and with rational manner. Also we say manager cannot become leaders and vice versa but there are very few managers who became leaders; this we learnt in chapter 1 that is introduction to Organizational behaviour.There is one charisma to attract people for example : Abraham Lincoln, Mother Teresa, these are two iconic Leaders. There are two types of behavior one is transformational (Leading) and second is transactional (Managing) leaders. The good example of transformational leaders is labor unions, in this union' leader picked by people.

SESSION 8 15/1/2013

8: Organizational Culture

In this session I understood that culture cannot be defined always but it is observable, it serves as powerful forces in an organization that results in success of the company. Many consider culture as the glue that holds the everyone together, other relate it as a compass that provides direction. One fact is that there is no culture better than the other. The main principle is to understand the culture within organization and as well looking in team's culture to achieve business goals. The four element of culture learned in class are Collaborate, Create, Control and Compete, with four environments internal, external, flexible and focused. As we had opportunity to pick this topic for our group presentation, which is very interesting. In our presentation we had shown if the fingers are shaped to round in USA and UK meant very good, in Japan it means money, Russia means Zero and in Brazil it is an Insult. With this we can see various type of culture around the globe, also we had presented the video about Natasha a vice president going to various countries for fetching contracts but she fails, this was because of the difference in culture of every country. Without the Organization behavior learning's going to other countries like the middle east which is Muslim religious country, in this country presenting prohibited gifts are considered bad as this also was shown in skit, there are also many cultural differences like uncertainty avoidance, masculinity vs. feminity, individual vs. collectivism.

SESSION 9 16/1/2013

9: Organization Change

In this session I learned about the organizational change, why it is very important for leaders and managers to bring change in the organization or merge different positions? it is because of their job, by influencing changes in the organization they are improving the work environment, changes in organization can be of merging, shuffling of position, influencing share market, generally organization changes its overall strategy for success. Leaders and managers continually put lot of efforts to get changes in organization in short it's their job to do, some become successful and rest struggle and fail. I can relate this change in organization with my first company Scantec International, when rescission hit UAE most of the companies got affected and so did Scantec, my general manager instead of laying of people he send some new fresh candidates back to their home country for 6 months leave by paying them 3 months' salary the remaining positions and divisions were merged. This bold step of the manager helped the stabilization of the company during economic crises.


The study of Organizational behavior has shown me the roadmap about how to go across, climb the corporate ladder to become a successful and effective manager also it has broadened my perspective of thinking in organization behavior field. Today's world is very competitive and in order to strive it requires persistent handwork and dedication alongside a sound understanding of how things integrate and work with each other. My understandings and learning's from class have help me realized how significant and individuals behavior and contribution is important in organization, a teams cooperativeness, motivation and performance and the role of managers and leaders to achieve .organization goals objectives The course provided a thorough understanding of behavior, cultural difference and perception which I could relate from my own experience. Now after having understood important organizational behavior lessons, I wish to inculcate this on a day to day basis and especially in my current working atmosphere at the university with my class mates, team mates and friends. Organizational behavior has taught me important and meaningful fundamentals to lead an effective life in a very subtle fashion.