Today's environment it is a common term "Competency", thus it is a necessity to have a close reference to the leadership competency. The explanation of a successful leader in one society may be accurately opposite to the behaviors needed to be efficient in another. Thus a one-development-approach will not work when developing global leaders. Global leaders are increasingly required to see the world's challenges and opportunities, think with a global mindset, act with global-centric leadership behaviors, and mobilize a world class culturally diverse team. After assessing individual international competencies, participants master the process of building the global leadership competencies needed to operate and thrive in the global economy. While true leaders can imagine what they want to attain, know how to meet the challenges of the market and take steps to make that vision a reality, how they interact with people will define their success. Leaders with educational compassion can be more effective than those without. Leadership is compound and leading across society is more complex than anything else. Thus identify the competencies required of present and future global leaders, and develop participants' consciousness and competence to achieve personal and managerial objectives as global leaders. The main specialty of a good leadership or leader are "Leaders create (and need) followers, Leaders create (and need) change, Leaders and followers have congruent value systems, Leadership is a process not an event"
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Background: The Global Leadership has most recently qualified an increase in the use of qualitative and quantitative methods, and different qualitative and quantitative approaches are possible for answering many questions associated to Global Leadership. This gives significance on relating a culture. Also it focuses on the experience of lived human incidence. Stranded theory looks upon original theory to common processes. Each and every theory is comparative and challenges to smooth the progress of achieve and accepting related to the human conditions.
Description: Research provides a systematic discussion of each of the exacting qualitative and quantitative approaches and illustrates the heart of restricted discovery of the exclusive outcomes of each approach. Every research has the contradictory reasons, and the accurate importance is focused by the questions which are included in the research.
Applications: The application is possible only when a better knowledge to work together of educational and learning, Global Leadership research which require information to be gathered about meaning, circumstances, culture, and processes. These questions are answered throughout the use of qualitative and quantitative research methods. In order for Global Leadership professionals to achieve the most from the research conducted, it is very essential that they have to understand the theoretic explanation of these methods and when each should be used.
As several decades have passed in multinational organizations had occupied their industry to new boundaries around the world. Leadership has been explained as an art form, a performing art, a science, a profession, a position, and a function of a well-built management role. Whatever our point of view on this, we are likely to agree that leadership is a very challenging human process; there is one skill which is internal to leadership in any form self-mastery.
The developments in the IT sector have reduced the complications in communication across the global community. Now replacing the international business to global bitter overcomes the obstructions of communication, culture and environmental differences are not much of an impracticable task but only a business apprehension. There came up a new separation of global produce and clients that are promising in the business, which needs global values and reputation. These powerful improvements have changed the statute of how business was accepted on in the past and how it should be managed and taken care of in the present and future.
When compare to the domestic business environments, the business in the global outlook is more compound, incompetent and spontaneous. The executives who work in the global state of dealings need to contract with many variables. The strategy and the method used at present in the business sector will be updated in the near future and the self-motivated nature of the business exerts huge damage. Therefore these reasons the organizations need to develop new pioneering management systems and bring up necessary ability to set for their managers. The leaders or managements of the organizations should have well responsiveness and they themselves should learn to take up the new challenges for the development of the organization.
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The maim methods of a good research are:
Quantitative research method and Qualitative research method.
According to Fred Kerlinger "In any research we cannot find a specific data for qualitative, everything is either 1 or 0"
The main aim is to categorize type, tally them, and create arithmetical models in an endeavour to explain what is observed. The researcher should know evidently in advance what he/she is looking for; all aspects of the study should be made carefully to design before the data is collected.
Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data. The data can be collected ether in numbers or in statistics and the objective which search for specific dimension & investigation of goal concepts. Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test theory, but sometimes may miss the background detail.
According to Cresswell, the quantitative research is nothing but "it is an investigation process based on different methodological habits of investigation that discover a social or human problem. Thus the researcher will be able to build a compound, holistic picture, analyzes words, reports detailed views of informants, and conducts the study in a natural setting."
There are huge number of qualitative approaches survives, along with ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, hermeneutics, case studies, biography, ethologic, ethno methodology, historical, and phenomenography, etc. even though the approaches may share general philosophy of qualitative investigation, each of them are slightly unique with admiration to the original purpose of the study, data-collection and data-analysis strategies, and the result or end product that is derived. The qualitative research can be measured as an enquiry process of study supported with a diverse practical way of enquiry which explores a social or human predicament. In this process the research is made up on composite and holistic representation where the words are analysed and the information are exhaustive with view from informants, and the study is conducted in a very natural setting. (Creswell 1994)
Characteristics of Qualitative Research
The structure for Global Leadership Development should include: classification of capacity,
evaluation of the talent capacity. A gap analysis which is, to identify needs for each individual and a general one regarding the talent pool so the organization can leverage needs across large employee populations. A variety of development approaches that address culturally appropriate learning styles and measurement processes to track actual development
The Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative Research
When compared to quantitative research process, the qualitative research is very inductive and is carried out in natural settings and qualitative settings we do not need very huge illustration size to diminish the fault, as we do in quantitative research. The qualitative data is derived from the views of the participants. Hence the authentic information from the participants are reflected therefore the qualitative research designs are very spontaneous and can be changed to match the dynamics of changes in the process that may evolve at certain stages. Thus we can say that the qualitative method is rather effective than the quantitative method.
An investigation should focus
On-going inductive investigation
Case Study, Grounded Theory Biography, Ethnography, Phenomenology
A case study will investigate a leadership occurrence in the real life situation and is significant when the limitations of a observable fact and background are not definite as it should be. The biographical approach includes researching a immense part of biographical material which includes biographies, life histories, verbal histories and auto biographies. The phenomenology is a process of dealing with aware experience which ranges from craving to physical wakefulness, imagination, awareness, thoughts memory and emotions, which are experienced not in a subjective conduct. The grounded theory approach involves discovering or generating a new theory, which explains certain processes interface or processes. The ethnography can be considered as a process which deals with explanation and describes some social or cultural group, within a time frame. In this investigation a case study approach have been followed in order to create a very complete study on the matter.
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Global leaders very often find out too late about the different hypothesis among their management team members from other cultures regarding their main concern in the business and their ideal management styles. A leader's cultural understanding to local ideas about business goals and values, performance development systems, clash between quality and quantity, values of customer service, work rules, decision making and information management has a strong impact on his/her efficiency.
Research Case Studies
The Case Studies in leadership involves private, frequent cases (Waldman, 1998). The previous studies were based on single cases. But the sequence and difficulty of organizations and leadership needs have sheltered means for other two types of case studies. The case studies analysis can be prepared using within and amid analyses of cases. According to Yin, 1994 there are three type of case analysis as in the follows;
The above mentioned can be furthermore single or multiple in which the multiple case studies are clear type where the same research questions are functional to various organisation. In our study we make use of multiple case study approach where the leadership skills of many personalities are analysed from different organisational settings. The exploratory case study needs field work and data collection before the research questions are defined. This is suitable when some studies are already accessible in the present case study. The explanatory studies are useful for carrying out informal enquiry where as the descriptive cases are theory oriented. In our study it is always preferred to use explanatory case study approach. In a multiple case study approach there are four pillars of examination.
Executive Leadership is planned for senior managers, directors and high potentials. This assists individuals to obtain higher level management skills and to treat leadership competencies. Executives can learn how to lead the teams successfully, communicate clearly and resolutely, use their authority with more self-confidence, responsibility and truthfulness, improve cross-cultural awareness and global business skills. To develop global leaders.
Data gathering Methods
According to Yin,(2003) there are six data gathering strategies for a case study such as, Interviewing The Concerned Subjects, in a straight line Observing The Data, Observing the participants, certification, files from The records and, bodily relic. The triangulation method involves collecting data from frequent sources. In this study it is better to employ the triangulation method in vision of the fact that the study of global leadership in international companies need not only collecting data from leaders but also from the followers and other destinations.
The data analysis method mostly concerned with developing a thorough description of the study. In the case study approach, collection and examination are not take apart processes but are organized. All through the data analysis the researcher receives good insights in to the study and as a result the data collection process is modified. In this study when the interview with few participants is complete, the manners can be modified by addition or deleting few questions in order to incorporate the unique result. This is the best method because it will allow the theory to get bigger along with the growing degree of data. According to Stake (1995) there are four types of data analysis in case study; Categorical Aggregation- In this process we draw apart the data and put it back jointly in a meaningful way, Pattern Matching- In this scheme we counterpart an empirically developed model to a analytical model, almost like appropriate a delivery in the statistical data analysis, Description Building- In this process analysis of the case is passed out by developing a speculative rationalization for the case, Analytical Generalization- In this point the researcher will reach an outline which has actions and affiliation between the actions. There is another data analysis method in case study suggested by Yin (19940), called between and within data analysis. The within data analysis is tattered for lonely cases and between data analysis is used for frequent cases. The numerous data analysis allows the researcher to go through the cases systematically and the analysis called imitation. Here each case will be considered like different unit which will allow the imitation and trying of developed theories in the future cases. There is one more data analysis technique in case study called coding. The aim of coding is to decode the input from respondents to a highly developed level of abstracting in order to develop broad constructs. This can imitate the pervasive patterns and themes which is the main basis of developed conjecture. In this step the meaning of the case is interpreted whether it is the necessary case or the significant case. This is the concluding phase of the case study and is wished-for to explain the significance learned from the study. There are two aspects in explaining the result as suggested by Lincoln and Guba, (1994). One is, accepting and coping up with the theory and the findings so that it will reproduce, sheltered or extend the current phenomena. And the other is divergence between the theory and its result, where we examine the conflicts that have developed at any stages and make obtainable adequate description.
Lincoln and Guba 1994: Lee 1991 say about the Quality Assessment that; "since there are a variety of approaches each with its own epistemology, there are numerous views regarding the requirements for sound interpretation of case study data "
Quality Assessment Strategies in Case studies:
Production of authenticity
This is to develop precise and efficient method for the constructs. This must be valid representations in order to make enthusiastic inferences.
-evidence from various sources,
-reassess by key informants,
-incorporation of qualitative and quantitative methods.
Increase comfortable associations by establishing division between the variables under concern
-explanation of logical sequence of actions,
-reconsider of case study by key informants,
-Constructing the organization between propositions and active premise.
Validation- outer surface
summary of results in the revise in an documented monarchy.
-Constructing the link among propositions and existing principle.
Proving that the steps concerned in the do research can be cyclic with same manufactured goods.
-Validating the coding suggestion
-information base of case study
-method of case study
When we match up to ethical issues in quantitative research the ethical issues are subtle in qualitative research. It is more related to the enduring and interpersonal association of researcher and the informants. Anyhow there are definite issues which are ordinary to both type of research. Guba and Lincoln describe that, "as researchers all make political decisions, consciously or unconsciously, when deciding what to stud, whom to ask, what methods to employ, power exists everywhere and is constantly negotiated during the research process between researchers, informants and sponsoring organisations". Leaders make a personal investment in attending Global Leadership in order to boost their organizational impact through: Examining and understanding more about the changing global business atmosphere and its potential effects on their organization, Gaining a heightened understanding of the complexities and value of multicultural diversity and applying these to leadership in the 21st Century, Exploring cutting-edge approaches and concepts about strategy, corporate performance and leadership with world-class faculty, Examining personal leadership styles, presence, and confidence through different and demanding experiential activities while being supported by feedback and individual coaching, Increasing their aptitude to identify and effectively lead change initiatives through aligning internal and external constituents, Building a powerful specialized network with multinational peers across different industries.
A Gantt chart is used to correspond to the agenda of the project.
Data analysis and required changes
Interviewing and Meetings
Reassess of Study
Document expansion Of the Project
Final objects grounding and Quality Assessment
Final symposium and Submission
To define the qualitative research is much difficult as well as developing the values for the research .Three different propositions are practical in the above work, which occupy applying quantitative quality values to the qualitative methods, signifying alternative methods and significantly evaluating all the quality values. In the future research a qualitative research must openly states its methodologies when exposing the conclusion. This will bring more quality to the qualitative studies.
Guba and Lincoln , Fourth generation evaluation1989
Pare Case study methodology in business research ( 2002)
Strauss and Corbin , Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory 1990
Lee Culture & text: discourse and methodology in social research and cultural studies 1991